Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal
Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal, a major component of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is the principal container ship facility for goods entering and leaving New York metropolitan area and the northeastern quadrant of North America. Located on Newark Bay, the facility is run by the Port Authority of New Jersey, its two components—Port Newark and the Elizabeth Marine Terminal —sit side by side within the cities of Newark and Elizabeth, New Jersey, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike and Newark Airport. The busiest container port in the world in 1985, the Port was, as of 2004, the largest in the eastern United States and the third-largest in the country. Container goods arrive on container ships through The Narrows and the Kill Van Kull before entering Newark Bay, a shallow body of water, dredged to accommodate large ships; the port facility consists of two main dredged slips and multiple loading cranes. Shipping containers are arrayed in large stacks visible from the New Jersey Turnpike before being loaded onto rail cars and trucks.
In 2009, the major port operators at Port Newark–Elizabeth included Maher terminals, APM terminal, PNCT. Since 1998, the port has seen a 65% increase in traffic. In 2003, the port moved over $100 billion in goods. In 2006, it handled more than 20% of all US imports from Germany, more than any other US port; the height of ships serving the port is limited by the Bayonne Bridge over Kill Van Kull. This limitation has become more serious since the Panama Canal expanded in 2016, allowing bigger, new Panamax ships to reach the port from Asia. In 2012, the Port Authority announced plans to increase the height of the Bayonne Bridge's roadway to 215 feet, which will solve the problem; the project was expected to cost around $1 billion. Other improvements are expected to cost additional billions of dollars, including larger cranes, bigger railyard facilities, deeper channels, expanded wharves. New cranes arrived in May 2014. ExpressRail, an initiative of the PANYNJ, provides dockside transloading operations at both Port Elizabeth and Port Newark.
Conrail Shared Assets Operations is the terminal railroad connecting to the Chemical Coast for CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern. The auto-processing facilities at the north end of Port Newark and the adjacent Doremus Auto Terminal are served by dockside trackage. Oak Island Yard, the major classification yard in the region, is just north of the port. NS operates an ExpressRail yard south of the port adjacent to Jersey Gardens; the western edge of Newark Bay was the Newark Meadows, shallow tidal wetlands covering about 12 square miles. In the 1910s, the city of Newark began excavating an angled shipping channel in the northeastern quadrant of the wetland; this became the basis of Port Newark. Work on the channel and terminal facilities on its north side accelerated during World War I, when the federal government took control of Port Newark. During the war, nearly 25,000 troops were stationed at the Newark Bay Shipyard; the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was formed in 1921, the Newark Bay Channels were authorized by the Rivers and Harbors Acts in 1922.
Shipping operations languished after the war, in 1927, the city of Newark started construction of Newark Airport on the northwestern quadrant of the wetlands that lay between Port Newark and the edge of the developed city. The port authority took over the operations of Port Newark and Newark Airport in 1948 and began modernizing both facilities and expanding them southward; the SS Ideal X, considered the first container ship, made her maiden voyage as a container carrier on April 26, 1956, carrying 58 containers from Port Newark to the Port of Houston. SeaLand expanded its operations into the newly developed container terminal. In 1958, the port authority dredged another shipping channel, which straightened the course of Bound Brook, the tidal inlet forming the boundary between Newark and Elizabeth. Dredged materials were used to create new upland south of the new Elizabeth Channel, where the port authority constructed the Elizabeth Marine Terminal; the first shipping facility to open on the Elizabeth Channel was the new 90-acre Sea-Land Container Terminal, the prototype for every container terminal constructed thereafter.
This new port facility antiquated most of the traditional waterfront port facilities in New York Harbor, leading to a steep decline in such areas as Manhattan and Brooklyn. The automated nature of the facility requires far fewer workers and does not require the opening of containers before onward shipping. In 2000, a Congressional study deemed the port and other transportation, communications and chemical facilities along a two-mile stretch of New Jersey "the nation's most enticing environment for terrorists", according to a 2005 New York Times article. In 2011, PANYNJ restructured the lease of a major tenant, Port Newark Container Terminal, whose owner had been subject of the Dubai Ports World controversy; the agreement calls for a 20-year extension of PNCT's existing lease through 2050, subject to PNCT's investment of $500 million and an expansion from 180 to about 287 acres to accommodate additional volume. It is expected to generate an annual increase in container volume from Mediterranean Shipping Company, the world's second-largest shipping company, from 414,000 to 1.1 million containers by 2030.
Various planned steps to accommodate this growth include deepening the Kill van Kull, raising the Bayonne Bridge, expanding rail freight facilities. H
NY Waterway, or New York Waterway, is a private transportation company running ferry and bus service in the Port of New York and New Jersey and in the Hudson Valley. While operations and much marketing come under the NY Waterway logo, the company works with other private companies and in public-private partnership with agencies such as the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New Jersey Transit, New York City Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, to provide service and maintain docking facilities. NY Waterway uses ferry slips at four terminals in Manhattan as well as terminals and slips in Jersey City, Hoboken and Edgewater, all located along the Hudson River Waterfront Walkway. Commuter peak service is provided on the Haverstraw–Ossining Ferry, Newburgh–Beacon Ferry, to the Raritan Bayshore. Excursions and sightseeing trips include those to Yankee Stadium, Gateway National Recreation Area, Governors Island; the Manhattan to Jersey City route is used as one of the alternatives for connecting the New York and New Jersey segments of the East Coast Greenway hiking and biking trail, the other choice being the George Washington Bridge.
In 1981 Arthur Edward Imperatore, Sr. a trucking magnate, purchased a 2.5 miles length of the Weehawken, New Jersey waterfront, where the company is based, from the bankrupt Penn Central for $7.5 million, with the plan to redevelop the brownfield site as had others along the west bank of the Hudson River waterfront and to restore ferry service to it. In 1986 he established New York Waterway, with a route across the river between Weehawken Port Imperial and Pier 78 on the West Side of Midtown Manhattan. Three years it began operation between Hoboken Terminal and Battery Park City. During the course of the next decade numerous routes across the Hudson were added. NY Waterway also operated a high-speed ferry from Staten Island to East 34th Street in 1998, but discontinued it due to low ridership; this marked the first time. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center destroyed the PATH terminal located there reducing cross-Hudson River passenger capacity; the company was well-positioned to take advantage of government investment in ferry service, receiving subsidies and generous agreements to docking at public facilities.
NY Waterway service expanded by adding new routes and increasing the frequency of crossings. It borrowed to fund the acquisition of additional vessels. After PATH service was restored ridership declined, the loss of passengers bringing the company, unable to reduce its fixed costs, to brink of bankruptcy. By December 2004, there was deep concern that there would be a total shutdown of ferry service, disrupting the commutes of 30,000 daily riders; the Port Authority, as well as city and state agencies had contracted the construction of new ferry terminals to be leased to private operators. The shutdown was averted when the new BillyBey Ferry Company LLC which had never before operated ferry services, founded by Manhattan lawyer William B. Wachtel, agreed to take over half of NY Waterway's equipment and routes. Other ferry and sightseeing boat operators were displeased that the Port Authority approved the transfer without a transparent bidding process. In 2009, the fleet included 33 boats, 15 of which are operated by the company for its associate Billybey Ferry.
In February 2011, NY Waterway was contracted to operate a route calling at slips in Brooklyn and Queens as well as the East River terminals. In June 2011, the NY Waterway-operated East River Ferry line started operations; the route was a 7-stop East River service that ran in a loop between East 34th Street and Hunters Point, making two intermediate stops in Brooklyn and three in Queens. The ferry, an alternative to the New York City Subway, cost $2.75 per one-way ticket. Subsidized by the City of New York, the service was intended for commuters, but after a few months became popular with weekend users and tourists, it was used by two to six times the number of passengers that the city predicted would ride the ferries. From June to November 2011, the ferry accommodated 2,862 riders on an average weekday, as opposed to a projection of 1,488 riders, it had 4,500 riders on an average weekend, six times the city's projected ridership; the route was merged into NYC Ferry on May 1, 2017, coming under the operation of Hornblower Cruises.
NY Waterway has played a role in a number of emergency operations. In the immediate after effects of September 11, 2001 attacks, the company was instrumental in the evacuation of passengers who otherwise would have been stranded in Manhattan due to the chaos created in the mass transit system; the ferry service brought people across the river during Northeast Blackout of 2003 when service on New Jersey Transit and Port Authority Trans-Hudson trains could not operate. During the 2005 New York City transit strike it provided alternative transportation. In 2009, the company was instrumental in the rescue of passengers of US Airways Flight 1549, which made an emergency landing on the Hudson River; the firm gained media attention both for its efforts to rescue passengers from airplane and for its hiring of 20-year-old Brittany Catanzaro as captain. Thanks in a large part to the successful efforts of Captains Vincent Lombardi and Catanzaro, together with their crews, all aboard were rescued. On April 6, 2012, a NY Waterway ferry rescued the crew of the Katherine G, a tugboat that capsized near Liberty Island.
The ferry's captain, Mohamed Gouda, had commanded one of the ferries that participated in the flight 1549 rescue. In June 2
Staten Island Ferry
The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger ferry route operated by the New York City Department of Transportation. The ferry's single route runs 5.2 miles through New York Harbor between the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island, with ferry boats making the trip in 25 minutes. The ferry operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, with boats leaving every 15 to 20 minutes during peak hours and every 30 minutes at other times, it is the only direct mass-transit connection between the two boroughs. The Staten Island Ferry has charged a low fare compared to other modes of transit in the area; the Staten Island Ferry is one of several ferry systems in the New York City area and is operated separately from systems such as NYC Ferry and NY Waterway. The Staten Island Ferry route terminates at Whitehall Terminal, on Whitehall Street in Lower Manhattan, at St. George Terminal, in St. George, Staten Island. At Whitehall, connections are available to the New York City Subway and several local New York City Bus routes.
At St. George, there are transfers to the Staten Island Railway and to the St. George Bus Terminal's many bus routes. Using MetroCard fare cards, passengers from Manhattan can exit a subway or bus on Whitehall Street, take the ferry for free, have a free second transfer to a train or bus at St. George. Conversely, passengers from Staten Island can transfer to a subway or bus in Manhattan after riding the ferry; the Staten Island Ferry originated in 1817, when the Richmond Turnpike Company started a steamboat service from Manhattan to Staten Island. Cornelius Vanderbilt bought the Richmond Turnpike Company in 1838, it was merged with two competitors in 1853; the combined company was in turn sold to the Staten Island Railroad Company in 1864. The Staten Island Ferry was sold to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1884, the City of New York assumed control of the ferry in 1905. In the early 20th century, the city and private companies operated publicly and operated ferry routes from Staten Island to Brooklyn.
Owing to the growth of vehicular travel, all of the routes from Staten Island to Brooklyn were decommissioned by the mid-1960s. By 1967, the Staten Island-to-Manhattan ferry was the only commuter ferry within the entire city. A fast ferry route from Staten Island to Midtown Manhattan ran from 1997 to 1998, with proposals to revive the route resurfacing in the 2010s; the Staten Island Ferry has a high commuter ridership due to the lack of transit connections between Staten Island and the other boroughs. With 23.9 million riders in fiscal year 2016, the Staten Island Ferry is the single busiest ferry route in the United States as of 2016, as well as the world's busiest passenger-only ferry system. The ferry is popular among tourists and visitors, due to the views of the New York Harbor a trip affords. Before the New York City area was colonized by Europeans, the indigenous Lenape Native Americans used boats to traverse waterways—including present-day Arthur Kill, Kill Van Kull, Raritan Bay—of the area known as Lenapehoking, which included present-day Staten Island and New Jersey.
The area would first be colonized as part of Dutch New Netherland in 1624. New Netherland became the British Province of New York in 1664, the British province became part of the United States in 1776. During the 18th century, the City of New York occupied only the southern tip of Manhattan, Staten Island was not incorporated within the greater city. At the time, ferry service along New York Harbor between Staten Island and Manhattan was conducted by private individuals in "periaugers"; these shallow-draft, two-masted sailboats, used for local traffic in New York Harbor, were used for other transport in the area. Cornelius Vanderbilt, an entrepreneur from Stapleton, Staten Island, who would become one of the world's richest people, started a ferry service from Staten Island to Manhattan in 1810. Although Cornelius was only 16 years old at the time, he had sailed extensively enough in his father's periauger that he could navigate the New York Harbor Estuary on his own, he earned $100 for his birthday in May 1810.
Vanderbilt used the periauger to transport passengers from Staten Island to the Battery at Manhattan's tip. He competed against other boatmen providing service in the harbor, who called him "Commodore" because of his youthful eagerness; the War of 1812 meant restricted access to New York Harbor from elsewhere along the East Coast. During the war, Vanderbilt profited from carrying cargo along the Hudson River, he bought extra boats with these profits. After the war, he transported cargo in the harbor, earning more money and buying more boats. Around the same time, U. S. Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins secured a charter for the Richmond Turnpike Company as part of his efforts to develop the village of Tompkinsville, which would become Staten Island's first European settlement; the company was incorporated in 1815, the land comprising Tompkinsville was purchased around this time. The company built a highway across Staten Island; the Richmond Turnpike Company began to operate the first motorized ferry between New York and Staten Island in 1817, commanded by Captain John DeForest, the brother-in-law of Cornelius Vanderbilt.
This new ferry broke the short monopoly on steamboat operations, held by the Fulton Ferry, which had connected
The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end, it separates the borough of Queens on Long Island from the Bronx on the North American mainland, divides Manhattan from Queens and Brooklyn, which are on Long Island. Because of its connection to Long Island Sound, it was once known as the Sound River; the tidal strait changes its direction of flow and is subject to strong fluctuations in its current, which are accentuated by its narrowness and variety of depths. The waterway is navigable for its entire length of 16 miles, was the center of maritime activities in the city, although, no longer the case. Technically a drowned valley, like the other waterways around New York City, the strait was formed 11,000 years ago at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation; the distinct change in the shape of the strait between the lower and upper portions is evidence of this glacial activity.
The upper portion, running perpendicular to the glacial motion, is wide and has deep narrow bays on both banks, scoured out by the glacier's movement. The lower portion runs north-south, parallel to the glacial motion, it is much narrower, with straight banks. The bays that exist, as well as those that used to exist before being filled in by human activity, are wide and shallow; the section known as "Hell Gate" – from the Dutch name Hellegat or "passage to hell" given to the entire river in 1614 by explorer Adriaen Block when he passed through it in his ship Tyger – is a narrow and treacherous stretch of the river. Tides from the Long Island Sound, New York Harbor and the Harlem River meet there, making it difficult to navigate because of the number of rocky islets which once dotted it, with names such as "Frying Pan", "Pot and Cheese", "Hen and Chicken", "Nigger Head", "Heel Top"; the stretch widened. Washington Irving wrote of Hell Gate that the current sounded "like a bull bellowing for more drink" at half tide, whilte at full tide it slept "as soundly as an alderman after dinner."
He said it was like "a peaceable fellow enough when he has no liquor at all, or when he has a skinful, but who, when half-seas over, plays the devil." The tidal regime is complex, with the two major tides – from the Long Island Sound and from the Atlantic Ocean – separated by about two hours. The river is navigable for its entire length of 16 miles. In 1939 it was reported that the stretch from The Battery to the former Brooklyn Navy Yard near Wallabout Bay, a run of about 1,000 yards, was 40 feet deep, the long section from there, running to the west of Roosevelt Island, through Hell Gate and to Throg's Neck was at least 35 feet deep, eastward from there the river was, at mean low tide, 168 feet deep; the broadness of the river's channel south of Roosevelt Island is caused by the dipping of the hardy Fordham gneiss which underlies the island under the less strong Inwood marble which lies under the river bed. Why the river turns to the east as it approaches the three lower Manhattan bridges is geologically unknown.
In the stretch of the river between Manhattan Island and the borough of Queens, lies Roosevelt Island, a narrow 2-mile long island consisting of 147 acres. Politically part of Manhattan, it begins at around the level of East 46th Street of that borough and runs up to around East 86th Street. Called Blackwell's Island and Welfare Island, now named after President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, it was the site of a penitentiary, a number of hospitals, but now consists of apartment buildings, park land, the ruins of older buildings, it is connected to Queens by the Roosevelt Island Bridge, to Manhattan by the Roosevelt Island Tramway, to both by a subway station. The Queensboro Bridge runs across Roosevelt Island, but no longer has a passenger elevator connection to it, as it did in the past; the abrupt termination of the island on its north end is due to an extension of the 125th Street Fault. Other islands in the river are U Thant Island – Belmont Island – south of Roosevelt Island, named after U Thant, the former Secretary-General of the United Nations.
The Bronx River drains into the East River in the northern section of the strait, the Flushing River known as "Flushing Creek" empties into it near LaGuardia Airport via Flushing Bay. North of Randalls Island, it is joined by the Bronx Kill. Along the east of Wards Island, at the strait's midpoint, it narrows into a channel called Hell Gate, spanned by both the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge (formerly the Triborough
Newark Bay is a tidal bay at the confluence of the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers in northeastern New Jersey. It is home to the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, the largest container shipping facility in Port of New York and New Jersey, the third largest and one of the busiest in the United States. An estuary, it is periodically dredged to accommodate ocean-going ships. Newark Bay is rectangular 5.5 miles long, varying in width from 0.6 to 1.2 miles. It is enclosed on the west by the cities of Newark and Elizabeth, on the east by Jersey City and Bayonne. At the south is Staten Island, New York and at the north Kearny Point and Droyer's Point mark the mouth of the Hackensack. Shooters Island is a bird sanctuary where the borders of Staten Island and Elizabeth meet at one point; the southern tip of Bergen Neck, known as Bergen Point, juts into the bay and lent its name to the former Bergen Point Lighthouse. Built offshore in 1849 it was replaced with a skeletal tower in the mid 20th century.
The Atlantic Ocean at Sandy Hook and Rockaway Point is 11 miles away and reached by tidal straits dredged to maintain shipping lanes. Newark Bay is connected to Upper New York Bay by the Kill Van Kull and to Raritan Bay by the Arthur Kill; the names of the channels reflect the period of Dutch colonialization. The area around the bay was called Achter Kol, which translates as behind or beyond the ridge and refers to Bergen Hill; the emergence of the Hudson Palisades begins on Bergen Neck, the peninsula between the bay and the Hudson River. Kill in Dutch means stream or channel. During the British colonial era the bay was known as Cull bay. Kill van Kull translates as channel from the ridge. Arthur Kill is an anglicization of achter kill meaning back channel, which would speak to its location behind Staten Island. Many of the maritime and distribution facilities along the bay are part of Foreign Trade Zone 49 The bay is spanned by the Vincent R. Casciano Memorial Bridge which carries the Newark Bay Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike.
The Upper Bay Bridge is a vertical lift bridge north of the Casciano, now used by CSX Transportation for freight shipment, including the notable Juice Train. Central Railroad of New Jersey's Newark Bay Bridge crossed the bay from 1864 to connect its Communipaw Terminal. Last used in 1978, it was determined to be a hazard to maritime navigation and demolished in the 1980s. Elizabeth is the site of the first English speaking European settlement in New Jersey, its port at the southern end of the bay a major maritime hub during the colonial era. Jersey Gardens, an outlet mall, has been located north of Elizabethport since 1999. There are plans to construct a mixed used community adjacent to it along the bay; the western edge of Newark Bay was shallow tidal wetlands covering 12 square miles. In 1910s the City of Newark began excavating an angled shipping channel in the northeastern quadrant of the wetland which formed the basis of Port Newark. Work on the channel and terminal facilities on its north side accelerated during World War I, when the federal government took control of Port Newark.
During the war there were close to 25,000 troops stationed at the Newark Bay Shipyard. The City decided to expand the port at the end of the war; the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was formed in 1921 and the Newark Bay Channels were authorized by the Rivers and Harbors Acts in 1922. Shipping operations languished after the war, in 1927, the City of Newark started construction of Newark Liberty International Airport on the northwest quadrant of the wetlands which lay between Port Newark and the edge of the developed city. Port Authority took over the operations of Port Newark and the Newark Airport in 1948 and began modernizing and expanding both facilities southward. In 1958, the Port Authority dredged another shipping channel which straightened the course of Bound Brook, the tidal inlet forming the boundary between Newark and Elizabeth. Dredged materials was used to create new upland south of the new Elizabeth Channel, where the Port Authority constructed the Elizabeth Marine Terminal.
The first shipping facility to open upon the Elizabeth Channel was the new 90-acre Sea-Land Container Terminal, the prototype for every other container terminal constructed thereafter. The Ironbound is an industrial area along the bay which becomes residential farther inland near Downtown Newark; the Central Railroad of New Jersey first built the Newark and New York Railroad across the rivers and tip of New Barbadoes Neck in 1869. One bridge was taken out of service in 1946 after a ship collided into it. Passenger service on the other, the PD Draw, was discontinued in 1967; the Kearny Point peninsula is site of a massive distribution facility. It comprises the former Western Electric Kearny Works and Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, the shipyards of which operated from 1917 to 1949 and played a prominent role in both World War I and World War II. While there was some maritime development on the eastern banks of the bay closer Bergen Point most of the eastern shore abuts residential and recreational areas.
The Hackensack RiverWalk is a completed linear park greenway intended to link the string of parks along its banks and that of the Hackensack River from the Bayonne Bridge to the Hackensack Meadowlands in Secaucus and North Bergen. In Bayonne much of the bay has not seen bulkhead development, hence has a natural shore line; the city's largest parks are its shores. At Droyer's Point recreational and residential development have included a promenade; the Howland Hook Marine Terminal is a container port facility located at the northwestern corner of Staten Island at the en
A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft, propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle. The word kayak originates from the Greenlandic word qajaq; the traditional kayak has one or more cockpits, each seating one paddler. The cockpit is sometimes covered by a spray deck that prevents the entry of water from waves or spray, differentiating the craft from a canoe; the spray deck makes it possible for suitably skilled kayakers to roll the kayak: that is, to capsize and right it without it filling with water or ejecting the paddler. Some modern boats vary from a traditional design but still claim the title "kayak", for instance in eliminating the cockpit by seating the paddler on top of the boat. Kayaks are being sailed, as well as propelled by means of small electric motors, by outboard gas engines; the kayak was first used by the indigenous Aleut, Inuit and Ainu hunters in subarctic regions of the world. Kayaks were developed by the Inuit, Yup'ik, Aleut, they used the boats to hunt on inland lakes and coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic, Bering Sea and North Pacific oceans.
These first kayaks were constructed from stitched seal or other animal skins stretched over a wood or whalebone-skeleton frame.. Kayaks are believed to be at least 4,000 years old; the oldest existing kayaks are exhibited in the North America department of the State Museum of Ethnology in Munich, with the oldest dating from 1577. Native people made many types of boat for different purposes; the Aleut baidarka was made in double or triple cockpit designs, for hunting and transporting passengers or goods. An umiak is a large open sea canoe, ranging from 17 to 30 feet, made with wood, it is considered a kayak although it was paddled with single-bladed paddles, had more than one paddler. Native builders designed and built their boats based on their own experience and that of the generations before them, passed on through oral tradition; the word "kayak" means "man's boat" or "hunter's boat", native kayaks were a personal craft, each built by the man who used it—with assistance from his wife, who sewed the skins—and fitting his size for maximum maneuverability.
The paddler wore a tuilik, a garment, stretched over the rim of the kayak coaming, sealed with drawstrings at the coaming and hood edges. This enabled the "eskimo roll" and rescue to become the preferred methods of recovery after capsizing as few Inuit could swim. Instead of a tuilik, most traditional kayakers today use a spray deck made of waterproof synthetic material stretchy enough to fit around the cockpit rim and body of the kayaker, which can be released from the cockpit to permit easy exit. Inuit kayak builders had specific measurements for their boats; the length was three times the span of his outstretched arms. The width at the cockpit was the width of the builder's hips plus two fists; the typical depth was his fist plus the outstretched thumb. Thus typical dimensions were about 17 feet long by 20–22 inches wide by 7 inches deep; this measurement system confounded early European explorers who tried to duplicate the kayak, because each kayak was a little different. Traditional kayaks encompass three types: Baidarkas, from the Bering sea & Aleutian islands, the oldest design, whose rounded shape and numerous chines give them an Blimp-like appearance.
Most of the Aleut people in the Aleutian Islands eastward to Greenland Inuit relied on the kayak for hunting a variety of prey—primarily seals, though whales and caribou were important in some areas. Skin-on-frame kayaks are still being used for hunting by Inuit people in Greenland, because the smooth and flexible skin glides silently through the waves. In other parts of the world home builders are continuing the tradition of skin on frame kayaks with modern skins of canvas or synthetic fabric, such as sc. ballistic nylon. Contemporary traditional-style kayaks trace their origins to the native boats of Alaska, northern Canada, Southwest Greenland. Wooden kayaks and fabric kayaks on wooden frames dominated the market up until the 1950s, when fiberglass boats were first introduced in the US, inflatable rubberized fabric boats were first introduced in Europe. Rotomolded plastic kayaks first appeared in 1973, most kayaks today are made from roto-molded polyethylene resins; the development of plastic and rubberized inflatable kayaks arguably initiated the development of freestyle kayaking as we see it today, since these boats could be made smaller and more resilient than fiberglass boats.
Kayak design is a matter of trade-offs: directional stability vs maneuverability. Multihull kayaks face a different set of trade-offs; the paddler's body shap
Jersey City, New Jersey
Jersey City is the second most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey, after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the county's largest city; as of 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that Jersey City's population was 270,753, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, an increase of about 9.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was at 247,597. Ranking the city the 75th-most-populous in the nation. Part of the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is bounded on the east by the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay and on the west by the Hackensack River and Newark Bay. A port of entry, with 30.7 miles of waterfront and extensive rail infrastructure and connectivity, the city is an important transportation terminus and distribution and manufacturing center for the Port of New York and New Jersey. Jersey City shares significant mass transit connections with Manhattan. Redevelopment of the Jersey City waterfront has made the city one of the largest centers of banking and finance in the United States and has led to the district being nicknamed Wall Street West.
After a peak population of 316,715 measured in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a half-century-long decline to a nadir of 223,532 in the 1980 Census. Since the city's population has rebounded, with the 2010 population reflecting an increase of 7,542 from the 240,055 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 11,518 from the 228,537 counted in the 1990 Census; the land comprising what is now Jersey City was inhabited by a collection of tribes. In 1609, Henry Hudson, seeking an alternate route to East Asia, anchored his small vessel Halve Maen at Sandy Hook, Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Cove, elsewhere along what was named the North River. After spending nine days surveying the area and meeting its inhabitants, he sailed as far north as Albany. By 1621, the Dutch West India Company was organized to manage this new territory and in June 1623, New Netherland became a Dutch province, with headquarters in New Amsterdam. Michael Reyniersz Pauw received a land grant as patroon on the condition that he would establish a settlement of not fewer than fifty persons within four years.
He purchased the land from the Lenape. This grant is dated November 22, 1630 and is the earliest known conveyance for what are now Hoboken and Jersey City. Pauw, was an absentee landlord who neglected to populate the area and was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633; that year, a house was built at Communipaw for Jan Evertsen Bout, superintendent of the colony, named Pavonia. Shortly after, another house was built at Harsimus Cove and became the home of Cornelius Van Vorst, who had succeeded Bout as superintendent, whose family would become influential in the development of the city. Relations with the Lenape deteriorated, in part because of the colonialist's mismanagement and misunderstanding of the indigenous people, led to series of raids and reprisals and the virtual destruction of the settlement on the west bank. During Kieft's War eighty Lenapes were killed by the Dutch in a massacre at Pavonia on the night of February 25, 1643. Scattered communities of farmsteads characterized the Dutch settlements at Pavonia: Communipaw, Paulus Hook, Hoebuck and other lands "behind Kill van Kull".
The first village established on what is now Bergen Square in 1660, is considered to be the oldest town in what would become the state of New Jersey. The flag of the city is a variation on the Prince's Flag from the Netherlands. Among the oldest surviving houses in Jersey City are the Newkirk House, the Van Vorst Farmhouse, the Van Wagenen House. During the American Revolutionary War, the area was in the hands of the British who controlled New York. In the Battle of Paulus Hook Major Light Horse Harry Lee attacked a British fortification on August 19, 1779. After this war, Alexander Hamilton and other prominent New Yorkers and New Jerseyeans attempted to develop the area that would become historic downtown Jersey City and laid out the city squares and streets that still characterize the neighborhood, giving them names seen in Lower Manhattan or after war heroes. During the 19th century, former slaves reached Jersey City on one of the four routes of the Underground Railroad that led to the city.
The City of Jersey was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 28, 1820, from portions of Bergen Township, while the area was still a part of Bergen County. The city was reincorporated on January 23, 1829, again on February 22, 1838, at which time it became independent of North Bergen and was given its present name. On February 22, 1840, it became part of the newly created Hudson County. Soon after the Civil War, the idea arose of uniting all of the towns of Hudson County east of the Hackensack River into one municipality. A bill was approved by the state legislature on April 2, 1869, with a special election to be held October 5, 1869. An element of the bill provide. While a majority of the voters across the county approved the merger, the only municipalities that had approved the consolidation plan and that adjoined Jersey City were Hudson City and Bergen City; the consolidation began on March 17, 1870, taking effect on May 3, 1870. Three years the present outline of Jersey City was completed when Greenville agreed to m