A1 road (Great Britain)
The A1 is the longest numbered road in the UK, at 410 miles. It connects London, the capital of England and the United Kingdom, with Edinburgh, the course of the A1 has changed where towns or villages have been bypassed, and where new alignments have taken a slightly different route. Several sections of the route have been upgraded to motorway standard, between the M25 and the A696 the road has been designated as part of the unsigned Euroroute E15 from Inverness to Algeciras. The A1 is the latest in a series of north from London to York. It was designated in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport under the Great Britain road numbering scheme, the earliest documented northern routes are the roads created by the Romans during the period from AD43 to AD410, which consisted of several itinera recorded in the Antonine Itinerary. A combination of these were used by the Anglo-Saxons as the route from London to York, Ermine Street became known as the Old North Road. Part of this route in London is followed by the current A10, by the 12th century, because of flooding and damage by traffic, an alternative route out of London was found through Muswell Hill, and became part of the Great North Road.
A turnpike road, New North Road and Canonbury Road, was constructed in 1812 linking the start of the Old North Road around Shoreditch with the Great North Road at Highbury Corner, the A1 route was modified in 1927 when bypasses were built around Barnet and Hatfield. In the 1930s bypasses were added around Chester-le-Street and Durham, in 1960 Stamford and Doncaster were bypassed, as were Retford in 1961 and St Neots in 1971. Baldock was bypassed in July 1967, during the early 1970s plans to widen the A1 along Archway Road in London were abandoned after considerable opposition and four public inquiries during which road protesters disrupted proceedings. The scheme was dropped in 1990. The Hatfield cut-and-cover was opened in 1986, few of the surviving coaching inns can be seen while driving on the A1, because the modern route now bypasses the towns with the inns. The A1 runs from New Change in the City of London at St. Pauls Cathedral to the centre of Edinburgh, the road skirts the remains of Sherwood Forest, and passes Catterick Garrison.
It shares its London terminus with the A40, in the City area of Central London and it runs out of London through Islington, up Holloway Road, through Highgate, Potters Bar, Welwyn, Baldock, Sandy and St Neots. Scotch Corner, in North Yorkshire, marks the point where before the M6 was built the traffic for Glasgow, as well as a hotel there have been a variety of sites for the transport café, now subsumed as a motorway services. Most of the English section of the A1 is a series of alternating sections of dual carriageway and motorway, from Newcastle upon Tyne to Edinburgh it is a trunk road with alternating sections of dual and single carriageway. The table below summaries the road as motorways and non-motorways sections, A 13-mile section of the road in North Yorkshire, neolithic remains and a Roman fort were discovered. The total cost of works was some £50 million
Metropolitan Police Service
As of March 2016, the Met employed 48,661 full-time personnel. This included 32,125 sworn police officers,9,521 police staff and this number excludes the 3,271 Special Constables, who work part-time and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, the post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. The post is occupied by the now-outgoing Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe. The Commissioners deputy, the Deputy Commissioner, is currently Craig Mackey, a number of informal names and abbreviations exists for the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London, it is referred to as the Old Bill. The Met is referred to by the metonym Scotland Yard after the location of its headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall. The Mets current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, in Victoria, the Metropolitan Police Service, whose officers became affectionately known as bobbies, was founded in 1829 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829.
In 1839, the Marine Police Force, which had formed in 1798, was amalgamated into the Metropolitan Police. In 1837, it incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol that had organised in 1805. Since January 2012, the Mayor of London is responsible for the governance of the Metropolitan Police through the Mayors Office for Policing, the mayor is able to appoint someone to act on his behalf, the current office-holder is Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime, Sophie Linden. The work of MOPAC is scrutinised by the Police and Crime Committee of the London Assembly, the area policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District. In terms of policing, the Met is divided into a number of Borough Operational Command Units. The City of London is a police area and is the responsibility of the separate City of London Police. The British Transport Police are responsible for policing of the network in the United Kingdom. Within London, they are responsible for the policing of the London Underground, The Emirates Air Line.
There is a park police force, the Kew Constabulary, responsible for the Royal Botanic Gardens. Officers have limited powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland, within the MPD, the Met will take over the investigation of any serious crime from the British Transport Police and Ministry of Defence Police, if it is deemed appropriate
A parish is a church territorial unit constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates. Historically, a parish often covered the same area as a manor. By extension the term refers not only to the territorial unit. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, and where minsters catered to the surrounding district. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish comprises a division of a diocese or see, parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest. Some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry, in the Roman Catholic Church, each parish normally has its own parish priest, who has responsibility and canonical authority over the parish.
These are called assistant priests, parochial vicars, curates, or, in the United States, associate pastors, each diocese is divided into parishes, each with their own central church called the parish church, where religious services take place. An example is that of personal parishes established in accordance with the 7 July 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum for those attached to the form of the Roman Rite. Most Catholic parishes are part of Latin Rite dioceses, which cover the whole territory of a country. There can be overlapping parishes of eparchies of Eastern Catholic Churches, the Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Churchs secession from Rome remaining largely untouched, Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury,30 and York,14. A chapelry was a subdivision of a parish in England. It had a status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church.
In England civil parishes and their parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities. Thus their boundaries began to diverge, the word parish acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council. The parish is the level of church administration in the Church of Scotland
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London. It gives its name to several landmarks, including Charing Cross railway station, Charing Cross is named after the Eleanor cross that stood on the site, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross has been occupied since 1675 by a statue of King Charles I. A loose Victorian replica of the cross, the Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross, was erected a short distance to the east outside the railway station. Until 1931, Charing Cross referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square, at least one property retains a Charing Cross postal address, Drummonds Bank, on the corner of Whitehall and The Mall, which is designated 49 Charing Cross. Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has often been regarded as the centre of London. Erect a rich and stately carved cross, Whereon her statue shall with glory shine, George Peele The Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First The name of the area, Charing, is derived from the Old English word cierring, referring to a bend in the River Thames.
Folk etymology suggests the name derives from chère reine — dear queen in French — and this wooden sculpted cross was the work of the medieval sculptor, Alexander of Abingdon. It was destroyed in 1647 on the orders of Parliament during the Civil War, a 70 ft -high stone sculpture in front of Charing Cross railway station is a copy of the original cross. Erected in 1865, it is situated a few hundred yards to the east of the original cross and it was designed by the architect E. M. Barry and carved by Thomas Earp of Lambeth out of Portland stone, Mansfield stone and Aberdeen granite. It is not a replica, being more ornate than the original. A variation on the name appears to be Charygcrouche, near St Martin in the Fields, since 1675 the site of the cross has been occupied by a statue of King Charles I mounted on a horse. The site is recognised by convention as the centre of London for the purpose of indicating distances by road in favour of other measurement points. Charing Cross is marked on maps as a road junction.
Since 1 January 1931 this section of road has been designated part of the Whitehall thoroughfare, the cross has given its name to a railway station, a tube station, police station, hospital, a hotel, a theatre, and a music hall. Charing Cross Road the main route from the north was named after the railway station, at some time between 1232 and 1236, the Chapel and Hospital of St Mary Rounceval was founded at Charing. It occupied land at the corner of the modern Whitehall and into the centre of Northumberland Avenue and it was an Augustinian house, tied to a mother house at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. The house and lands were seized for the king in 1379, protracted legal action returned some rights to the prior, but in 1414, Henry V suppressed the alien houses
Islington North (UK Parliament constituency)
Islington North /ˈɪzlɪŋtən nɔːθ/ is a constituency created in 1885 represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1983 by Jeremy Corbyn of the Labour Party. Corbyn has been Leader of the Labour Party and the Opposition since September 2015, the constituency has at each election since a 1937 by-election elected the Labour Party candidate. The narrowest winners majority over the runner up in this time excluding the by-election itself was in a by-election in 1969,10. By contrast the continuous victor since 1983, Jeremy Corbyn, has attained a smallest majority of 15. 3% in 1983, in four elections during Corbyns tenure the runner up party has been the Liberal Democrats. The 2015 result made the seat the 26th safest of Labours 232 seats by percentage of majority, if the 2016 recommendations of the Boundary Commission for England and Wales are approved by Parliament, the constituency will be abolished at the 2020 general election. The seat was created by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the constituency was defined in the legislation as consisting of the single ward of Upper Holloway of the parish of Islington.
The ward was one of eight used in the election of Islington vestrymen under the Metropolis Management Act 1855. Under the next redistribution of seats by the Representation of the People Act 1918 constituencies in the County of London were defined in terms of wards of the metropolitan boroughs created in 1900. Islington North comprised three wards of the Metropolitan Borough of Islington, Tollington and Upper Holloway, in 1965 local government in Greater London was reorganised, with the formation of London boroughs. The changes were reflected in parliamentary boundaries from 1974, the London Borough of Islington was divided into three constituencies. Islington North was defined as comprising seven wards, Hillmarton, Junction, Parkway, St. Georges, in 1983 the parliamentary representation of Islington was reduced to two constituencies. The new, Islington North was formed from ten wards of the borough as they existed in February 1983 and these were Gillespie, Highview, Junction, Quadrant, St. Georges and Tollington wards.
In 1997 there were only slight changes, with the constituency defined as the same ten wards with their boundaries as they existed on 1 June 1994. The seat covers the northern half of the London Borough of Islington, the constituency now comprises eight wards, Finsbury Park, Highbury East, Highbury West, Junction, Mildmay, St. Georges and Tollington. These boundaries have been changed since 1970, when Islington returned three MPs and shared another with Hackney. This reflects the depopulation of central London on a lowering of adult occupancy of households, the core of the constituency was the area north of Seven Sisters Road and Camden Road. At.735 square kilometres, it is the smallest UK Parliamentary constituency, the criteria of successive reviews emphasise equal electorates as well as restricting seats to one or, if unavoidable, two local authority areas. The criteria feed critiques of entrenched Labour and Conservative safe seats which find themselves concentrated within needy, endorsed by Coalition Government Michael OHalloran, elected Labour MP for Islington North in 1969, was the subject of an investigation in the early 1970s by The Sunday Times newspaper
The Diary of a Nobody
The Diary of a Nobody is an English comic novel written by the brothers George and Weedon Grossmith, with illustrations by the latter. It originated as an intermittent serial in Punch magazine in 1888–89 and first appeared in form, with extended text and added illustrations. The Diary records the events in the lives of a London clerk, Charles Pooter, his wife Carrie, his son Lupin. Before their collaboration on the Diary, the brothers each pursued careers on the stage. George originated nine of the principal roles in the Gilbert. He established a reputation as a piano sketch entertainer and wrote a large number of songs. Before embarking on his career, Weedon had worked as an artist. The Diary was the only mature collaboration. Although its initial reception was muted, the Diary came to be recognised by critics as a classic work of humour. It helped to establish a genre of popular fiction based on lower or lower-middle class aspirations. The Diary of a Nobody was the work of George Grossmith and his brother Weedon Grossmith, the brothers were fascinated with the stage at an early age.
In 1864, at 17 and 10, they hosted a programme of musical. This included a 20-minute burlesque version of Hamlet, in which George played the title role, by 1877 the younger George Grossmith had established himself as a comic piano sketch entertainer in provincial institutes and literary societies. In that year he was seen by Arthur Sullivan and, separately, by W. S. Gilbert, they engaged him to play the comic lead in their new, full-length work, The Sorcerer. Thereafter, Grossmith created the comic role in each of Gilbert and Sullivans long-running comic operas until The Yeomen of the Guard. While appearing in the operas, Grossmith continued his piano entertainment career at parties and matinees. He became the most successful entertainer of his day, writing numerous operettas, around 100 piano sketches, some 600 songs and short piano pieces. For Punch magazine in 1884 he provided a series of sketches based on his experiences as a court reporter at Bow Street Magistrates Court
Crouch End is an area of north London, in the London Borough of Haringey. Crouch End is in a valley between Harringay to the east, Muswell Hill and Wood Green to the north, Stroud Green and Archway to the south, and Highgate to the west. Crouch End is located 4.6 miles north of Charing Cross and 5.1 miles from the City of London, to the immediate west, it is bounded by Highgate Wood, and the adjacent Queens Wood, as well as a large expanse of playing fields. To the north is Alexandra Park and to the south Finsbury Park, the Parkland Walk, a former railway line, makes a circuitous connection part of the way between these two parks. Other parks in the area include Stationers Park, Priory Park, Harringay Hornsey Highgate Muswell Hill Stroud Green Crouch End grew up as a hamlet on the old medieval route from London to the north. At this time it was governed as part of Hornsey, which became a parish in around 1300, the name Cruch End is recorded in 1593. This heavily wooded area contained farms and country houses, one of which was Crouch Hall, the transcribed 1829–1848 diaries of William Copeland Astbury, recently made available, describe in great detail London life of the period, including walks to Crouch End.
Crouch End remained rural until around 1880, large parts remained in private ownership, inhibiting development. However, the development of the changed the area significantly. By 1887 there were seven railway stations in the area, Crouch End became a prosperous middle-class suburb due to an influx of mainly clerical workers who could easily commute to the city. The large old houses were replaced by comfortable middle-class housing, public parks were created, and it expanded greatly in the late Victorian period and most of its present-day streets were built up in the late 19th century. By the mid-1930s Crouch End had a shopping centre that included a Music Hall in the middle of Topsfield Parade. Until 1965 it was part of the Municipal Borough of Hornsey. In 1965, when local government in London was reorganised, Hornsey merged with the boroughs of Wood Green and Tottenham, in the post-war years, the London-wide provision of social housing led to the building of council homes in and around Crouch End, Hornsey Vale and Hornsey itself.
The area became known as student bedsit land for decades into the early 80s until gentrification of the area changed the social profile. These social changes were illustrated by the changes in the shop types over the period, gentrification brought estate agents en masse along with up-market establishments and pavement-type cafes. Among its more prominent buildings is the modernistic Hornsey Town Hall, the architect was the New Zealand-born Reginald Uren. The interior and exterior have been used several times as a location by the BBC soap EastEnders, for further details of education in Crouch End see the London Borough of Haringey article There are three state secondary schools serving the N8 Crouch End area
London Ambulance Service
It is one of the busiest ambulance services in the world, and the busiest in the United Kingdom, providing care to more than 8.6 million people, who live and work in London. The service is currently under the leadership of chief executive Dr Fionna Moore MBE, the service employ around 4,500 staff. In exceptional cases, or where the service deems in necessary, specialist teams can be deployed from within the service, such as the Hazardous Area Response Team and these teams are specially trained and equipped to deal with incidents such as working at height or in confined spaces. It is one of 10 ambulance trusts in England providing emergency medical services, there is no charge to patients for use of the service, as every person in England has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. The LAS responded to over 1.8 million calls for assistance, incidents rose by 20,000 in 2015/16, putting more pressure on the service. All 999 calls from the public are answered at the Emergency Operations Centre in Waterloo, to assist, the services command and control system is linked electronically with the equivalent system for Londons Metropolitan Police.
This means that police updates regarding specific jobs will be updated directly on the computer-aided dispatch log, to be viewed by the EOC, the first became operational at The South Eastern Fever Hospital, Deptford, in October 1883. In all, six hospitals operated horse-drawn land ambulances, putting almost the whole of London within three miles of one of them, each ambulance station included accommodation for a married superintendent and around 20 drivers, horse keepers and attendants, laundry staff and domestic cleaners. At Deptford, in order to transfer patients between the hospitals at Joyce Green and Long Reach near Gravesend, a horse-drawn ambulance tramway was constructed in 1897, in 1902, the MAB introduced a steam driven ambulance and in 1904, their first motor ambulance. The last horse-drawn ambulances were used on 14 September 1912, although the MAB was legally supposed to be transporting only infectious patients, it increasingly carried accident victims and emergency medical cases.
Also in 1915, the MAB Ambulance Section were the first public body to women drivers. By July 1916 the London County Council Ambulance Corps was staffed entirely by women, the LCC took control of the River Ambulance Service, but it was disbanded in 1932. During World War II, the London Auxiliary Ambulance Service was operated by over 10,000 auxiliaries, mainly women and they ran services from 139 Auxiliary Stations across London. A plaque at one of the last to close, Station 39 in Weymouth Mews, near Portland Place, in 1948 the National Health Service Act made it a requirement for ambulances to be available for anyone who needed them. On 1 April 1996, the LAS left the control of the South West Thames Regional Health Authority, as an NHS Trust, the LAS has a Trust Board consisting of 12 members. The board includes, a chairman, five of the Service’s executive directors. Special events in London are co-ordinated from the Services event control room, located in east London, during mass casualty incidents, the command structure works on three levels, gold and bronze.
Silver control, tactical command, from a point in the vicinity of the incident, Bronze control
Dethick, Lea and Holloway
Dethick and Holloway is a civil parish, in the Amber Valley borough of the English county of Derbyshire. The population of the parish taken at the 2011 census was 1,027. It is located in central Derbyshire, south east of Matlock, the areas most notable family is the Nightingales, who spent the summers there. Florence Nightingale stayed at Lea Hurst, during the 1880s, nursed her mother and rendered charitable work in the communities of Lea, the largest of the settlements that compose this civil parish is Holloway, at grid reference SK326562. Holloway has a village serving the parish, called Mayfield Stores. Additionally, it is home to a surgery, a Methodist chapel, the Yew Tree public house, a village butcher. The southeastern area of the village is known as Leashaw, Leashaw is the location of Lea Hurst, famous for being built by the Nightingale family as their summer home. A cotton mill was built in 1784 at Holloway by Peter Nightingale and he was sued by Richard Arkwright for infringement of patents.
Although Arkwright won the case, it attracted the attention of the Lancashire pirate spinners, the mills were sold to Thomas Smedley, whose son founded Smedleys Hydro in Matlock. The mill was converted to spinning worsted, Lea lies north of Holloway at grid reference SK330575 and is, by population, the second biggest settlement in the parish. Unlike Dethick and Holloway, Lea is mentioned briefly in the Domesday Book when it was spelt Lede and was owned by Ralph fitzHerbert and it is home to a youth activity centre called Lea Green and a public house called the Jug & Glass. There is a park, with play equipment for the youth of the parish. Geographically lowest of the settlements, Lea Bridge lies in the valley to the west of Holloway and this settlement grew around the need for workers houses for the nearby mills. Lea Bridge was considered a location for the mills due to the power source in the form of Lea Brook which runs through the valley. The only one still operating is Smedleys, which to this day produces fine clothing, Lea Bridge has a small football pitch and a large pond, known by the locals as the mill pitch and the mill pond respectively.
Smallest of the settlements, but perhaps with the most interesting history, is Dethick, Dethick shares its name with the Dethick family, whose roots there can be traced with certainty to 1228, but who may well have been established there earlier. It will be found at grid reference SK327580, former BBC TV Blue Peter presenter Simon Grooms family had a farm in the village, which he often mentioned on the programme. Although extremely rural, the parish has remained a place to live thanks to its relatively strong accessibility for such a small place
BBC Domesday Project
The BBC Domesday Project was a partnership between Acorn Computers, Philips and the BBC to mark the 900th anniversary of the original Domesday Book, an 11th-century census of England. It has been cited as an example of digital obsolescence on account of the medium used for data storage. This new multimedia edition of Domesday was compiled between 1984 and 1986 and published in 1986. It included a new survey of the United Kingdom, in people, mostly school children, wrote about geography. Children from over 9,000 schools were involved and this was linked with maps, and many colour photos, statistical data and virtual walks. Over 1 million people participated in the project, the project incorporated professionally prepared video footage, virtual reality tours of major landmarks and other prepared datasets such as the 1981 census. The project includes local information gathered and stored by school pupils and images were selected and collated by the BBC Domesday project based in Bilton House in West Ealing.
Pre-mastering of data was carried out on a VAX-11/750 mini-computer, assisted by a network of BBC micros, the discs were mastered and tested by the Philips Laservision factory in Blackburn, England. Viewing the discs required an Acorn BBC Master expanded with a SCSI controller and an additional coprocessor controlled Philips VP415 Domesday Player, the user interface consisted of the BBC Masters keyboard and a trackball. The software for the project was written in BCPL, to cross platform porting easier. The project was split over two laserdiscs, The Community Disc contained personal reflections on life in Britain and is navigated on a map of Britain. The entire country was divided into blocks that were 4 km wide by 3 km long, each block could contain up to 3 photographs and a number of short reflections on life in that area. Most, but not all, of the blocks are covered in this way, in addition more detailed maps of key urban areas and blocks of 40x30 km and regional views were captured, allowing zoom-out and zoom-in functions.
The community disc was double sided, with a Southern and a Northern side, although country-wide data at the 40x30km level, the National Disc contained more varied material, including data from the 1981 census, sets of professional photographs and virtual reality-like walkarounds shot for the project. Side 2 of the National disc contained video material, in addition a natural language search was provided via an English stemming and matching algorithm to a set of keywords. In 2002, there were fears that the discs would become unreadable as computers capable of reading the format had become rare. The project had begun years before JPEG image compression and before truecolour computer video cards had become widely available, the BBC announced that the CAMiLEON project had developed a system capable of accessing the discs using emulation techniques. CAMiLEON copied the footage from one of the extant Domesday laserdiscs