Rummy is a group of matching-card games notable for similar gameplay based on matching cards of the same rank or sequence and same suit. The basic goal in any form of rummy is to build melds which consists of sets, three or four of a kind of the same rank. If a player discards a card, making a run in the discard pile, it may not be taken up without taking all cards below the top card; the Mexican game of Conquian is considered by games scholar David Parlett to be ancestral to all rummy games, which itself is derived from a Chinese game called Khanhoo and, going further back, Mahjong. The Rummy principle of drawing and discarding with a view to melding appears in Chinese card games at least in the early 19th century, as early as the 18th century, is the essence of Mahjong. Rummy games are popular in India, it is that Indian Rummy is an extension of gin rummy and 500 rum, which originated from the United States. Depending on the variation each player receives a certain number of cards from either a standard deck of 52 cards, more than one deck or a special deck of cards used for specific games.
The undealt cards are placed face down in the middle, it is known as the stock. In most variations a single card is turned face up next to the stock where players discard or shed cards, it is known as the discard pile. A meld can either be a run. A set consists of at least three cards of the same rank, for example 4♥ 4♦ 4♠ or K♥ K♦ K♠ K♣. A run consists of at least three consecutive cards of the same suit J♣ Q♣ K♣ or 4♥ 5♥ 6♥ 7♥. Few variations allow runs that have mixed suits. In a few variations of rummy other patterns may be allowed. In some variations the melds must be 3 or 4 cards, while other variations allow larger melds through the use of longer runs, for example: 8♠ 9♠ 10♠ J♠ Q♠ or, if multiple decks or wild cards are used, 5♦ 5♦ 5♥ 5♠ 5♠ or Q♥ Q♦ Jkr Q♣. Wild cards may be used to represent any card in a meld; the number of wild cards in a meld may be restricted. Depending on the variation of the game, players take turns adding and shedding cards from their hands. There are numerous and quite different ways of doing this though it involves picking a card from the stock and discarding a card to the discard pile.
In some variations melds are revealed to all players by placing them face up on the table, in other variations each player keeps their hand hidden until the show. Some variations permit picking up the entire discard pile. A few variations permit. In most variations a player must put all of their cards into at least two melds. Once the player has melded all their cards they reveal their entire hand and the player submits their hand to validation. All other players reveal their deadweight; the action of submitting the cards is called Showing. After a successful show, the winner or all players score their hand. In most variations numbered cards have certain assigned points and the royal cards have assigned points and the A has a different point value. Scoring involves each player adding up points in their melded cards and deducting points from cards that have not been melded; the winner may receive a bonus for winning. Some special or difficult melds may give extra points to a hand. A player may have a negative score.
Play continues until one player passes a threshold, for example 1,000 points. There are many variations of the card game. Basic Rummy is called Sai Rummy. Another type of Rummy is called Sanka Rummy; the version of rummy prevalent in India is called Indian Rummy. They all share a common set of features found in the basic game. A standard deck of 52 cards is used; the cards rank from 2 to A. Rummy can be played to a fixed number of deals. All rummy games i.e. forming valid combinations of sequences and/or sets. Players discard a card on their turns to achieve the goal; the one who melds his/her cards before all others, is the winner in that game of rummy. Each player draws a card; the player with the lowest card deals first. The deal proceeds clockwise; the player on the dealer's gem right cuts. The number of cards dealt depends on the number of players. If there are two players, each player gets ten cards. In three or four player games, seven cards are dealt to each player. Five or six players may play, in which case each player receives six cards.
Starting with the player to the dealer's left, cards face down, one at a time. The dealer puts the rest of the deck, face down, between the players; this forms the stock pile. A single card is drawn and placed face up next to the stack; this is called the discard pile. Play begins with the player on the dealer's left and proceeds clockwise. On their turn, each player draws the top card from the discard pile; the player may meld or lay off, which are both optional, before discarding a single card to the top of the discard pile to end their turn. If a player has three cards of the same suit in a sequence, they may meld by laying these cards, face up, in front of them. If they have at least three cards of the same value, they may meld a group. Aces can be played as high or low but not both, for example Q♠ K♠ A♠ and A♠ 2♠ 3♠ are legal, but not K♠ A♠ 2♠. Melding is optional. A player may choose, for reasons of strategy; the most important
Blackjack is the American variant of a globally popular banking game known as Twenty-One, whose relatives include Pontoon and Vingt-et-Un. It is a comparing card game between several players and a dealer, where each player in turn competes against the dealer, but players do not play against each other, it is played with one or more decks of 52 cards, is the most played casino banking game in the world. The objective of the game is to beat the dealer in one of the following ways: Get 21 points on the player's first two cards, without a dealer blackjack. Players are each dealt two cards, face up or down depending on the casino and the table at which you sit. In the U. S. the dealer is dealt two cards one up and one down. In most other countries, the dealer receives one card face up; the value of cards two through ten is their pip value. Face cards are all worth ten. Aces can be worth eleven. A hand's value is the sum of the card values. Players are allowed to draw additional cards to improve their hands.
A hand with an ace valued as 11 is called "soft", meaning that the hand will not bust by taking an additional card. Otherwise, the hand is "hard". Once all the players have completed their hands, it is the dealer’s turn; the dealer hand will not be completed if all players have either received blackjacks. The dealer reveals the hidden card and must hit until the cards total 17 or more points. Players win by not busting and having a total higher than the dealer, or not busting and having the dealer bust, or getting a blackjack without the dealer getting a blackjack. If the player and dealer have the same total, this is called a "push", the player does not win or lose money on that hand. Otherwise, the dealer wins. Blackjack has many rule variations. Since the 1960s, blackjack has been a high-profile target of advantage players card counters, who track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly. Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including pontoon.
Blackjack's precursor was a game of unknown origin. The first written reference is found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes, most famous for writing Don Quixote. Cervantes was a gambler, the main characters of his tale "Rinconete y Cortadillo", from Novelas Ejemplares, are a couple of cheats working in Seville, they are proficient at cheating at veintiuna, state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the ace values 1 or 11. The game is played with the Spanish baraja deck; this short story was written between 1601 and 1602, implying that ventiuna was played in Castile since the beginning of the 17th century or earlier. References to this game are found in France and Spain; when twenty-one was introduced in the United States, gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest. One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack; this hand was called a "blackjack", the name stuck to the game though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn.
In the modern game, a blackjack refers to any hand of an ace plus a ten or face card regardless of suits or colors. The first scientific and mathematically sound attempt to devise an optimal blackjack playing strategy was revealed in September 1956. Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel and James McDermott published a paper titled The Optimum Strategy in Blackjack in the Journal of the American Statistical Association; this paper would become the foundation of all future sound efforts to beat the game of blackjack. Ed Thorp would use Baldwin’s hand calculations to verify the basic strategy and publish his famous book Beat the Dealer. At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard 52-card decks are shuffled together. At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play; that is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting.
The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand. Any player is allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box. In many U. S. casinos, players are limited to playing two or three positions at a table and only one person is allowed to bet on each position. The dealer deals cards from his/her left to his/her far right; each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, to any other players. The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, in "hole card" games receives its second card face down, which the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games, performing magic tricks and flourishes, for cardistry, in card throwing. Playing cards are palm-sized for convenient handling, are sold together as a deck of cards or pack of cards. Playing cards were first invented in China during the Tang dynasty. Playing cards may have been invented during the Tang dynasty around the 9th century AD as a result of the usage of woodblock printing technology; the first possible reference to card games comes from a 9th-century text known as the Collection of Miscellanea at Duyang, written by Tang dynasty writer Su E. It describes Princess Tongchang, daughter of Emperor Yizong of Tang, playing the "leaf game" in 868 with members of the Wei clan, the family of the princess' husband; the first known book on the "leaf" game was called the Yezi Gexi and written by a Tang woman.
It received commentary by writers of subsequent dynasties. The Song dynasty scholar Ouyang Xiu asserts that the "leaf" game existed at least since the mid-Tang dynasty and associated its invention with the development of printed sheets as a writing medium. However, Ouyang claims that the "leaves" were pages of a book used in a board game played with dice, that the rules of the game were lost by 1067. Other games revolving around alcoholic drinking involved using playing cards of a sort from the Tang dynasty onward. However, these cards did not contain numbers. Instead, they were printed with forfeits for whomever drew them; the earliest dated instance of a game involving cards with suits and numerals occurred on 17 July 1294 when "Yan Sengzhu and Zheng Pig-Dog were caught playing cards and that wood blocks for printing them had been impounded, together with nine of the actual cards."William Henry Wilkinson suggests that the first cards may have been actual paper currency which doubled as both the tools of gaming and the stakes being played for, similar to trading card games.
Using paper money was inconvenient and risky so they were substituted by play money known as "money cards". One of the earliest games in which we know the rules is madiao, a trick-taking game, which dates to the Ming Dynasty. 15th-century scholar Lu Rong described it is as being played with 38 "money cards" divided into four suits: 9 in coins, 9 in strings of coins, 9 in myriads, 11 in tens of myriads. The two latter suits had Water Margin characters instead of pips on them with Chinese characters to mark their rank and suit; the suit of coins is in reverse order with 9 of coins being the lowest going up to 1 of coins as the high card. Despite the wide variety of patterns, the suits show a uniformity of structure; every suit contains twelve cards with the top two being the court cards of king and vizier and the bottom ten being pip cards. Half the suits use reverse ranking for their pip cards. There are many motifs for the suit pips but some include coins, clubs and swords which resemble Mamluk and Latin suits.
Michael Dummett speculated that Mamluk cards may have descended from an earlier deck which consisted of 48 cards divided into four suits each with ten pip cards and two court cards. By the 11th century, playing cards were spreading throughout the Asian continent and came into Egypt; the oldest surviving cards in the world are four fragments found in the Keir Collection and one in the Benaki Museum. They are dated to the 13th centuries. A near complete pack of Mamluk playing cards dating to the 15th century and of similar appearance to the fragments above was discovered by Leo Aryeh Mayer in the Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, in 1939, it is not a complete set and is composed of three different packs to replace missing cards. The Topkapı pack contained 52 cards comprising four suits: polo-sticks, coins and cups; each suit contained ten pip cards and three court cards, called malik, nā'ib malik, thānī nā'ib. The thānī nā ` ib is a non-existent title. In fact, the word "Kanjifah" appears in Arabic on the king of swords and is still used in parts of the Middle East to describe modern playing cards.
Influence from further east can explain why the Mamluks, most of whom were Central Asian Turkic Kipchaks, called their cups tuman which means myriad in Turkic and Jurchen languages. Wilkinson postulated that the cups may have been derived from inverting the Chinese and Jurchen ideogram for myriad; the Mamluk court cards showed abstract designs or calligraphy not depicting persons due to religious proscription in Sunni Islam, though they did bear the ranks on the cards. Nā'ib would be borrowed into French and Spanish, the latter word still in common usage. Panels on the pip cards in two suits show they had a reverse ranking, a feature found in madiao and old European card games like ombre and maw. A fragment of two uncut sheets of Moorish-styled cards of a similar but plainer style were found in Spain and dated to the early 15th century. Export of these cards, ceased after the fall of the Mamluks in the 16th century; the rules to play these games are lost but they are believed to be plain trick games without trumps.
Four-suited playing cards ar
Community card poker
Community card poker refers to any game of poker that uses community cards, which are cards dealt face up in the center of the table and shared by all players. In these games, each player is dealt an incomplete hand, which are combined with the community cards to make a complete hand; the set of community cards is called the "board", may be dealt in a simple line or arranged in a special pattern. Rules of each game determine; the most popular community card game today is Texas. In home games, it is typical to use antes, while casinos use only blinds for these games. No limit and Fixed limit games are most common, while spread limit and pot limit games are less common; the betting format and stakes can vary by region as well as time of volume. Betting rounds have a higher limit than earlier betting rounds; each betting round begins with the player to the dealer's left, so community card games are positional games. Most community card games do not play well with lowball hand values, though some do play well at high-low split with ace-to-five low values, making it possible to win both halves of a pot.
When played high-low split, there is a minimum qualifying hand for low and no declaration is needed. The main difference from draw and stud poker are the community cards. Several community cards are dealt to the table, shared by all players, subject to variant-specific rules about how many, which of the cards may be used in each player's hand; such a set of community cards is called a "board" or "window". The board is dealt in a simple line, but some games may have elaborate layouts of community cards with special rules about what combinations can be used. For example, Texas hold'em ends with each player holding two cards in his individual hand, a board of five community cards in a simple line shared by everyone. In Omaha hold'em, game rules restrict players to using three of the five community cards, combined with two of the four cards dealt to each player, to make a hand. In Tic-tac-toe, the board is a 3x3 array of nine cards, players must use three cards from a row, column, or diagonal of the board.
This is the most popular community card game today. Each player is dealt two private "hole" cards, after. Three community cards are dealt face up to form the "flop", followed by a second betting round. A fourth community card is followed by a third betting round, and the fifth community card is followed by the final betting round. At showdown, each player plays the best five-card hand he can make using any five cards among the two in his hand and the five on the board; this is the key difference from Omaha. Note that in current practice, before each community card round first a card is "burned" and placed in a discard pile; this was implemented to prevent card-cheaters from "marking" cards and knowing what the card on the top of the dealer's deck was. For double-board hold'em, two separate five-card boards are dealt, the high hand using each board takes half of the pot. For example, after the first betting round, three community cards are dealt to each of two separate boards, it is possible for one player to have the best hand on both boards and thus "scoop" the entire pot.
This variant of Texas hold'em is sometimes called "double-flop hold'em", a bit of a misnomer, since there are not just two flops, but two turns and two rivers. Greek hold'em follows the same rules as Omaha, except that each player is only dealt two cards, same as in Texas hold'em. In Greek hold'em each player must use both hole cards along with 3 of the total available community cards to make the strongest five card hand, unlike Texas hold'em where each player may play the best five card poker hand from any combination of the seven cards available to them. In Irish poker, each player is dealt four cards before the flop. After the betting round on the flop is completed each player must discard two cards. From this point the game is played like Texas hold'em with betting after the turn and river. At showdown, each player uses their remaining two cards along with the board to construct a hand. Players are dealt three hole cards instead of two with three betting rounds: pre-flop and turn. Players can use any number of hole cards to make the final hand.
Royal hold'em is a variation, played using a stripped deck. In royal hold'em, the deuces through nines are stripped from the deck, thereby only leaving the tens through aces. Royal hold'em can only be played with a maximum of six players because there are only 20 cards in the deck. With 5 community cards, 3 burn cards, 2 pocket cards per player
A card game is any game using playing cards as the primary device with which the game is played, be they traditional or game-specific. Countless card games exist, including families of related games. A small number of card games played with traditional decks have formally standardized rules, but most are folk games whose rules vary by region and person. Games using playing cards exploit the fact that cards are individually identifiable from one side only, so that each player knows only the cards he holds and not those held by anyone else. For this reason card games are characterized as games of chance or “imperfect information”—as distinct from games of strategy or “perfect information,” where the current position is visible to all players throughout the game. Many games that are not placed in the family of card games do in fact use cards for some aspect of their gameplay; some games that are placed in the card game genre involve a board. The distinction is that the gameplay of a card game chiefly depends on the use of the cards by players, while board games focus on the players' positions on the board, use the cards for some secondary purpose.
A card game is played with a pack of playing cards which are identical in size and shape. Each card has the face and the back; the backs of the cards are indistinguishable. The faces of the cards may all be unique; the composition of a deck is known to each player. In some cases several decks are shuffled together to form a single shoe; the first playing cards appeared in the 9th century during Tang-dynasty China. The first reference to the card game in world history dates no than the 9th century, when the Collection of Miscellanea at Duyang, written by Tang Dynasty writer Su E, described Princess Tongchang playing the "leaf game" with members of the Wei clan in 868; the Song dynasty statesman and historian Ouyang Xiu has noted that paper playing cards arose in connection to an earlier development in the book format from scrolls to pages. During the Ming dynasty, characters from popular novels such as the Water Margin were featured on the faces of playing cards. A precise description of Chinese money playing cards survived from the 15th century.
Mahjong tiles are a 19th-century invention based on three-suited money playing card decks, similar to the way in which Rummikub tiles were derived from modern Western playing cards. The same kind of games can be played with tiles made of wood, bone, or similar materials; the most notable examples of such tile sets are mahjong tiles and Rummikub tiles. Chinese dominoes are available as playing cards, it is not clear whether Emperor Muzong of Liao played with domino cards as early as 969, though. Legend dates the invention of dominoes in the year 1112, the earliest known domino rules are from the following decade. 500 years domino cards were reported as a new invention. Playing cards first appeared in Europe in the last quarter of the 14th century; the earliest European references speak of a Saracen or Moorish game called naib, in fact an complete Mamluk Egyptian deck of 52 cards in a distinct oriental design has survived from around the same time, with the four suits swords, polo sticks and coins and the ranks king, second governor, ten to one.
The 1430s in Italy saw the invention of the tarot deck, a full Latin-suited deck augmented by suitless cards with painted motifs that played a special role as trumps. Tarot card games are still played with these decks in parts of Central Europe. A full tarot deck contains 14 cards in each suit. In the 18th century the card images of the traditional Italian tarot decks became popular in cartomancy and evolved into "esoteric" decks used for the purpose. In Europe, "playing tarot" decks remain popular for games, have evolved since the 18th century to use regional suits as well as other familiar aspects of the Anglo-American deck such as corner card indices and "stamped" card symbols for non-court cards. Decks differ regionally based on the number of cards needed to play the games; the French suits were introduced around 1480 and, in France replaced the earlier Latin suits of swords, clubs and coins. The suit symbols, being simple and single-color, could be stamped onto the playing cards to create a deck, thus only requiring special full-color card art for the court cards.
This drastically simplifies the production of a deck of cards versus the traditional Italian deck, which used unique full-color art for each card in the deck. The French suits became popular in English playing cards in the 16th century, from there were introduced to British colonies including North America; the rise of Western culture has led to the near-universal populari