Interstate 91 is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary thoroughfare in the western part of New England. The largest cities along its route are Springfield, Hartford, Connecticut, I-91 is 290 miles long and travels nearly straight north and south,58 miles in Connecticut,55 miles in Massachusetts, and 177 miles in Vermont. I-91 parallels U. S. Route 5 for all of its length, much of the route of I-91 follows the Connecticut River, traveling from Hartford, northward to St. Johnsbury, Vermont. I-91 is the major transportation corridor for the center of the state. It is the route between the larger cities of New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts. The three cities serve as Connecticuts control points along its length of the Interstate. I-91 begins just east of downtown New Haven at an interchange with I-95, at the bottom of the ramp for exit 5, US5 begins at the first of its many interchanges with the freeway. Leaving New Haven, I-91 follows a northeastward trek into North Haven and it travels through the eastern part of Wallingford before entering the eastern part of the city of Meriden.
In Meriden, about halfway between Hartford and New Haven, I-91 sees a set of interchanges with the Wilbur Cross Parkway, the Route 66 expressway. I-691 provides a link to I-84 and the city of Waterbury. Leaving Meriden, I-91 enters Middlesex County as it travels through the western part of Middletown before entering Cromwell. From here to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, I-91 parallels the river, never more than five miles from its shore, I-91 enters the Hartford city limits. In Hartford, I-91 it has a set of interchanges with US 5/Route 15, which provides access from I-91 north to I-84 east, I-91 has an interchange with I-84, where all other movements to and from I-84 take place. Before leaving the city limits, an HOV lane begins that has its own set of interchanges up to exit 38, I-91 enters Windsor, where it meets the western end of its other Connecticut spur route, I-291. At the Windsor–Windsor Locks town line, it meets the terminus of the Route 20 expressway. A couple miles north, I-91 crosses the Connecticut River on the Dexter Coffin Bridge into East Windsor, after traveling through East Windsor and Enfield, it crosses the Massachusetts state line into Longmeadow at milepost 58.
I-91 travels 55 miles through the Pioneer Valley of western Massachusetts paralleling the Connecticut River, I-91 serves as the major transportation corridor through three Massachusetts counties, linking the cities of Springfield and Greenfield
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, in the U. S. state of Connecticut, is the principal municipality in Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut. It is the second-largest city in Connecticut, with a population of 129,779 people as of the 2010 United States Census, according to a census of 1 July 2012, by the Census Bureau, the city had a population of 130,741. New Haven was founded in 1638 by English Puritans, and a year eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square, and the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark and the Nine Square Plan is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark, New Haven is the home of Yale University. The university is an part of the citys economy, being New Havens biggest taxpayer and employer. Health care, professional services, financial services, and retail trade help to form a base for the city.
The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, New Haven has since billed itself as the Cultural Capital of Connecticut for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven is the birthplace of George W. Bush, New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave New Haven the nickname The Elm City. The area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic. In 1637 a small party of Puritans reconnoitered the New Haven harbor area, the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, the theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place. However, the north of New Haven remained Quinnipiac until 1678. The settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, at the time, the New Haven Colony was separate from the Connecticut Colony, which had been established to the north centering on Hartford.
Economic disaster struck the colony in 1646, when the town sent its first fully loaded ship of goods back to England. This ship never reached the Old World, and its disappearance stymied New Havens development in the face of the rising power of Boston. In 1660, founder John Davenports wishes were fulfilled, and Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins, in 1661, the judges who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places