Georgian Orthodox Church
The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy. It is Georgias dominant religious institution, and a majority of Georgian people are members and it asserts apostolic foundation, and its historical roots can be traced to the Christianization of Iberia by Saint Nino in the 4th century AD. As in similar autocephalous Orthodox churches, the Churchs highest governing body is the Holy Synod of bishops, the church is headed by the Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, currently Ilia II, who was elected in 1977. The current Constitution of Georgia recognizes the role of the Georgian Orthodox Church in the countrys history. Government relations are defined and regulated by the Concordat of 2002. The church is the most trusted institution in Georgia, according to a 2013 survey 95% respondents had a favorable opinion of its work. It is highly influential in the sphere and is considered Georgias most influential institution.
According to Georgian Orthodox Church tradition, the first preacher of the Gospel in Colchis and Iberia was the apostle Andrew, the First-called. However, modern historiography considers this account mythical, and the fruit of a late tradition, similar traditions regarding Saint Andrew exist in Ukraine and Romania. The Church claims the presence in Georgia of the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus, the propagation of Christianity in present-day Georgia before the 4th century is still poorly known. The first documented event in this process is the preaching of Saint Nino and its consequences, Saint Nino, honored as Equal to the Apostles, was according to tradition the daughter of a Roman general from Cappadocia. She preached in the kingdom of Iberia in the first half of the 4th century, cyril Toumanoff dates the conversion of Mirian to 334, his official baptism and subsequent adoption of Christianity as the official religion of Iberia to 337. From the first centuries C. E. the cult of Mithras, pagan beliefs, the royal baptism and organization of the Church were accomplished by priests sent from Constantinople by Constantine the Great.
Conversion of the people of Kartli proceeded quickly in the plains, the conversion of Kartli marked only the beginnings of the formation of the Georgian Orthodox Church. In the next centuries, different processes took place that shaped the Church, and gave it, by the beginning of the 11th century, the main characteristics that it has retained until now. In the 4th and 5th centuries, the Church of Kartli was strictly subordinate to the Apostolic See of Antioch, in 1010, the Catholicos of Kartli was elevated to the honor of Patriarch. From on, the hierarch of the Georgian Orthodox Church carried the official title of Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia. At the beginnings of the Church history, what is now Georgia was not unified yet politically, such division was reflected in major differences in the development of Christianity
Lower Clapton /ˈklæptən/ is a district of East London in the London Borough of Hackney, lying immediately north of Hackney Central, the boroughs administrative and retail centre. Lower Clapton closely approximates to the part of the E5 postal district and as such can be described as having the following approximate boundaries, North. Upper Clapton lies north of these roads, manorial courts from the early 19th century distinguished the parts of Clapton north and south of Lea Bridge Road as Upper and Lower Clapton, and those names soon passed into general use. West, The Rectory Road to Hackney Downs rail line, taking in Hackney Downs park, The southern boundary approximates to Clifden Road. Clapton was from 1339 until the 18th century normally rendered as Clopton, the Old English clop - lump or hill - presumably denoted the high ground which rises from the River Lea. As described, the settlement emerged along the way which in 1745 was called Hackney Lane, building spread to meet streets east of the high road and north of Homerton in the 19th century.
Manorial courts from the early 19th century distinguished the parts north and south of Lea Bridge Road as Upper and Lower Clapton, and those names soon passed into general use. Hackney Lane came to be known as Lower and Upper Clapton roads, Lower Clapton is centred on Lower Clapton Road, to the north of which is Clapton Pond, the remnant of the old village green. Clapton Pond and the late Georgian Clapton Square are the two major conservation zones. Clapton Square is an attractive Conservation area which includes historic Georgian terraces facing onto the parkland in the centre of the Square. Hackney Downs, one of the open spaces in Hackney, is formally within this district. Lower Clapton has a large amount of green space for a district of inner London. In addition to Hackney Downs, the area is bordered by Millfields Park, Clapton Park, large parts of Lower Clapton look much as they did when the area was first developed in the second half of the 19th century. Most of the stock consists of Victorian terraces of various sizes.
Several highrise LPS constructions erected by the Council in the late 1960s and early 1970s were demolished in the 1990s to make way for lowrise Local Authority housing, like many other parts of East London, Lower Clapton is socially diverse and multicultural. Chatsworth Road, which had a market until the 1990s. A new Sunday market has been established here since December 2010, the shops and restaurants on Chatsworth Road reflect the diversity of the surrounding streets – offering African, Turkish and Caribbean produce alongside butchers and greengrocers. More recent additions include a creperie, coffee shops and a French delicatessen, as of 2014, Lower Clapton is represented by five separate electoral wards
A narrowboat or narrow boat is a boat of a distinctive design, made to fit the narrow canals of the United Kingdom. In the context of British Inland Waterways, narrow boat refers to the working boats built in the 18th, 19th. The term is extended to modern narrowboats used for recreation and more and more as homes, whose design and dimensions are an interpretation of the old boats for modern purposes and modern materials. Although some narrow boats were built to a design based on barges and many conform to the strict definition of the term. In the context of the British inland waterways, a barge is usually a wider, cargo-carrying boat or a modern boat modelled on one. It is incorrect to refer to a narrowboat as a longboat, usage has not quite settled down as regards boats based on narrowboat design, but too wide for narrow canals, or boats the same width as narrowboats but based on other types of boat. The key distinguishing feature of a narrowboat is its width which must be less than 7 feet wide to navigate British narrow canals.
Some old boats are close to this limit, and can have trouble using certain narrow locks whose width has been reduced over time because of subsidence. Modern boats are usually produced to a maximum of 6 feet 10 inches wide to guarantee easy passage throughout the complete system, because of their slenderness, some narrowboats seem very long. The maximum length is about 72 feet, which matches the length of the shortest locks on the system, modern narrowboats tend to be shorter, to permit cruising anywhere on the connected network of British canals — including on canals built for wider, but shorter, boats. The shortest lock on the network is Salterhebble Middle Lock on the Calder and Hebble Navigation. However, the C&H is a canal, so the lock is about 14 feet 2 inches wide. This makes the largest go-anywhere-on-the-network narrowboat slightly longer than the length of the lock. Some locks on isolated waterways are as short as 40 feet, where it was possible to avoid going through locks, narrow boats were sometimes built a little larger.
Wolverhampton boats, which operated in an area around Wolverhampton, were 87 feet in length and 7 foot 9 inches wide. Hire fleets on British canals usually consist of narrowboats in varied lengths from 30 feet upwards, to parties of different numbers or varying budgets to be able to hire a boat. The first narrow boats played a key part in the changes of the British Industrial Revolution. They were wooden boats drawn by a walking on the canal towpath led by a crew member
London Borough of Waltham Forest
The London Borough of Waltham Forest is a London borough in East London, England. Waltham Forest was one of the six London boroughs that hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics, the local authority is Waltham Forest London Borough Council. Major districts are Leyton and Leytonstone in the south, Walthamstow in the middle, many Stone Age remains are found in the area. Ancient Roman relics have found in locations scattered around the borough. The southern part of Epping Forest still extends into the south of the borough and this not only assisted in preserving the forest but helped develop the towns around it, Forest Gate, Walthamstow and Leyton. The areas location between the City of London and Epping Forest encouraged large-scale urban development, the area now known as Waltham Forest experienced at least two Zeppelin raids during World War I. On 17/18 August 1915, Airship L10 took a route following the Gospel Oak to Barking railway line, dropping incendiary. The first bomb, an incendiary, fell on Hoe St, Walthamstow, at the junction of Orford and Queens Road, ten people were killed in Leyton and another 48 injured across the wider area.
On 23/24 September 1916 the German Navy airship L31 dropped around ten bombs along the line of Lea Bridge Road and she dropped bombs on Streatham and Brixton the same night. The main centres of population in the borough are Chingford in the north, Walthamstow in the centre and Leyton, Waltham Forest has the fifth largest Muslim population in England and the third largest in London. Historically known as the seat of the Arts and Crafts Movement under the stewardship of William Morris, the annual E17 Art Trail, which includes open studios and events, is the biggest art event in the borough, and there is now a similar event in Leytonstone. Eamon Everall, founder member of the Stuckism art movement is a resident in the borough where he maintains a studio. Waltham Forest is home to a number of musicians that have found success in the UK, including East 17, Blazin Squad, and Indie band Hefner, who formed in Walthamstow. The borough is a centre of the musical genre, grime acts hailing from the borough include More Fire Crew, Lethal Bizzle.
The only theatre in the borough, The Waltham Forest Theatre, was situated in Lloyds Park, though a local campaign was launched to save it in 2008 the theatre was demolished in 2011. Leyton Orient F. C. is the professional football team, based at Brisbane Road. Waltham Forest was one of six local authorities to set up a Housing Action Trust under the Housing Act 1988. The Waltham Forest HAT covered various estates in need of regeneration, Cathall Road in Leytonstone, Oliver Close in Leyton, Boundary Road in Walthamstow, the HAT transferred its redeveloped estates to Community-based Housing Association and shut down in April 2002
Clapton Pond is a pond and garden, located in Hackney, east London. The name ‘Clapton’ or ‘farm on the hill’ is derived from the Old English words ‘clop’, meaning a lump or hill, for centuries the land was owned by the Bishops of London, and occupied by tenant farmers who grew hay and food for the City of London. The villages of Lower and Upper Clapton lay on side of Clapton Lane. Lying about halfway between the two villages was Clapton Pond, fed by a natural spring and this would have been used to irrigate the land, and supply water for the farmers and their animals. By the late 18th century Clapton had become a place to live. Huguenot and Jewish communities moved into the area, helping to develop Clapton into a prosperous neighbourhood, in the 19th century Clapton turned from being a sleepy backwater into a bustling London suburb and many of its grand houses were demolished to provide land for new homes. This rapid growth was increased by the opening of Clapton railway station in 1872, by the 1890s, the houses on Thistlewaite, Newick and Millfields Roads had been built, supplying much needed housing for newcomers.
In recent years the Clapton Pond Neighbourhood Action Group has been working to renovate the pond, Clapton Pond Neighbourhood Action Group Webpage
Homerton is a district in East London, England, in the London Borough of Hackney. It is bordered to the west by Hackney Central, to the north by Lower Clapton, in the east by Hackney Wick, Leyton and by South Hackney to the south. Archaeological excavations at Link Street exposed a building dating to the 11th or 12th century suggesting that Homerton existed before it was first recorded in 1343. The hamlet of Homerton developed for about a half-mile along the road on the side of the now buried and lost Hackney Brook. This led from the hamlet of Clopton, passing near the church of St Augustine at Hackney, across the marshes, by 1605 Homerton was the most populous part of the Parish of Hackney, becoming a separate parish in 1846. In mediaeval times, like much of Hackney, was rural and arable crops were grown, together with fruit. The majority of land was given over to pasture for sheep and cattle, small kitchen gardens ran at the back of the houses along the road, with large fields behind. Many unsavoury activities were undertaken, such as tanning and fulling - the cleaning of felt cloth using urine.
Homerton became a suburb of London in the Tudor period, with many estates. The village was divided between Upper and Lower Homerton, with the extending towards the marshes and the house at Hackney Wick, Upper Homerton was divided from the village of Hackney by the width of the rectory manors Church Field, and a path led to the churchyard. In 1538, this estate, including other fields lying along the brook, around 1560 part of this estate came into the ownership of Thomas Sutton, a resident of the Tan House. This land formed part of his endowment of the Hospital of King James in Charterhouse, marsh Road, from Homerton High Street, led to, and across the marshes, towards the Templar owned water powered corn mill at Temple Mills. Prone to flooding, the marshes were used for grazing. A Roman stone causeway was discovered in the 1770s, by 1795 the former Templar mills were being used for preparing lead. Sheets of lead were placed in pots and submerged in urine. The process converted the lead to lead oxide, and it was finely ground to form a pigment for white, yellow.
A new watermill was established on the marshes by Prince Rupert for a method of boring guns, however the secret died with him in 1682. In the 18th century the availability of land, large houses, the educational ones were commonly known as Dissenting Academies
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London. It gives its name to several landmarks, including Charing Cross railway station, Charing Cross is named after the Eleanor cross that stood on the site, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross has been occupied since 1675 by a statue of King Charles I. A loose Victorian replica of the cross, the Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross, was erected a short distance to the east outside the railway station. Until 1931, Charing Cross referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square, at least one property retains a Charing Cross postal address, Drummonds Bank, on the corner of Whitehall and The Mall, which is designated 49 Charing Cross. Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has often been regarded as the centre of London. Erect a rich and stately carved cross, Whereon her statue shall with glory shine, George Peele The Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First The name of the area, Charing, is derived from the Old English word cierring, referring to a bend in the River Thames.
Folk etymology suggests the name derives from chère reine — dear queen in French — and this wooden sculpted cross was the work of the medieval sculptor, Alexander of Abingdon. It was destroyed in 1647 on the orders of Parliament during the Civil War, a 70 ft -high stone sculpture in front of Charing Cross railway station is a copy of the original cross. Erected in 1865, it is situated a few hundred yards to the east of the original cross and it was designed by the architect E. M. Barry and carved by Thomas Earp of Lambeth out of Portland stone, Mansfield stone and Aberdeen granite. It is not a replica, being more ornate than the original. A variation on the name appears to be Charygcrouche, near St Martin in the Fields, since 1675 the site of the cross has been occupied by a statue of King Charles I mounted on a horse. The site is recognised by convention as the centre of London for the purpose of indicating distances by road in favour of other measurement points. Charing Cross is marked on maps as a road junction.
Since 1 January 1931 this section of road has been designated part of the Whitehall thoroughfare, the cross has given its name to a railway station, a tube station, police station, hospital, a hotel, a theatre, and a music hall. Charing Cross Road the main route from the north was named after the railway station, at some time between 1232 and 1236, the Chapel and Hospital of St Mary Rounceval was founded at Charing. It occupied land at the corner of the modern Whitehall and into the centre of Northumberland Avenue and it was an Augustinian house, tied to a mother house at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. The house and lands were seized for the king in 1379, protracted legal action returned some rights to the prior, but in 1414, Henry V suppressed the alien houses
Essex /ˈɛsᵻks/ is a county in England immediately north-east of London. It borders the counties of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, the county town is Chelmsford, which is the only city in the county. Essex occupies the part of the old Kingdom of Essex, before this. As well as areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury. Originally recorded in AD527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. In changes before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England and, following the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the county in a period to 1204. Gradually, the subject to forest law diminished, but at various times included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Ongar.
County-wide administration Essex County Council was formed in 1889, however County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities. 12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, parish-level administration – changes A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford, Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having previously been part of the South East England region. Two unitary authorities In 1998 the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the county and the two unitary authorities. The county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford, before 1938 the council regularly met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts closer to that point and the dominance of railways had been more convenient than any place in the county.
It currently has 75 elected councillors, before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, the pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. Epping Forest acts as a barrier to the further spread of London. Part of the southeast of the county, already containing the population centres of Basildon and Thurrock, is within the Thames Gateway
Hackney was a parish in the historic county of Middlesex. The parish church of St John-at-Hackney was built in 1789, replacing the nearby former 16th-century parish church dedicated to St Augustine. The original tower of church was retained to hold the bells until the new church could be strengthened. See details of other, more modern, churches within the parish boundaries below. The vestry of the parish, in common with all parishes in England, was entrusted with administrative functions from the 17th century. The parish vestry administered the Poor Law until 1837, until it became part of the Poor Law Union of Hackney, the ecclesiastical and civil roles of the parish increasingly diverged, and by the early nineteenth century they covered different areas. A distinct civil parish dates from 1855, with the incorporation of The Vestry of the Parish of Hackney in the County of Middlesex by section 42 of the Metropolis Management Act. With Stoke Newington it formed part of the Hackney District, governed by the Hackney District Board of Works, within the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works.
1 or Stamford Hill, No.2 or West, No.3 or De Beauvoir Town, No.4 or Dalston, No.5 or Hackney, No.6 or Homerton and No.7 or South. In 1894, the district and board were dissolved, with the Hackney vestry taking on its duties within the parish. In 1894 as its population had increased the incorporated vestry was re-divided into eight wards, Stamford Hill, Kingsland, Mare Street, South and Homerton. In 1889 Hackney was included in the new County of London, the civil parish was abolished when the borough became part of the London Borough of Hackney in 1965. The boundaries of the parish were identical to the ancient parish. It was in the Diocese of London.1, Frederic Youngs, London,1979
Catholic Apostolic Church
During the 1840s, a movement to restore ancient Christianity in Britain and the West used the name Catholic Apostolic Church. For this use, see Ancient British Church, British Orthodox Church, Celtic Orthodox Church, the Catholic Apostolic Church was a religious movement which originated in England around 1831 and spread to Germany and the United States. While often referred to as Irvingism, it was actually founded nor anticipated by Edward Irving. The Catholic Apostolic Church was organised in 1835 under the lead of apostles, within the movement itself, the name Catholic Apostolic Church referred to the entire community of Christians who follow the Nicene Creed. The impulse to the movement in the 1820s was given by the Anglican priest James Haldane Stewart. He made an appeal to this by means of more than half a million pamphlets which were spread throughout Great Britain and they longed for renewed spiritual power, as had been visible in the first century after the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in the young church.
This movement was by no means restricted to the British Isles, with investigations and prayers being offered in France, Germany. In 1830, prophetic utterances were recorded in Port Glasgow, among dissenters and Karlshuld and these took the form of prophecy, speaking in tongues and miraculous healing. They were regarded as the answer to the prayers many had prayed and these occurrences spread in Scotland and England where certain ministers allowed their practice, although they were not approved of by existing church authorities. However, they died out in Bavaria under the opposition of the responsible clergy and he attracted thousands of listeners, even from the highest circles, and during his summer tours in Scotland believers came to listen to him with tens of thousands in attendance. Irvings relationship to this community was, according to its members and he was hailed by his followers as the forerunner of a coming dispensation, not the founder of a new sect. Around him, as well as around other congregations of different origins, coalesced persons who had driven out of other churches.
Shortly after Irvings trial and deposition, he restarted meetings in a hall in London. These, over the course of the two years, accepting the presence of restored apostles and guided by claimed words of prophecy. This congregation became known as the Central Church, one of seven that were defined in London as forming a pattern of the whole Christian Church. Within the congregations mentioned, over the course of a short time, in 1835, six months after Irvings death, six others were similarly designated as called to complete the number of the twelve. These, together with the seven congregations in London, the coadjutors of the apostles, the seat of the apostolic college was at Albury, near Guildford. They retired there immediately after their separation to set in order the worship and their teaching was brought to the people by the evangelists and pastors, and by the ministers of the local churches for those who accepted their ministry
Crime in London
Crime in London, as in various cities, is very hard to measure. Police figures generally understate crime substantially and can be extremely misleading, recorded crime statistics need to be treated with great caution and have sometimes been shown to show opposite trends to victim surveys or to violence as measured by hospital intake. However, police figures are usually the only way to gauge local crime. A fourth police force in London, the Ministry of Defence Police, within the Home Office crime statistic publications Greater London is referred to as the London Region. Crime rates vary widely by area, several have problems with crime, until the late 1990s crime figures for varying crime types were not released to the general public at individual police force level. The annual publication Crime in England & Wales produced by the Home Office began to break the figures down to an area in 1996. Commenting on figures from 1 April 1998 onwards, the then-Home Secretary Jack Straw said changes in the way crime statistics are compiled are in line with recommendations by senior police officers and they are intended to give a more accurate picture of the level of offences.
The change in counting rules, and the significant impact it had on violence against the person figures, was misconstrued by the media as real increases. The rises in violence resulting from this were highly publicised on an annual basis, today crime figures are made available nationally at Local Authority and Ward level. The Metropolitan Police have made detailed crime figures, broken down by category at borough and ward level, many websites and applications took advantage of this data to build crime maps of Londons neighbourhoods. A detailed breakdown of the way crimes are counted are available from the Home Office website and this was followed by the introduction of the National Crime Recording Standard in April 2002 which led to a rise in recording in 2002/03 and 2003/04, as the rules bedded-in within forces. Crime figures were collected to cover a calendar year, however this changed from 1998 when crime statistics began to be collated and grouped by financial year. Offences categorised as violent crime by the Home Office are violence against the person, including robbery, since 1990 there has been an average of 171 murders committed each year across the 32 BOCUs in London.
During this period the lowest annual figure was 89 in 2012, between 2003/04 and 2008/09 the number of annual homicides decreased by 27% from 204 to 148. The distribution of homicide offences in London can vary significantly by borough, between 2000 and 2015 there were 2,326 offences committed in London. The murder rate increased 25. 5% in between 2014 and 2015, in England and Wales, assault without injury and harassment account for a further 38% of crimes recorded within the violence against the person category. In 2008–09, there 70,962 assault with injury offences in London with a rate of 9.5 per 1,000 residents and this was slightly higher than the total rate for England and Wales, which was 7.0 per 1,000 residents. Prior to NCRS, minor injuries were counted as common assault, looking at figures over time is of limited value as figures prior to 2002–03 are not comparable with the way certain violent crimes have been recorded since then
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years