Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue
Nikolai is a city in Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, United States. The population was 94 as of the 2010 census, down from 100 in 2000. Nikolai is located at 63°0′39″N 154°23′2″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.9 square miles, of which, 4.5 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. Nikolai first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1970. As of the census of 2000, there were 100 people, 40 households, 23 families residing in the city; the population density was 22.1 people per square mile. There were 47 housing units at an average density of 10.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81 % Native American. There were 40 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.5% were non-families. 42.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.35. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 27.0% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 194.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 160.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $15,000, the median income for a family was $15,417; the per capita income for the city was $11,029. There were 21.1% of families and 27.6% of the population living below the poverty line, including 22.2% of under eighteens and 15.8% of those over 64. The Iditarod Area School District operates the Top of the Kuskokwim School in Nikolai. Media related to Nikolai, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons Collins, Raymond L.. Sally Jo Collins, ed. "DICHINANEK' HWT'ANA: A History of the people of the Upper Kuskokwim who live in Nikolai and Telida, Alaska". National Park Service.
- Revised January 2004 Student film on Nikolai
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora.
In a logography, each character represents morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.
A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.
Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow. Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts.
Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte
Andrej Kibrik is a Russian linguist, the director of the Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, professor at the Philological Faculty of the Moscow State University. Member of the Academia Europaea since 2013. Kibrik’s main research interests lie in the fields of cognitive linguistics, discourse analysis, grammar, functional linguistics, linguistic typology, areal linguistics, language documentation, he has worked on Athabaskan languages, Caucasian languages, Turkic languages, among others. Kibrik was born in Moscow. Both of his parents, Alexander Kibrik and Antonina Koval, were linguists, he graduated from the Department of theoretical and applied linguistics of the Philological Faculty of the Moscow State University in 1984. During his studies at the university, he took part in several linguistic expeditions organized by the Department, in particular to Dagestan, Svaneti, Abkhazia. In 1988, Kibrik obtained his Candidate Degree at the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union.
Since he started working at the Institute as a research fellow and became the head of the group working on the encyclopaedic series Languages of the World. He is now Areal linguistics Department of the Institute. Since 1995, Kibrik has taught at the Philological faculty of the Moscow State University. Since 2011, he is the head of the Center of cognitive studies at the Philological faculty. In 2003, Kibrik obtained his habilitation. In 2017, he was elected the director of the Institute of Linguistics. Father — Alexander Kibrik, linguist Mother — Antonina Koval, linguist Sister — Nina Kibrik, painter Wife — Mira Bergelson, linguist Kibrik's research interests are rather broad: he is a specialist in the fields of cognitive linguistics, areal linguistics and semantics. Among his major publications there are works on discourse analysis, on multimodal approaches to studying spoken language, on sign languages. Studies carried out by Kibrik are multidisciplinary and are performed in close interaction with psychologists and neurophysiologists.
He is one of the principal researchers of the Night Dream Stories project, in which the corpus of stories produced by healthy children was compared to those told by children with neurotic disorders, the results serving the basis for the methodology of psycholinguistic diagnostics. Since 1991, Kibrik has been engaged in fieldwork on Indian languages of North America and is working on a grammar of the Upper Kuskokwim language, one of the critically endangered Athabaskan languages, he is involved in research on a Russian dialect of Alaska. Kibrik has acted as a supervisor of numerous master and doctoral dissertations on the Russian sign language, he proposed to include the Russian sign language into the official Russian census questionnaire, which afterwards led to official recognition of the Russian sign language by the Russian government. Kibrik is member of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, Association for Linguistic Typology, Societas Linguistica Europaea, Society of Cognitive Science and other associations.
He is member of the editorial boards of a number of scientific journals like Studies in Language, Cognitive Linguistics, Frontiers in Cognition, among others. Mira B. Bergelson, Andrej A. Kibrik, Wayne Leman, Marina Raskladkina. 2017. Dictionary of Ninilchik Russian: 2017 version. Anchorage: Minuteman Press. Andrej A. Kibrik. 2012. Toward a typology of verb lexical systems: A case study in Northern Athabaskan. Linguistics 50.3, 495-532. Andrej A. Kibrik. 2012. What’s in the head of head-marking languages? In: Pirkko Suihkonen, Bernard Comrie and Valery Solovyev, Argument Structure and Grammatical Relations: A Crosslinguistic Typology. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 229-258. Andrej A. Kibrik. 2011. Reference in discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 651 pp. Mira B. Bergelson, Andrej A. Kibrik, Wayne Leman. 2011. Ninilchik Russian: The first language of Ninilchik, Alaska. Lulu Press. Preprint edition. 179 pp. Andrej A. Kibrik. 2011. Cognitive discourse analysis: local discourse structure. In: Marcin Grygiel and Laura A. Janda Slavic Linguistics in a Cognitive Framework.
Frankfurt/New York: Peter Lang Publishing Company, 273-304. Andrej A. Kibrik and Vera I. Podlesskaya. 2009. Rasskazy o snovidenijax: korpusnoe issledovanie ustnogo russkogo diskursa. Moscow: Jazyki slavjanskix kul’tur. 736 pp. Official web-page at the Institute of Linguistics website Official web-page at the Academia Europaea website Lectures and publications at “PostNauka.ru”
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The river's source is in British Columbia, from which it flows through the Canadian Yukon Territory; the lower half of the river lies in the U. S. state of Alaska. The river empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon -- Kuskokwim Delta; the average flow is 6,430 m3/s. The total drainage area is 832,700 km2; the total area is more than 25 % larger than Alberta. The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the principal means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—"The Thirty Mile" section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river and a unit of Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park. Paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. After the purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, the Alaska Commercial Company acquired the assets of the Russian-American Company and constructed several posts at various locations on the Yukon River.
The Yukon River has had a history of pollution from military installations, dumps and other sources. However, the Environmental Protection Agency does not list the Yukon River among its impaired watersheds, water quality data from the U. S. Geological Survey shows good levels of turbidity and dissolved oxygen; the Yukon and Mackenzie rivers have much higher suspended sediment concentrations than the great Siberian Arctic rivers. The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council, a cooperative effort of 70 First Nations and tribes in Alaska and Canada, has the goal of making the river and its tributaries safe to drink from again by supplementing and scrutinizing government data; the name Yukon, or ųųg han, is a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. The contraction is Ųųg Han, if the /ųų/ remains nasalized, or Yuk Han, if there is no vowel nasalization. In 1843, the Holikachuks had told the Russian-American Company that their name for the river was Yukkhana and that this name meant big river.
However, Yukkhana does not correspond to a Holikachuk phrase that means big river. Two years the Gwich'ins told the Hudson's Bay Company that their name for the river was Yukon and that the name meant white water river. White water river in fact corresponds to Gwich ` in words; because the Holikachuks had been trading with both the Gwich'ins and the Yup'iks, the Holikachuks had been in a position to borrow the Gwich'in contraction and to conflate its meaning with the meaning of Kuigpak, the Yup'ik name for the same river. For that reason, the documentary evidence reflects that the Holikachuks had borrowed the contraction Ųųg Han from Gwich'in, erroneously assumed that this contraction had the same literal meaning as the corresponding Yup'ik name Kuigpak; the Lewes River is the former name of the upper course of the Yukon, from Marsh Lake to the confluence of the Pelly River at Fort Selkirk. The accepted source of the Yukon River is the Llewellyn Glacier at the southern end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia.
Others suggest. Either way, Atlin Lake flows into Tagish Lake, as does Lake Lindeman after flowing into Bennett Lake. Tagish Lake flows into Marsh Lake; the Yukon River proper starts at the northern end of Marsh Lake, just south of Whitehorse. Some argue that the source of the Yukon River should be Teslin Lake and the Teslin River, which has a larger flow when it reaches the Yukon at Hootalinqua; the upper end of the Yukon River was known as the Lewes River until it was established that it was the Yukon. North of Whitehorse, the Yukon River widens into Lake Laberge, made famous by Robert W. Service's "The Cremation of Sam McGee". Other large lakes that are part of the Yukon River system include Kluane Lake; the river passes through the communities of Whitehorse and Dawson City in Yukon, crossing Alaska into Eagle, Fort Yukon, Stevens Village, Tanana, Galena, Grayling, Holy Cross, Russian Mission, Pilot Station, St. Marys, Mountain Village. After Mountain Village, the main Yukon channel frays into many channels.
There are a number of communities after the "head of passes," as the channel division is called locally: Nunum Iqua, Alakanuk and Kotlik. Of those delta communities, Emmonak is the largest with 760 people in the 2000 census. Emmonak's gravel airstrip is the regional hub for flights. Navigational obstacles on the Yukon River are the Five Finger Rapids and Rink Rapids downstream from Carmacks. Despite its length, there are only four vehicle-carrying bridges across the river: The Lewes Bridge, north of Marsh Lake on the Alaska Highway. A car ferry crosses the river at Dawson City in the summer. Plans to build a permanent bridge were announced in March 2004, alth
The Koyukuk River' is a 425-mile tributary of the Yukon River, in the U. S. state of Alaska. It is the last major tributary entering the Yukon before the larger river empties into the Bering Sea. Rising at the confluence of the North Fork Koyukuk River with the Middle Fork Koyukuk River, it flows southwest to meet the larger Yukon River at Koyukuk; the river, with headwaters above the Arctic Circle in the Endicott Mountains of the Brooks Range, drains an area north of the Yukon River that includes part of the Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, as well as Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge and Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge. The main stem of the river is lined by the communities of Evansville, Alatna, Allakaket and Huslia before reaching Koyukuk, its headwaters tributaries include the Koyukuk's south and north forks, the Alatna River, the John River. Major tributaries further downstream include the Kanuti, Hogatza, Dulbi and Gisasa rivers. Of these, the Alatna and North Fork are National Wild and Scenic Rivers, as is the Tinayguk River, a tributary of the North Fork.
Koyukuk was derived from the Central Yup'ik phrase kuik-yuk, meaning a river. The Koyukuk River was given this generic C. Yup'ik name by Russian explorer Petr Vasilii Malakhov, because he did not know the local Koyukon name for it; the Western Union Telegraph Expedition used the spelling of Coyukuk before the United States Board on Geographic Names settled on Koyukuk. The Russian Petr Vasilii Malakhov reached the river at its confluence with the Yukon in 1838; the United States acquired Alaska after the American Civil War, but it was 1885 before US representatives Lieutenant Henry Allen and Private Fred Fickett of the United States Army ascended and explored the river. The discovery of gold deposits by Johnnie Folger on the Middle Fork in 1893 on The Tramway bar led to a gold rush in 1898. In 1929, Robert "Bob" Marshall explored the North Fork of the Koyukuk River while studying plant life in the region for his PhD, he gave the name Gates of the Arctic to the high Brooks Range along the river.
In 1980 the United States Congress designated 100 mi of the North Fork of the Koyukuk River in the Brooks Range as the Koyukuk Wild and Scenic River, which authorized certain levels of protection for the habitat. In 1994 the river flooded, sweeping away three villages, forcing the wholesale relocation of the population. Vegetation along the Koyukuk River, sparse along the upper reaches, consists of tundra plants such as dwarf willows and other shrubs and lichens. Further downstream at lower elevations and boreal forest plants are common except in the Koyukuk Flats near the mouth, where sedges and other herbaceous plants dominate the poorly drained muskeg. Trees found in more well-drained areas along the river include mountain alder, trembling aspen and black spruce. Fish species frequenting the lower Koyukuk include Arctic sockeye salmon; the sockeye and other salmon species, including Chinook and chum thrive along the upper reaches and tributaries. Caribou migrate across the upper part of the Koyukuk watershed.
Other major vertebrates in the region include bald eagles and black bears, beaver and river otter. Beluga whales sometimes visit the lower Koyukuk. Moose herds, which thrive in parts of the watershed in riparian zones downstream of Hughes, attract local and non-local hunters and wolves. A consortium of moose hunters and state wildlife officials work to keep the moose population at sustainable levels. Through 2005, no one had published a study of invertebrates of the Koyukuk or its larger tributaries. General information included in a study related to pipeline construction through the watershed suggested the presence of a variety of true flies, black flies, mayflies and caddisflies. List of rivers of Alaska List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers Reuben D'Aigle Benke, Arthur C. ed. and Cushing, Colbert E. ed.. "Chapter 17: Yukon River Basin" in Rivers of North America. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088253-1. OCLC 59003378. NPS: Koyukuk Wild and Scenic River Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge Koyukuk River Floods in Alaska History in Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve