AOL is an American web portal and online service provider based in New York City. It is a brand marketed by Verizon Media; the service traces its history to an online service known as PlayNET, which hosted multi-player games for the Commodore 64. PlayNET licensed their software to a new service, Quantum Link, who went online in November 1985. PlayNET shut down shortly thereafter; the initial Q-Link service was similar to the original PlayNET, but over time Q-Link added many new services. When a new IBM PC client was released, the company focussed on the non-gaming services and launched it under the name America Online; the original Q-Link was shut down on November 1, 1995, while AOL grew to become the largest online service, displacing established players like CompuServe and The Source. By 1995, AOL had about 20 million active users. AOL was one of the early pioneers of the Internet in the mid-1990s, the most recognized brand on the web in the United States, it provided a dial-up service to millions of Americans, as well as providing a web portal, e-mail, instant messaging and a web browser following its purchase of Netscape.
In 2001, at the height of its popularity, it purchased the media conglomerate Time Warner in the largest merger in U. S. history. AOL declined thereafter due to the decline of dial-up and rise of broadband. AOL was spun off from Time Warner in 2009, with Tim Armstrong appointed the new CEO. Under his leadership, the company invested in media brands and advertising technologies. On June 23, 2015, AOL was acquired by Verizon Communications for $4.4 billion. In the following months, AOL made a deal with Microsoft. AOL began in 1983, as a short-lived venture called Control Video Corporation, founded by William von Meister, its sole product was an online service called GameLine for the Atari 2600 video game console, after von Meister's idea of buying music on demand was rejected by Warner Bros. Subscribers paid a one-time US$15 setup fee. GameLine permitted subscribers to temporarily download games and keep track of high scores, at a cost of US$1 per game; the telephone disconnected and the downloaded game would remain in GameLine's Master Module and playable until the user turned off the console or downloaded another game.
In January 1983, Steve Case was hired as a marketing consultant for Control Video on the recommendation of his brother, investment banker Dan Case. In May 1983, Jim Kimsey became a manufacturing consultant for Control Video, near bankruptcy. Kimsey was brought in by his West Point friend Frank Caufield, an investor in the company. In early 1985, von Meister left the company. On May 24, 1985, Quantum Computer Services, an online services company, was founded by Jim Kimsey from the remnants of Control Video, with Kimsey as Chief Executive Officer, Marc Seriff as Chief Technology Officer; the technical team consisted of Marc Seriff, Tom Ralston, Ray Heinrich, Steve Trus, Ken Huntsman, Janet Hunter, Dave Brown, Craig Dykstra, Doug Coward, Mike Ficco. In 1987, Case was promoted again to executive vice-president. Kimsey soon began to groom Case to take over the role of CEO, which he did when Kimsey retired in 1991. Kimsey changed the company's strategy, in 1985, launched a dedicated online service for Commodore 64 and 128 computers called Quantum Link.
The Quantum Link software was based on software licensed from Inc.. The service was different from other online services as it used the computing power of the Commodore 64 and the Apple II rather than just a "dumb" terminal, it provided a fixed price service tailored for home users. In May 1988, Quantum and Apple launched AppleLink Personal Edition for Apple II and Macintosh computers. In August 1988, Quantum launched PC Link, a service for IBM-compatible PCs developed in a joint venture with the Tandy Corporation. After the company parted ways with Apple in October 1989, Quantum changed the service's name to America Online. Case promoted and sold AOL as the online service for people unfamiliar with computers, in contrast to CompuServe, well established in the technical community. From the beginning, AOL included online games in its mix of products. In the early years of AOL the company introduced many innovative online interactive titles and games, including: Graphical chat environments Habitat and Club Caribe from LucasArts.
The first online interactive fiction series QuantumLink Serial by Tracy Reed. Quantum Space, the first automated play-by-mail game. In February 1991, AOL for DOS was launched using a GeoWorks interface followed a year by AOL for Windows; this coincided with growth in pay-based online services, like Prodigy, CompuServe, GEnie. 1991 saw the introduction of an original Dungeons & Dragons title called Neverwinter Nights from Stormfront Studios. During the early 1990s, the average subscription lasted for about 25 months and accounted for $350 in total revenue. Advertisements invited modem owners to "Try America Online FREE", promising free software and trial membership. AOL discontinued Q-Link and PC Link in late 1994. In September 1993, AOL added Usenet access to its features; this is referred to as the "Eternal September", as Usenet's cycle of new users was dominated by smaller numbers of college and university freshmen gaining access in September
Woonsocket, Rhode Island
Woonsocket is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 41,186 at the 2010 census. Woonsocket lies directly south of the Massachusetts state line and constitutes part of both the Providence metropolitan area and the larger Greater Boston Combined Statistical Area; the city is the corporate headquarters of a pharmacy services provider. It is home to Landmark Medical Center, the Museum of Work and Culture, the American-French Genealogical Society. Before the arrival of European settlers in northern Rhode Island during the 17th century, today's Woonsocket region was inhabited by three Native American tribes—the Nipmucs and Narragansetts. In 1661, the English theologian Roger Williams purchased the area from the "Coweset and Nipmucks", in a letter referred to modern day Woonsocket as "Niswosakit". Other possible derivations to the name include several Nipmuc geographic names from nearby Massachusetts; these include Woonksechocksett, from Worcester County meaning "fox country", Wannashowatuckqut from Worcester County, meaning "at the fork of the river".
Another theory states Woonsocket derives from "thunder mist", in reference to the largest waterfall on the Blackstone River, which lies at the center of the city. Yet another theory proposes that the city was named after Woonsocket Hill in neighboring North Smithfield. Woonsocket Falls Village was founded in the 1820s, its fortunes expanded. With the Blackstone River providing ample water power, the region became a prime location for textile mills. In 1831 Edward Harris built his first textile mill in Woonsocket. Woonsocket as a town was not established until 1867 when three villages in the town of Cumberland, namely Woonsocket Falls and Jenckesville became the town of Woonsocket. By this time the beginnings of the French Canadian emigration had been felt. In 1871, three additional industrial villages in Smithfield, Hamlet and Globe, were added to the town establishing its present boundaries. Woonsocket was incorporated as city in 1888. During the Great Depression the local textile industry closed.
At this point 75 percent of the population was of French-Canadian descent. French-language newspapers were published and sold here, radio programs and movies shown were in French. Most conversations in public were in French; the city's fortunes were revived in World War II, when it became a center of fabric manufacturing for the war effort. In the postwar years, the Woonsocket economy adjusted to a mix of manufacturing, retail and financial services operations. However, in the early 1980s Woonsocket was again plagued by high unemployment rates. In 1980 seventy percent of Woonsocket's population was French-Canadian descent. Beginning in 1979, Woonsocket became home to Autumnfest, an annual cultural festival that takes place on Columbus Day Weekend, at World War II Veteran's Memorial State Park, it has become one of the city's most popular events. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.0 square miles, of which 7.7 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water.
Woonsocket is drained by the Blackstone River. Adjacent communities include Blackstone and Bellingham, along with Cumberland and North Smithfield, Rhode Island. Woonsocket has a strong humid continental climate with four distinct seasons. Being influenced by both the sea and the interior during winter, diurnal temperature variation is high, with days most being above freezing before severe frosts hit at night. At the 2010 census Woonsocket had a population of 41,186; the population was 71.3% non-Hispanic white, 14.2% Hispanic or Latino, 6.4% African American, 5.4% Asian, 0.4% Native American and 4.3% reporting two or more races. At the census of 2000, there were 43,224 people, 17,750 households, 10,774 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,608.8 people per square mile. There were 18,757 housing units at an average density of 2,433.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.14% White, 4.44% African American, 0.32% Native American, 4.06% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.86% from other races, 3.14% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.32% of the population. Woonsocket is a part of the Providence metropolitan area, which has an estimated population of 1,622,520. There were 17,750 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 16.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,819, the median income for a family was $38,353. Males had a median income of $31,465 versus $24,638 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $16,223. About 16.7% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.3% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. In March 2013, the Washington Post reported that one-third of Woonsocket’s population used food stamps, putting local merchants on a "boom
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound, 32 miles southwest of Seattle, 31 miles northeast of the state capital, 58 miles northwest of Mount Rainier National Park; the population was 198,397, according to the 2010 census. Tacoma is the third largest in the state. Tacoma serves as the center of business activity for the South Sound region, which has a population of around 1 million. Tacoma adopted its name after the nearby Mount Rainier called Takhoma or Tahoma, it is locally known as the "City of Destiny" because the area was chosen to be the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the late 19th century. The decision of the railroad was influenced by Tacoma's neighboring deep-water harbor, Commencement Bay. By connecting the bay with the railroad, Tacoma's motto became "When rails meet sails". Commencement Bay serves the Port of Tacoma, a center of international trade on the Pacific Coast and Washington State's largest port.
Like most central cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century as a result of suburbanization and divestment. Since the 1990s, developments in the downtown core include the University of Washington Tacoma. Neighborhoods such as the 6th Avenue District have been revitalized. With over $1 billion having been invested in downtown Tacoma alone, private investment has surpassed public investment by a ratio of 4:1. Tacoma has been named one of the most livable areas in the United States. In 2006, Tacoma was listed as one of the "most walkable" cities in the country; that same year, the women's magazine Self named Tacoma the "Most Sexually Healthy City" in the United States. Tacoma gained notoriety in 1940 for the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which earned the nickname "Galloping Gertie"; the area was inhabited for thousands of years by American Indians, predominantly the Puyallup people, who lived in settlements on the delta. In 1852, a Swede named Nicolas Delin built a water-powered sawmill on a creek near the head of Commencement Bay, but the small settlement that grew around it was abandoned during the Indian War of 1855–56.
In 1864, pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator, built a cabin. Carr hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad, sold most of his claim to developer Morton M. McCarver, who named his project Tacoma City, derived from the indigenous name for the mountain. Tacoma was incorporated on November 12, 1875, following its selection in 1873 as the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad due to lobbying by McCarver, future mayor John Wilson Sprague, others. However, the railroad built its depot on New Tacoma, two miles south of the Carr–McCarver development; the two communities grew together and joined, merging on January 7, 1884. The transcontinental link was effected in 1887, the population grew from 1,098 in 1880 to 36,006 in 1890. Rudyard Kipling visited Tacoma in 1889 and said it was "literally staggering under a boom of the boomiest". George Francis Train was a resident for a few years in the late 19th century.
In 1890, he staged a global circumnavigation ending in Tacoma to promote the city. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the finish line. In November 1885, white citizens led by then-mayor Jacob Weisbach expelled several hundred Chinese residents peacefully living in the city; as described by the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project Foundation, on the morning of November 3, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground." The discovery of gold in the Klondike in 1898 led to Tacoma's prominence in the region being eclipsed by the development of Seattle. A major tragedy marred the end of the 19th century, when a streetcar accident resulted in significant loss of life on July 4, 1900. From May to August 1907, the city was the site of a smelter workers' strike organized by Local 545 of the Industrial Workers of the World, with the goal of a fifty-cent per day pay raise.
The strike was opposed by the local business community, the smelter owners threatened to blacklist organizers and union officials. The IWW opposed this move by trying to persuade inbound workers to avoid Tacoma during the strike. By August, the strike had ended without meeting its demands. Tacoma was a major destination for big-time automobile racing, with one of the nation's top-rated racing venues just outside the city limits, at the site of today's Clover Park Technical College. In 1924, Tacoma's first movie studio, H. C. Weaver Studio, was sited at present-day Titlow Beach. At the time, it was the third-largest freestanding film production space in America, with the two larger facilities being located in Hollywood; the studio's importance has undergone a revival with the discovery of one of its most famous lost films, Eyes of the Totem. The 1929 crash of the stock market, resulting in the Great Depression, was only the first event in a series of misfortunes to hit Tacoma in the winter of 1929–3
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. It uses a computer network to spread itself, relying on security failures on the target computer to access it. Worms always cause at least some harm to the network if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer. Many worms are designed only to spread, do not attempt to change the systems they pass through. However, as the Morris worm and Mydoom showed these "payload-free" worms can cause major disruption by increasing network traffic and other unintended effects; the actual term "worm" was first used in The Shockwave Rider. In that novel, Nichlas Haflinger designs and sets off a data-gathering worm in an act of revenge against the powerful men who run a national electronic information web that induces mass conformity. "You have the biggest-ever worm loose in the net, it automatically sabotages any attempt to monitor it...
There's never been a worm with that tough a head or that long a tail!"On November 2, 1988, Robert Tappan Morris, a Cornell University computer science graduate student, unleashed what became known as the Morris worm, disrupting a large number of computers on the Internet, guessed at the time to be one tenth of all those connected. During the Morris appeal process, the U. S. Court of Appeals estimated the cost of removing the virus from each installation at between $200 and $53,000. Morris himself became the first person tried and convicted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Any code designed to do more than spread the worm is referred to as the "payload". Typical malicious payloads might delete files on a host system, encrypt files in a ransomware attack, or exfiltrate data such as confidential documents or passwords; the most common payload for worms is to install a backdoor. This allows the computer to be remotely controlled by the worm author as a "zombie". Networks of such machines are referred to as botnets and are commonly used for a range of malicious purposes, including sending spam or performing DoS attacks.
Worms spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in operating systems. Vendors with security problems supply regular security updates, if these are installed to a machine the majority of worms are unable to spread to it. If a vulnerability is disclosed before the security patch released by the vendor, a zero-day attack is possible. Users need to be wary of opening unexpected email, should not run attached files or programs, or visit web sites that are linked to such emails. However, as with the ILOVEYOU worm, with the increased growth and efficiency of phishing attacks, it remains possible to trick the end-user into running malicious code. Anti-virus and anti-spyware software are helpful, but must be kept up-to-date with new pattern files at least every few days; the use of a firewall is recommended. In the April–June 2008 issue of IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, computer scientists described a new and effective way to combat internet worms; the researchers discovered how to contain worms that scanned the Internet randomly, looking for vulnerable hosts to infect.
They found that the key was to use software to monitor the number of scans that machines on a network send out. When a machine started to send out too many scans, it was a sign that it has been infected, which allowed administrators to take it off line and check it for malware. In addition, machine learning techniques can be used to detect new worms, by analyzing the behavior of the suspected computer. Users can minimize the threat posed by worms by keeping their computers' operating system and other software up to date, avoiding opening unrecognized or unexpected emails and running firewall and antivirus software. Mitigation techniques include: ACLs in routers and switches Packet-filters TCP Wrapper/ACL enabled network service daemons Nullroute Beginning with the first research into worms at Xerox PARC, there have been attempts to create useful worms; those worms allowed testing by John Shoch and Jon Hupp of the Ethernet principles on their network of Xerox Alto computers. The Nachi family of worms tried to download and install patches from Microsoft's website to fix vulnerabilities in the host system—by exploiting those same vulnerabilities.
In practice, although this may have made these systems more secure, it generated considerable network traffic, rebooted the machine in the course of patching it, did its work without the consent of the computer's owner or user. Regardless of their payload or their writers' intentions, most security experts regard all worms as malware. Several worms, like XSS worms, have been written to research. For example, the effects of changes in social activity or user behavior. One study proposed what seems to be the first computer worm that operates on the second layer of the OSI model, it utilizes topology information such as Content-addressable memory tables and Spanning Tree information stored in switches to propagate and probe for vulnerable nodes until the enterprise network is covered. Botnet Code Shikara Computer and network surveillance Computer virus Email spam Father Christmas Self-replicating machine Timeline of computer viruses and worms Trojan horse XSS worm Zombie Malware Guide – Guide for understanding and preventing worm infections on Vernalex.com.
"The'Worm' Programs – Early Experience with a Distributed Computation", John Shoch and Jon Hupp, Communications of the ACM, Volum