Upazila called thanar, is an administrative region in Bangladesh. They function as sub-units of districts, their functionality can be seen to be analogous to that of a county or a borough of Western countries. Rural upazilas are further administratively divided into union council areas. Bangladesh has 492 upazilas; the upazilas are the second lowest tier of regional administration in Bangladesh. The administrative structure consists in fact in Divisions, Districts and Union Parishads; this system of devolution was introduced by the former military ruler and President of Bangladesh, Lieutenant General Hossain Mohammad Ershad, in an attempt to strengthen local government. Below UPs, villages and para exist; the Local Government Ordinance of 1982 was amended a year redesignating and upgrading the existing thanas as upazilas. Upazilas were known as thana which means police station. Despite the meaning, thanas functioned much as an administrative and geographic region, much as today's upazilas. In 1982 thanas were re-termed to as upazilas with provisions for semi-autonomous local governance.

This system was reverted to the thana system in 1992. In 1999 geographic regions under administrations of thanas were converted into upazilas. All administrative terms in this level were renamed from thana to upazila. For instance, Thana Nirbahi Officer was renamed to upazila Nirbahi Officer; the word thana is now used to refer to police stations. There is one police station for each upazila. Upazila Nirbahi Officer is a non-elected Administrator in Upazila. UNOs are Senior Assistant Secretary of Bangladesh Civil ServiceCadre, they act as executive officer of the upazila under the elected posts. Each Upazila Parishad has a vice-chairman and a woman vice-chairman. All three are elected through direct popular election. Union Parishad chairmen within the upazila are considered as the members of the porishod; the post of a woman vice-chairman was created to ensure at least one-third woman representation in the all elected posts of the local government. On 22 January 2010 the first election in 18 years of Upazila Porishod was held.

Divisions of Bangladesh Districts of Bangladesh Villages of Bangladesh Unions of Bangladesh Statoids Maps of Divisions, Districts & Upazilas of Bangladesh

Mandt Bros. Productions

Mandt Bros. Productions is a Los Angeles-based production company founded by Michael Mandt; the brothers are partners in the Los Angeles based creative studio. The company was formed in 2001 and has a wealth of experience delivering award-winning content to television, internet and mobile audiences. In addition to creating traditional content, the brothers have built and operated multiple turn-key production facilities and are experts in virtual and augmented reality content creation; some of the company’s notable credits include the development and creation of the hit ESPN series, Jim Rome is Burning, the Syfy Channel series Destination Truth, The Shed for Food Network, The Car Show with Adam Carolla for Speed, Strangers in Danger for Fuel, My Crazy Life for E!, Sports Jobs with Junior Seau for Versus, Next Stop for Charlie for Showtime and the production of ABC’s Frozen Christmas Parade. On the feature film side, the Mandt Brothers were Co-producers of Walt Disney Picture’s Million Dollar Arm starring Jon Hamm and Alan Arkin.

The movie's crew was made up of many big names in Hollywood, including director Craig Gellespie Oscar Winning screenwriter Tom McCarthy, prolific producers Joe Roth, Mark Ciardi & Gordon Gray, two-time Oscar winning composer A. R. Rahman. In 2018, A24 and DirecTV partnered to release The Last Movie Star; the picture starred Hollywood legend Burt Reynolds in his last leading role and received both critical and audience acclaim. The cast is rounded out with stellar performances from Chevy Chase, Ariel Winter, Clark Duke and Ellar Coltrane; the brother's 2007 indie film, Last Stop for Paul, collected a top prize at more than 50 film festivals around the world and was developed into a 19-episode television series for Showtime, produced by the Brothers. Apart from their work at Mandt Bros. Productions and Michael are both veteran producers of NBC’s coverage of the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney and were the producers of the first live MMA fights in Chinese television history; some of Michael’s other live sport credits include: NBA Finals, NFL Pro Bowl, X-Games, US Open Tennis, MLB All Star Game, MLB World Series, The Match: Tiger Woods vs Phil Mickelson to name a few.

Neil has directed a number of award winning short films under the Mandt Bros. banner, which have starred the likes of Bruce Willis, Samuel L. Jackson, Mathew Perry, Justin Timberlake, John Hamm, Seth Myers, Jamie Foxx, Will Ferrell to name a few. Neil has worked as a journalist for Post-Newsweek, CBS and ABC News, where he was the producer of the O. J. Simpson Criminal Trial. Official website Webby Awards website Daily Variety article on Mandt Bros. Mandt Bros. Productions on IMDb

Blue Ventures

Blue Ventures is a science-led social enterprise that develops transformative approaches for nurturing and sustaining locally led marine conservation. The organisation works in partnership with coastal communities in places where the ocean is vital to the culture and economy. Blue Ventures' range of marine management models are designed to address the barriers between communities and conservation, by integrating community-led resource management with community health and alternative livelihood initiatives to benefit both people and nature. Blue Ventures works in southeast Asia and the Caribbean, they operate field programmes in Madagascar and Timor-Leste with a small number of staff based in Comoros, Kenya and Tanzania supporting partners' projects. Blue Ventures is structured as a social enterprise; the ecotourism expeditions operate through BVE to raise money and awareness for their conservation work through international paying volunteers who travel to project sites to assist with research and community projects.

BVC, registered with the Charity Commission for England and Wales, conducts its own fundraising. Blue Ventures’ marine ecotourism operations provide an effective platform on which the organisation can develop and test new models for conservation. Blue Ventures is managed by a 30-person international team, with offices based in London and Bristol, responsible for the overall leadership of the organisation and supporting much larger field teams based within overseas country programmes. In 2017 Blue Ventures employed 200 staff globally; the UK-based international team is supported by a board of trustees and nine advisors who assist staff in furthering the organisation's mission. Blue Ventures was co-founded by Alasdair Harris, Matthew Linnecar, Dr. Robert Conway and Tom Savage in 2003. Blue Ventures aims to place the management of fisheries and marine resources in the hands of local communities in low-income countries where the national capacity for enforcement of marine and fisheries legislation is weak.

Their ethos is based on evidence that management of natural resources is more sustainable when entrusted to those people who depend on it mostBlue Ventures' strategy focuses on empowering coastal communities to manage their own resources and developing effective and locally appropriate conservation strategies. The organisation advocates for fundamental human rights of small-scale fishers and works on promoting a human rights-based approach to fisheries management, designed to sustain local small-scale fisheries and safeguard marine biodiversity. Through its field sites in Madagascar and Timor-Leste, in collaboration with partner organisations in East Africa, Blue Ventures is developing and implementing models across four main programme areas: fisheries, mangroves and community health. In 2004, Blue Ventures supported the village of Andavadoaka in southwest Madagascar to pilot a temporary octopus no-take zone near the island of Nosy Hao; the temporary octopus fishery closure was found to boost fishers' incomes.

The results prompting neighbouring villages up and down the coast to replicate this community-based approach to fisheries management. The village of Andavadoaka was awarded the United Nations Equator Prize as a result of its efforts to promote sustainable marine resource management. In 2015 a paper analysing the positive catch and economic benefits of periodic octopus fishery closures was published by Thomas A Oliver and colleagues, it revealed significant positive impacts over 36 periodic closures in eight years. Out of these replication efforts came the need for coordination of these closures among the neighbouring villages, for a combined set of rules and regulations for fishing, outside of octopus gleaning. To fill this need, the communities worked with Blue Ventures and the Wildlife Conservation Society to set up the Velondriake Locally Managed Marine Area, administered by the Velondriake Association; this protected area, which unites over 8,000 people from 24 villages in the management of 1,000 km 2 of marine and coastal environment, is amongst the largest community-managed marine protected area in the Indian Ocean.

In 2014 Blue Ventures worked with communities in northwest Madagascar to support the establishment of the Western Indian Oceans' largest LMMA in the Barren Isles. By 2017, 28 communities in southwest Madagascar were implementing temporary octopus fisheries closures. Blue ventures now supports a network of nearly 100 community data collectors in Madagascar, who are local fishers trained to collect important data from daily fish landings in their villages; the results of these monitoring efforts are used to help communities design and adapt resource management measures. In 2012, Madagascar's first national LMMA forum was hosted by Blue Ventures and the Velondriake Association in Andavadoaka; this brought together 55 community members from 18 LMMAs representing 134 villages throughout Madagascar. The meeting resulted in the creation of a national LMMA network called MIHARI, an acronym for MItantana HArena and Ranomasina avy eny Ifotony, that translates to “Marine resources management at the local level”.

Blue Ventures is working with network members to support and develop the MIHARI network by providing training and educational tools. MIHARI now represents 196 LMMA associations, together protecting an area covering 17.7% of Madagascar's seabed. Mangroves are one of the world's principal stores of “blue carbon”, a term given to carbon accumulat