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1. Uppland – Uppland is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital. It borders Södermanland, Västmanland and Gästrikland and it is also bounded by lake Mälaren and the Baltic sea. It has a short and strangely shaped land border with Åland. The name literally means up land, a name which is encountered in especially older English literature. Its Latinised form, which is used, is Uplandia. The traditional provinces of Sweden serve no administrative or political purposes, the corresponding administrative county, or län, is Uppsala County, which occupies the larger part of the territory. The bulk of the population, however, is within Stockholm County, minor parts of the province are also in Västmanland County, Gävleborg County and Södermanland County. Upplands arms were granted in 1560, distinctive in its depiction of a Globus cruciger, historically, Uppland ranked as a duchy and the coat of arms is represented with a ducal coronet. Blazoned thus, Gules, a Royal Orb Or gemmed of the field, despite the fact that the Uppsala län has a different name and a smaller territory it was granted the same coat of arms in 1940. Uppland was historically divided into chartered cities and districts, within Roslagen they were called skeppslag, and in the rest of the province hundreds. The abovementioned districts and cities have no administrative function today, the provincial population corresponds to the different overlapping counties as follows, Uppland is the birth place of Saint Brigitta of Sweden. The earliest unambiguous mention of the province of Uppland comes from the 1296, the Swedish capital of Stockholm is divided between two provinces. The southern half lies in Södermanland and the half in Uppland. Prince Waldemar Princess Ingiburga, his wife Prince Gustav Prince Sigvard Uppsala is the seat of the archbishop of the Lutheran Church of Sweden. The archaeological site Birka and the castle of Drottningholm are UNESCO World Heritage sites, football in the province is administered by Upplands Fotbollförbund. Uppland - Tourist site Uppland - Tourist informationUppland – Coat of arms
2. International Standard Book Number – The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-BowkerInternational Standard Book Number – A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code
3. Swedish language – Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by more than 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Danish, along with the other North Germanic languages, Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It is currently the largest of the North Germanic languages by number of speakers, Standard Swedish, spoken by most Swedes, is the national language that evolved from the Central Swedish dialects in the 19th century and was well established by the beginning of the 20th century. While distinct regional varieties descended from the rural dialects still exist. The standard word order is, as in most Germanic languages, V2, Swedish morphology is similar to English, that is, words have comparatively few inflections. There are two genders, no cases, and a distinction between plural and singular. Older analyses posit the cases nominative and genitive and there are remains of distinct accusative and dative forms as well. Adjectives are compared as in English, and are inflected according to gender, number. The definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes, complemented with separate definite and indefinite articles, the prosody features both stress and in most dialects tonal qualities. The language has a large vowel inventory. Swedish is also notable for the voiceless velar fricative, a highly variable consonant phoneme. Swedish is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages, by many general criteria of mutual intelligibility, the Continental Scandinavian languages could very well be considered dialects of a common Scandinavian language. In the 8th century, the common Germanic language of Scandinavia, Proto-Norse, had some changes. This language began to undergo new changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, the dialects of Old East Norse that were spoken in Sweden are called Runic Swedish while the dialects of Denmark are referred to as Runic Danish. The dialects are described as runic because the body of text appears in the runic alphabet. Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark alphabet, Old Norse was written with the Younger Futhark alphabet, from 1200 onwards, the dialects in Denmark began to diverge from those of Sweden. An early change that separated Runic Danish from the dialects of Old East Norse was the change of the diphthong æi to the monophthong é. This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read stain, there was also a change of au as in dauðr into a long open ø as in døðr deadSwedish language – The initial page of the first complete copy of Västgötalagen, the law code of Västergötland, from c. 1280. It is one of the earliest texts in Swedish written in the Latin script.
4. Finland Swedish – Most Swedish-speaking Finns emphasize that Finland Swedish is not a language separate from the Swedish of Sweden. The Swedish dialects in Finland are considered varieties of Swedish, Swedish as spoken in Finland is regulated by the Swedish Department of the Institute for the Languages of Finland. An often repeated fact is that the municipality with the highest proportion of Swedish speakers in the world, korsnäs has also held this title and is often cited as such. However, as there are no statistics on the mother tongue of inhabitants of Sweden. In addition bilingualism is common for immigrants in Sweden, so the term Swedish-speaking may be diffuse in that sense. In the spoken vernacular, especially young people in Finnish-dominated areas. There are also words in Finland Swedish that would be considered slightly archaic in Sweden. Some government and public service terms that have created in recent centuries also differ. The same is true of other new words, notably loanwords from English. e. in normal, in 1809, when Finland was conquered by the Russian Empire and became an autonomous Grand Duchy, Swedish remained the only official language. Finland has since then been a country with a Swedish-speaking minority living mostly in the coastal areas of southern, south-western. During the 20th century, the following the Industrial Revolution has led to large majorities of Finnish speakers in all major cities. The capital Helsinki became predominantly Finnish-speaking as recently as around 1900, a large and important part of the Swedish-speaking population nevertheless lives in the capital. The autonomous island province of Åland is an exception, being monolingually Swedish-speaking according to international treaties and it is a matter of definition whether the Swedish dialects spoken on Åland are to be considered a kind of Finland Swedish or not. Most Swedish-speaking Finns and linguists consider them to be closer to some of the dialects spoken in parts of Sweden. Swedish is one of the two languages of the republic of Finland, the other being Finnish. These two languages have equal status in nearly all legislation. The other minority languages are regulated separately, Finland Swedish is regulated by the Institute for the Languages of Finland. Official Swedish is not supposed to be different from Swedish as found in SwedenFinland Swedish – Unofficial flag of the Swedish-speakers in Finland
5. Swedish dialects – Swedish dialects are the various forms of the Swedish language, particularly those that differ considerably from Standard Swedish. Many of the rural dialects have very distinct phonetic and grammatical features. These dialects can be near-incomprehensible to a majority of Swedes, the different dialects are often so localized that they are limited to individual parishes and are referred to by Swedish linguists as sockenmål. They are generally separated into the six traditional dialect groups, with characteristics of prosody, grammar. The color represents the area and the samples are from Svenska Dagbladets dialect project. The areas with mixed colors as stripes are transitional areas, the parts in yellow with coloured dots represent various distinct dialect areas which are not easily defined as belonging to any of the six major groups above. The areas west of the core for Norrland dialects, west of Svealand dialects and north of Götaland dialects are related to each of these, respectively, samples from these areas, Jämtland, Föllinge socken, Dalarna, Älvdalens socken and Värmland, Nordmarks härad, Töcksmarks socken. The dialects of this category have in common that all show more or less strong Norwegian influences, especially the dialects in Härjedalen, Northwestern Jämtland. The grey area does not have any independently developed Swedish dialect, below we have a summary of some of the most important differences between the major groups. Note that this table does not hold for the distinct or transitional areas, Götaland dialects is mostly used in Västergötland, Dalsland, northern Halland, northern Småland and Östergötland although it is also heard in Bohuslän and Värmland and Öland. Examples of Götaland dialect features are vowel reduction, vowel shortening in front of endings, in addition, connect adjacent areas, mainly Dalsland, northern Småland and Östergötland southwest. Värmland can also be counted here, although its dialects in many ways is a special case and this feature is also found in East Norwegian, North Swedish and in some dialects of Scottish GaelicSwedish dialects – Map showing the Swedish dialects traditionally spoken. (Note that even the northernmost part of Sweden is Swedish speaking today and that the dialects in Estonia are almost extinct.)
6. Norrland dialects – Norrland dialects is one of the six major dialect groupings of the Swedish language. It comprises the dialects in most of Norrland, except those of Gästrikland and southern Hälsingland, the old northern border of the Swedish language in coastal Norrbotten largely followed the eastern and northern borders of Lower and Upper Kalix parishes in modern Kalix Municipality. Norrland dialects arose from the influence of the Old West Norse spoken in Trøndelag to the west. The westerly influences were strong in the centuries leading up to the Viking Era. The shift to East Norse progressed through the Middle Ages, as Norrland gradually came to be more and more under Central Swedish influence in the Modern Era, many of the older West Norse characteristics disappeared. The strong West Norse influences can still be today in the toponymy of Norrland in placenames ending in -ånger. Parish names such Skön and Indal have West Nordic origins, the dialect of Norrbotten displays less West Nordic influence than other more westerly dialects. The greatest West Nordic/Norwegian—or, perhaps, least East Nordic/Swedish—influence is found in Jamtlandic, as with other regiolects, it is difficult to clearly define a unique set of characteristics for the Norrland dialects. The distribution of different features of the dialect have differing boundaries, vowel balance Words that were long-spelled in Old Swedish developed weakened or dropped end-vowels. Examples of words with weakened end-vowels are kastä and backä, in dialects such as those of Jämtland and Västerbotten, where the end-vowels are dropped, these words become kaast and baack. Words that were short-spelled have, however, conserved the original end-vowel length, vowel balance is also an important distinctive feature in the East Norwegian dialects. End-vowel development in words has been dependent on the length since the time of Old Swedish. This characteristic is known as vowel balance, the dialect of Medelpad is the southernmost of the coastal dialects which has vowel balance. In the Hälsing dialect, the endings are as in Standard Swedish, kasta, vowel balance is particularly evident in the definite plural of nouns, Standard Swedish hästarna is in certain northern dialects hästa, while dagarna is dagana. All of the Sami languages, particularly East Sami, have had similar systems of vowel balance since long before any Nordic languages were spoken in north Scandinavia, smoothing Words that were originally short-spelled have often undergone a process of assimilation of the stem-vowel and ending. Examples include färä and vuku, firi and skyri and this phenomenon, known as smoothing, is found predominantly in the dialects from upper Dalarna and Trøndelag northward. A and thick L The Old Swedish a before the consonant cluster rð has been preserved, while rð itself became a retroflex flap and this is sometimes represented as a capital L, to differentiate it from the Standard Swedish rd cluster. Examples of this thick L include svaL and aL and this phenomenon is shared with the Dalecarlian dialects and Norwegian, as well as the Swedish dialects in OstrobothniaNorrland dialects – Norrland dialects
7. Jamtlandic dialects – Jamtlandic or Jamtish is a group of dialects spoken in the Swedish province of Jämtland. Jamtlandic shares many characteristics with both Trøndersk—the dialect spoken in Trøndelag, Norway—and with the dialects spoken along the coast of Norrland, Sweden. Due to this position, there has been a debate since the early 20th century whether Jamtlandic belongs to the West Norse or the East Norse language group. Jamtlandic cannot be uniquely defined belonging to either of these groups, prior to, and around, the time of the dissolution of the Swedish–Norwegian union, Jamtlandic was undisputedly considered a dialect of Norwegian. See, e. g. p.112 in part one of Adolf Noreens Vårt språk, The Westnorthern Swedish, originally Norwegian dialects in Särna and Idre, Härjedalen, the local name for the dialects is jamska, which translates to English as Jamtlandic. However, since there is no established name for the dialects in English. Jamska as such is a form, the original form is rarely used, besides as a verb. Since the early 20th century, whether Jamtlandic is a dialect or a language has been hotly debated, proponents of Jamtlandic as a language point to the differences in vocabulary and pronunciation. A great percentage of the Jamtish speakers recognise Jamtish as a rather than a Swedish dialect. There have been efforts to make the Swedish government recognise it as a minority language just as Yiddish, one of the more prominent people that have been active in the effort to make Jamtish a recognised language is Bo Oscarsson. Oscarsson has written books about the Jamtish language/dialect and even compiled dictionaries, according to the sagas, the region called Jämtland was originally settled by fugitives from Trøndelag after Harald Fairhair united Norway in the 9th century. It became part of Norway during the reign of Haakon I in the 10th century, at that point it became part of Sweden. The history of the accounts for many of the dialects features. There have been attempts to standardize the orthography of Jamtlandic, the attempt that has been the most popular is Vägledning för stavning av jamska which is the work of the committee Akademien för jamska consisting of Bodil Bergner, Berta Magnusson and Bo Oscarsson. The most prominent application of this orthography has been to prepare translations of parts of the Bible into Jamtlandic resulting in the book Nagur Bibelteksta på jamska, an excerpt, Genesis 1, 26–27, 26Å Gud saa, ’Lätt oss gjära når mänish, nager som e lik oss. Te kær å kviin skapa n dom and it should be emphasized that the book does not fully follow Vägledning för stavning av jamska. For example, using Vägledning för stavning av jamska one would spell gjæra v. do, make, not gjära. Another spelling convention in Nagur Bibelteksta på jamska is the use of the digraph sh, in e. g. mänish n. human being and fishn n. the fish, with the same pronunciation as English sh in shoeJamtlandic dialects – Jämtland in northern Sweden
8. Westrobothnian – Like all Scandinavian, the different varieties of Westrobothnian originate in Proto-Norse and dialects of Old Norse, spoken by immigrating Germanic settlers during the Viking Age. Westrobothnian has three genders in most dialects, two plural forms of indefinite nouns, and broad usage of definite nouns. Nouns are also inflected differently in the dative and accusative case, some adjectives can be serially joined with nouns and some have two plural forms. A pleonastic article is used before names when referring to someone. In the vocative, a name may instead be declined similarly to how words for near kin decline in the vocative, a small population of Nordic tribes inhabited the area as early as the bronze age, evidence of this is supported by recent archeological findings in Backen and Jävre. Westrobothnian dialects, in their different forms, have historically been the native tongues in Umeå and Skellefteå, in Kalix and Luleå, they co-existed with Kven language before gradually becoming the majority language of the region. These two cities are now part of Norrbotten county but before 1810 they belonged to Westrobothnia and therefore their dialects are included in the Westrobothnian dialect continuum. The different dialects of Westrobothnian are also present in southern and mid Lapland where it was introduced in the late 17th century as the colonization of traditional Sami lands begun. The cities soon became majority Swedish speaking while the native tongues still maintained a stance in rural areas. The native tongues were gradually weakened as an urbanization process went on and TV and radio broadcasts were exclusively in standard Swedish, most of the coast seems to have been uninhabited during the Viking age but some settlements of unknown origin existed during the iron age. There are no Sami loan words in the Westrobothnian coastal dialects, except for in the dialects spoken in the much later settlements in Lapland, such as Malå, the highest density of villages ending with -mark is found between Umeå and Skellefteå. The Germanic settlers spoke a north dialectal development of proto-Norse, related to, Old Norse is rather well preserved in runestones and later also in a Bible translation. The citizens of the area around Umeå and Skellefteå were initially referred to as speakers of the Old Norse dialect Helsingemål during the early Viking age, during the 14th century, the Hanseatic League started dominating trade in the Baltic sea, mostly speaking Middle Low German. After the Consolidation of Sweden, this uprising power started to control of trade along the coast. Christianity also came to the relatively non-organized and free Germanic settlers, colonisation escalated under the Swedish Empire, and while Österland received independence in the Treaty of Fredrikshamn 1809, Swedish colonialism still remains in terminology like Norrland. The Swedish school came to Westrobothnia in the 1850s, with the goal of teaching everyone to read, write, speak, similar laws existed in Scotland were speakers of Scottish Gaelic were forbidden to use their language in schools as a result of the 1872 Education Act. The nickname bondska is derived from the word bonde, meaning peasant, state language policies caused the language to be seen as even more rural and backward, thus starting a downward spiral. The language has more speakers around and in the cities of Piteå and Skellefteå, especially in the formerWestrobothnian – Old Norse ca 900 AD.
9. Swedish dialects in Ostrobothnia – Ostrobothnian Swedish is a variety of Finland-Swedish, spoken in Finland. Outside the autonomous province of Åland, which is officially monolingually Swedish. Ostrobothnian Swedish-speakers are traditionally farmers, and as such, isolation of the communities produces strong dialectal variations, one famous Swedish dialect in Ostrobothnia is the Närpes dialect, whose mutual intelligibility with other forms of Swedish is questionable. Finland-Swedes have difficulties with understanding the Närpes dialect, and it is almost unintelligible to anyone else, so speakers of the Närpes dialect have to learn standard Swedish, some of the most archaic Nordic dialects in Mainland Scandinavia are found in Ostrobothnia, especially regarding pronunciation. The abovementioned Närpes dialect is in syntax, grammar and vocabulary fairly close to Icelandic and they also share many common features with the Westrobothnian dialects spoken on the other side of Kvarken, in parts of Westrobothnia and NorrbottenSwedish dialects in Ostrobothnia – Ostrobothnia on a map of Finland
10. Scanian dialect – Scanian is a closely related group of South Swedish dialects spoken in the province of Scania in southern Sweden. Scanian was originally classified as a language in ISO 639-3. A request for reinstatement was submitted during the 2009 annual review process, many of the genuine rural dialects have been in decline subsequent to the industrial revolution and urbanization in Sweden. The population of Skåne County consists of around 13% of the population in Sweden. Swedish and Danish are considered to have been the same dialect, Old East Norse, however, some scholars speculate that there might have been certain dialect differences within the Nordic language area as early as the Proto-Nordic period. Two Scanian fragments dated to around 1325 were initially claimed to be Old Swedish, but further research in modern times has claimed that the language was not Swedish, like the Scanian Law, one of the fragments, a six-leaf fragment, is written in the runic alphabet. The place of writing, according to Frederiksen, has been identified as the Cistercian monastery at Herrevad Abbey in Scania. The fragment contains a translation of Marys lament at the cross, after the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the former Danish provinces of Blekinge, Halland and Scania became a Swedish dominion, but they were allowed to keep their old privileges, laws and customs. However, from the 1680s, a process of Swedification was introduced, including a switch of languages used in churches and restrictions imposed on cross border travel and trade. The situation in Scania was unique from a point of view. As pointed out by the Norwegian scholar Lars S. Bornholm was once part of Skåneland, the Scanian dialect of Bornholm remained in use as a functioning transitional stage, but Standard Danish soon became dominant in official contexts and the dialect is thought to be disappearing. The gradual transition to Swedish has resulted in the introduction of many new Swedish characteristics into Scanian since the 18th century, especially when it comes to vocabulary and grammar. In spite of the shift, Scanian dialects have maintained a non-Swedish prosody, as well as details of grammar and vocabulary that in some aspects differ from Standard Swedish. The prosody, pronunciation of vowels and consonants in such qualities as length, stress and intonation, has more in common with Danish, German and Dutch than with Swedish. If so, are the formal semantic analytic tools that have been developed mainly for English, however, linguists reject this explanation for the sound change, at present, there are no universally-accepted theories for why sound changes occur. Scanian once possessed many unique words which do not exist in either Swedish or Danish, in attempts to preserve the unique aspects of Scanian, these words have been recorded and documented by the Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research in Sweden. Preservation is also accomplished through comparative studies such as the Scanian-Swedish-Danish dictionary project and this project is led by Helmer Lång and involves a group of scholars from different fields, including Birger Bergh, linguistics, Inger Elkjær and Inge Lise Pedersen, researcher of Danish dialects. Several Scanian dictionaries have been published through the years, including one by Sten Bertil Vide and this publication and a variety of other Scanian dictionaries are available through the Department of Dialectology and Onomastics in LundScanian dialect – Anders Sunesøn 's 13th century version of the Scanian Law and Church Law, containing a comment in the margin called the "Skaaningestrof": " Hauí that skanunga ærliki mææn toco vithar oræt aldrigh æn." (Let it be known that Scanians are honorable men who have never tolerated injustice.)
11. Swedish phonology – Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects. Swedish pronunciation of most consonants is similar to that of other Germanic languages, another notable feature is the pitch accent, which is unusual for European languages. There are 18 consonant phonemes of which /ɧ/ and /r/ show considerable variation depending on social and dialectal context. Contrary to the situation with Danish or Finnish, there is not a uniform nationwide spoken Standard Swedish, instead there are several regional standard varieties, i. e. the most intelligible or prestigious forms of spoken Swedish, each within its area. The differences between the regional dialects may be compared with those of General American, Australian English. In Sweden, the Central Swedish varieties often go under the name of rikssvenska Swedish has 9 vowels that, as many other Germanic languages, come in long. The length covaries with the quality of the vowels, as shown in the table below, with variants being more centered. Traditionally, length has been viewed as the distinction, with quality being secondary. No short vowels appear in open stressed syllables, the front vowels appear in rounded-unrounded pairs. Central Standard Swedish /ʉː/ is near-close near-front, in other dialects it may be central. /a/ has been described as central and front. Rounded vowels have two types of rounding, /ɵ/, /ʉː/, /ʊ/ and /uː/ are compressed, and /ʏ/, /yː/, /œ/ and its allophone, /øː/ and its pre-/r/ allophone, /ɔ/ and /oː/ are protruded. Type of rounding is the way of distinguishing /ʉː/ from /yː/. /ɛː/, /ɛ/, /øː/, and /œ/ are lowered to, and, respectively and these speakers often also pronounce pre-rhotic /øː/ and /œ/ even lower, i. e. and. This is especially true for the long allophone, also, the allophone is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the long /ɑː/. Words like fördömande and fördummande are then often pronounced similarly, if not identically, in Central Standard Swedish, unstressed /ɛ/ is slightly retracted, but is still a front vowel rather central. However, the pronunciation is commonly found in Southern Swedish. Therefore, begå to commit is pronounced in Central Standard Swedish, before /r/, southerners may use a back vowelSwedish phonology – The vowel phonemes of Central Standard Swedish. From Engstrand (1999:140)
12. Sj-sound – In Swedish phonology, the sj-sound is a voiceless fricative phoneme found in most dialects. It has a variety of realisations, whose precise phonetic characterisation is a matter of debate, the sound should not be confused with the Swedish tj sound, often spelled tj or k in Swedish. The sound is transcribed ⟨ɧ⟩ in the International Phonetic Alphabet, the International Phonetic Association describes as a simultaneous and, but this claim is disputed among phoneticians, including at least one former president of the IPA. The closest English phoneme is /ʃ/ ⟨sh⟩, however, the phone ⟨wh⟩ present in some English dialects is an approximation as well. Its place of articulation is disputed and its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. It is a consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm and this sound has been reported in certain dialects of Swedish, where it is most often known as the sj-sound. Its place of articulation varies over Swedish regions and is not agreed upon and it has been variously found to be the following, velar and postalveolar, meaning it is articulated simultaneously with the tongue dorsum approximating the velum and just behind the teeth. However, doubly articulated fricatives are difficult to pronounce or to hear. Lindblad describes one of two variants of Swedish /ɧ/ as labiodental with simultaneous velarization and protrusion of the upper lip. He does not use the symbol ⟨ɧ⟩ for this allophone, lindblad describes the second common variant of Swedish /ɧ/ as velar. The difference between it and the standard IPA sound is not clear, but it may have less friction, or be further forward, a number of intermediate possibilities between these extremes. Other articulations have been described as well, with no obvious standard emerging, the acoustic difference between and the Kölsch is difficult to perceive but the articulation is clearly distinct. Whether or not there is a relation between the Swedish /ɧ/, and the Kölsch /ɧ/, is not known, while none seems to have been established, comments suggest that, the choice of ⟨ɧ⟩ might well have been based upon a misunderstanding. Doubtlessly, the Kölsch /ɧ/ is not doubly articulated and even contrasts with a slightly velarized /ʃ/, some phoneticians suggest contrasting /ʃ/ with /ɕ/, as is done in Polish, but this is not established practice, and may need further research. Index of phonetics articles Rheinische DokumentaSj-sound
13. History of Swedish – In the 9th century, Old Norse began to diverge into Old West Norse and Old East Norse. In the 12th century, the dialects of Denmark and Sweden began to diverge, becoming Old Danish, all were heavily influenced by Middle Low German during the medieval period. In the 8th century, the common Germanic language of Scandinavia, Proto-Norse, had some changes. This language began to undergo new changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, Old East Norse is in Sweden called Runic Swedish and in Denmark Runic Danish, but until the 12th century, the dialect was the same in the two countries. The dialects are called runic because the body of text appears in the runic alphabet. Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark alphabet, Old Norse was written with the Younger Futhark alphabet, a change that separated Old East Norse from Old West Norse was the change of the diphthong æi to the monophthong e, as in stæin to sten. This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read stain, there was also a change of au as in dauðr into ø as in døðr. This change is shown in inscriptions as a change from tauþr into tuþr. Moreover, the øy diphthong changed into ø as well, as in the Old Norse word for island, from 1100 onwards, the dialect of Denmark began to diverge from that of Sweden. The innovations spread unevenly from Denmark which created a series of minor dialectal boundaries, isoglosses, Old Swedish is the term used for the medieval Swedish language, starting in 1225. Among the most important documents of the written in Latin script is the oldest of the provincial law codes, Västgötalagen. The main influences during this time came with the establishment of the Catholic Church and various monastic orders, introducing many Greek. With the rise of Hanseatic power in the late 13th and early 14th century, the Hanseatic league provided Swedish commerce and administration with a large number of German speaking immigrants. Many became quite influential members of Swedish medieval society, and brought terms from their mother tongue into the vocabulary, besides a great number of loan words for areas like warfare, trade and administration, general grammatical suffixes and even conjunctions where imported. Almost all of the terms were also borrowed from Dutch. Early medieval Swedish was markedly different from the language in that it had a more complex case structure and had not yet experienced a reduction of the gender system. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and certain numerals were inflected in four cases, besides the modern nominative and genitive there were also dative and accusative, the gender system resembled that of modern German, having the genders masculine, feminine and neuter. Most of the masculine and feminine nouns were later grouped together into a common gender, the verb system was also more complex, it included subjunctive and imperative moods and verbs were conjugated according to person as well as numberHistory of Swedish – A copy of Äldre Västgötalagen – a law code of Västergötland from the 1280s, one of the earliest texts in Swedish written in the Latin alphabet.
14. Proto-Norse language – Proto-Norse, was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic over the first centuries CE. It is the earliest stage of a characteristically North Germanic language, and it evolved into the dialects of the Old Norse language, at the beginning of the Viking Age about AD800, which later themselves evolved into modern North Germanic languages. Proto-Norse phonology probably did not differ substantially from that of Proto-Germanic, although the phonetic realisation of several phonemes had probably changed over time, the overall system of phonemes and their distribution remained largely unchanged. /n/ assimilated to a velar consonant. It was before a velar, and probably before a labial-velar consonant. Unlike its Proto-Germanic ancestor /x/, the phoneme /h/ was probably no longer a fricative and it eventually disappeared except word-initially. and were allophones of /b/, /d/ and /ɡ/, and occurred in most word-medial positions. Plosives appeared when the consonants were lengthened, and also after a nasal consonant, word-finally, and were devoiced and merged with /p/, /t/, /k/. The exact realisation of the phoneme /z/, traditionally written as ʀ in transcriptions of runic Norse, is unclear, while it was a simple alveolar sibilant in Proto-Germanic, it eventually underwent rhotacization and merged with /r/ towards the end of the runic period. It may have been pronounced as or, tending towards a trill in the later period, the sound was still written with its own letter in runic Old East Norse around the end of the millennium. The system of vowels differed somewhat more from that of Proto-Germanic than the consonants, earlier /ɛː/ had been lowered to /ɑː/, and unstressed /ai/ and /au/ had developed into /eː/ and /ɔː/. Shortening of word-final vowels had eliminated the Proto-Germanic overlong vowels, /o/ had developed from /u/ through a-mutation. It also occurred word-finally as a result of the shortening of Proto-Germanic /ɔː/, the long nasal vowels /ɑ̃ː/, /ĩː/ and /ũː/ occurred only before /h/. Their presence was noted in the 12th century First Grammatical Treatise, all other nasal vowels occurred only word-finally, although it is unclear whether they had retained their nasality in Proto-Norse or had already merged with the oral vowels. The vowels /o/ and /ɔ̃/ were contrastive, however, as the former eventually developed into /u/ while the latter was lowered to /ɑ/, towards the end of the Proto-Norse period, stressed /e/ underwent breaking, becoming a rising diphthong /ja/. Also towards the end of the Proto-Norse period, u-mutation began to take effect, at least the following diphthongs were present, /æi/, /ɑu/, /eu/, /iu/. /ɑu/ was later rounded to /ɒu/ due to u-mutation, /eu/ eventually underwent breaking to become the triphthong /jɒu/. This was preserved in Old Gutnish, but simplified to a long rising /joː/ or /juː/ in other areas, as /iu/ occurred exclusively in environments with i-mutation, its realisation was probably fronted. This then developed further into, which then became /yː/, Old Norse had a stress accent which fell on the first syllableProto-Norse language – Composite photograph of the Einang stone inscription (ca. AD 400)
15. Old Norse – Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century, Old Norse was divided into three dialects, Old West Norse, Old East Norse and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It developed its own features and shared in changes to both other branches. The 12th century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders and Danes spoke the same language, another term used, used especially commonly with reference to West Norse, was norrœnt mál. In some instances the term Old Norse refers specifically to Old West Norse, the Old East Norse dialect was spoken in Denmark, Sweden, settlements in Kievan Rus, eastern England, and Danish settlements in Normandy. The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in Gotland and in settlements in the East. In the 11th century, Old Norse was the most widely spoken European language, in Kievan Rus, it survived the longest in Veliky Novgorod, probably lasting into the 13th century there. Norwegian is descended from Old West Norse, but over the centuries it has heavily influenced by East Norse. Old Norse also had an influence on English dialects and Lowland Scots and it also influenced the development of the Norman language, and through it and to a smaller extent, that of modern French. Various other languages, which are not closely related, have heavily influenced by Norse, particularly the Norman dialects, Scottish Gaelic. The current Finnish and Estonian words for Sweden are Ruotsi and Rootsi, of the modern languages, Icelandic is the closest to Old Norse. Written modern Icelandic derives from the Old Norse phonemic writing system, contemporary Icelandic-speakers can read Old Norse, which varies slightly in spelling as well as semantics and word order. However, pronunciation, particularly of the phonemes, has changed at least as much as in the other North Germanic languages. Faroese retains many similarities but is influenced by Danish, Norwegian, although Swedish, Danish and the Norwegian languages have diverged the most, they still retain asymmetric mutual intelligibility. Speakers of modern Swedish, Norwegian and Danish can mostly understand each other without studying their neighboring languages, the languages are also sufficiently similar in writing that they can mostly be understood across bordersOld Norse – The Rök Runestone in Östergötland, Sweden, is the longest surviving source of early Old East Norse. It is inscribed on both sides.
16. Old Swedish – Old Swedish developed from Old East Norse, the eastern dialect of Old Norse. The differences were minute, however, and the dialects truly began to diverge around the 12th century, becoming Old Swedish. It is not known when exactly Old Gutnish and Elfdalian began to diverge from Swedish, Early Old Swedish was markedly different from modern Swedish in that it had a more complex case structure and had not yet experienced a reduction of the gender system and thus had three genders. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and certain numerals were inflected in four cases, the writing of the Westrogothic law marked the beginning of Early Old Swedish, which had developed from Old East Norse. It was the first Swedish language document written in the Latin alphabet, Old Swedish was relatively stable during this period. The phonological and grammatical systems inherited from Old Norse were relatively well preserved, most of the texts from the Early Old Swedish period were written in Latin, as it was the language of knowledge and the Church. However, Old Swedish was used as a language as well. Much of the knowledge of Old Swedish comes from these law texts, in addition to laws, some religious and poetic texts were also written in Old Swedish. The Catholic Church and its various monastic orders introduced many new Greek, Latin especially had an influence on the written language. The Middle Low German language also influenced Old Swedish due to the economic, many German speakers immigrated to Swedish cities and worked in trade and administration. Accordingly, loanwords relating to warfare, trade, crafts and bureaucracy entered the Swedish language directly from Low German, along with some grammatical suffixes and conjunctions. The prefixes be-, ge- and för- that can be found in the beginning of modern Swedish words came from the Low German be-, ge- and vor-. Some words were replaced new ones, the native word for window, vindøgha, was replaced with fönster, eldhus was replaced with kök. Some of these still exist in Modern Swedish but are often considered archaic or dialectal. Many words related to seafaring were borrowed from Dutch, the influence of Low German was so strong that the inflectional system of Old Swedish was largely broken down. The printing of the New Testament in Swedish in 1526 marked the point for modern Swedish. In this period Old Swedish had taken in an amount of new vocabulary primarily from Latin, Low German. When the country part of the Kalmar Union in 1397Old Swedish – A page of the Äldre Västgötalagen (Westrogothic law), a law code used in Västergötland, from the 1280s
17. Modern Swedish – Modern Swedish is the linguistic term used for the Swedish language from the Bible translation of 1526 to the development of a common national language around 1880. The period can further be divided into Early Modern Swedish and Late Modern Swedish, Early Modern Swedish was established in 1526 with a complete Swedish translation of the Bible. The translation followed the word rather closely, as opposed to the more Latin-inspired way of writing commonly used in the Middle Ages. The Vasa Bible is considered to be a compromise between old and new, while not adhering to the spoken language of its day it was not overly conservative in its use of old forms. Though it was not completely consistent in spelling, particularly when it came to vowels and it established the use of the letters ä and ö in place of the older æ and ø and introduced the completely new å in place of o in many words. It also introduced such as using ck instead of kk in words like tacka. The ongoing rivalry with Denmark can be argued to have influence on the new translation. Though it might seem as if the Bible translation set a powerful precedent for orthographic standards. It was not until the end of the 17th century that the issue started being discussed, the 16th century was further marked by inconsistencies in the Swedish language throughout the country. Some regions did not adhere to the standards the Bible used and continued to use their old way of writing, books printed in Swedish were scarce. Most were theological texts intended to spread the Lutheran doctrines through Sweden, also of importance were the national hymnals. A first draft was created in the 1530s In the 17th century there were attempts to establish Swedish as a genuine language, an early linguist and author was Georg Stiernhielm, who is today almost universally labelled Father of Swedish Poetry. He was the first to introduce the hexameter into the Swedish language with his epic Hercules in 1658, the hexameter is used in the Latin language and is sometimes considered unsuitable for Germanic languages because of the differences in prosody. The hexameter would later be used by many other Swedish poets, Stiernhielm was a learned man, and has been labelled the most knowledgeable man in Sweden of his time. He was probably the first to be so fascinated by the Norse languages, realizing the common inheritance they shared, he traced their origin from ancient times, descending them from a Biblical tribe. Late Modern Swedish is considered to have begun in 1732 when Olof von Dalin published the weekly publication The Swedish Argus in Stockholm and it dealt with current events in Sweden, mainly Stockholm with its population of 50,000, in a publicly appealing way. Often it used irony and satire to portray royalty and other notable people and this popular style characterizes the entire period. Bellman was a Stockholm poet of the late 18th century whose poetry represented the drinking habits of the time, in 1825 a professor of Lund University and later Bishop of Växjö, Esaias Tegnér, published Fritiofs Saga, a Viking epic directed to a general audienceModern Swedish – Gustav Vasa Bible in 1541 was the first complete Swedish translation of the Bible
18. Swedish literature – Swedish literature refers to literature written in the Swedish language or by writers from Sweden. The first literary text from Sweden is the Rök Runestone, carved during the Viking Age circa 800 AD, with the conversion of the land to Christianity around 1100 AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages, during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin. Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period, Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardized in the 16th century, a standardization largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in 1541. This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible, with improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation, the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further. In Sweden, the period starting in 1880 is known as realism because the writing had a focus on social realism. In the late 19th and early 20th century, other writers included Ola Hansson. In the 1900s, one of the earliest novelists was Hjalmar Söderberg, the early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf and Pär Lagerkvist. In the 1960s, Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö collaborated to produce a series of internationally acclaimed detective novels, the most successful writer of detective novels is Henning Mankell, whose works have been translated into 37 languages. In the spy genre, the most successful writer is Jan Guillou. In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, such as the detective novelist Henning Mankell, also well-known outside of Sweden is the childrens book writer Astrid Lindgren, author of works such as Pippi Longstocking and Emil of Maple Hills. Most runestones had a practical, rather than a literary, purpose and are mainly of interest to historians. Several runic inscriptions are also nonsensical by nature, being used for magical or incantatory purposes, the most notable literary exception is the Rök Runestone from circa 800 AD. It contains the longest known inscription, and encompasses several different passages from sagas and legends, part of it is written in alliterative verse, or fornyrdislag. It is generally regarded as the beginning of Swedish literature, the Christianization of Sweden was one of the main events in the countrys history, and it naturally had an equally profound impact on literature. The Gök runestone is a case in point of how the older literature dissolved and it uses the same imagery as the Ramsund carving, but a Christian cross has been added and the images are combined in a way that completely distorts the internal logic of events. Whatever the reason may have been, the Gök stone illustrates how the pagan heroic mythos was going towards its dissolution, Literature now looked to foreign texts to provide models. By 1200, Christianity was firmly established and a Medieval European culture appeared in Sweden, only a selected few mastered the written language, but little was written down. Complete manuscripts are found from the early 14th century, written in LatinSwedish literature – The Rök Runestone, the start of Swedish literature
19. Early Swedish literature – Early Swedish literature designates Swedish literature written between approximately 1200–1500 AD. As Swedish evolved from Old Norse in the 13th century, the Swedish literature began to form as an independent body of literature. The earliest form of an independent Swedish language is called Old Swedish, the period was initiated by the first provincial laws. In them, the runic Futhark was almost totally replaced by the Latin alphabet, the provincial laws are believed to have had a solid centuries-old foundation that was kept alive by oral tradition until they were written down. Compared to the Christianity-influenced Swedish literature during the centuries, the provincial laws are described as having a touch of the ancient folkhistory, of tradition. Because of the dominant Catholic Church, Latin had come to be the lingua franca for all matters of education, science, therefore, there are few traces of Old Swedish in the old medieval manuscripts. As mentioned, the most important exceptions were the provincial laws, second to the laws come the legends of saints, popular among both commoners and scholars. These works would often be based upon the international best-seller Golden Legend, the three ballads were titled Herr Ivan lejonriddaren, Hertig Fredrik av Normandie and Flores och Blanzeflor. They were followed by a translation of the Norwegian Karlamagnús saga as Karl Magnus, the mid-fifteenth century also saw a Swedish verse translation Legends about Theoderic the Great of the Norwegian prose Þiðreks saga. Other works need to be mentioned for their historical importance. The Chronicle of Charles, the Chronicle of Eric and the Chronicles of Sture give a coverage of the time of Swedish history between the early 14th to the late 15th century. The earliest and most notable of these was the Chronicle of Erik, written around 1330, in term of literary quality, the chronicles were written in an unambitious rhyming verse known as knittel, without actual literary ambitions. Several early Swedish works were written in Latin, but they are considered part of Swedish literature history. It was the Christian field that gave birth to most literature in the ensuing centuries, the monk Petrus de Dacia originated from a monastery on the island Gotland, south-east Sweden. The literature for which he is best known are his letters of admiration directed to the pious woman Christine of Cologne, de Dacia is generally regarded the first Swedish writer. In the 14th century, one notable figure stands out, Saint Birgitta, a devoted Christian mystic and her complete writings were published as Revelaciones celestes in 1492, and they have since been translated to several languages. Algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature, published by the Swedish Institute,1989, ISBN 0-8032-4750-8 Gustafson, Alrik A History of Swedish Literature,1961. Lönnroth, L. Delblanc S. Göransson, S. Den svenska litteraturen,3 volumes Tigerstedt, E. NEarly Swedish literature – A page of a 1280 copy of the Law of Västergötland, the oldest remaining complete book in Swedish. Currently in possession of The Royal Library.
20. Swedish Reformation and Renaissance literature – The German Protestant Reformation had spread to Sweden by 1520. The advent of the printing press facilitated a full translation of the Bible into Swedish in 1541, from a philological view, a new period in the development of the Swedish language called Modern Swedish was initiated with the Bible translation. It also gave power to the vernacular language, from a literary point of view, the period between 1400 and 1600 produced little of note, especially during the 1520–1600. Yet, paradoxically, the Bible translation published 1541 is possibly the most significant Swedish book of all times, first and foremost, it had a great religious impact, but apart from that it also introduced the common man to a language beyond the common-day. The Bible was used in churches for around 400 years until the Bible translation of 1917, from an ideological perspective, the 16th century literature gave rise to a Gothicismus. The main idea of movement is that the Goths, a renowned East Germanic tribe in the 1st-6th century, originated from Scandinavia. An important advocate was the deposed Swedish archbishop Johannes Magnus, who was exiled in Rome between 1530–1544 together with his brother Olaus Magnus, in Historia de omnibus gothorum suenumque regibus, Johannes Magnus traced the Swedish line of kings back to the Old Testament. The works of the Magnus brothers gained attention throughout Europe and was translated into several languages, in history, Sweden was a great empire between 1611–1718. In literature, however, its development was trailing other European countries and it was by French and German influence that Swedish literature was to be shaped. In literature, an important turnstone occurred in 1658, when Georg Stiernhielm published Hercules, the story in Hercules is based on Xenophons story of Hercules at the crossroads of different paths. It was the first known publication of hexameter in Swedish language, another significant aspect of Hercules is the freedom of religious motives, drawing more upon ancient philosophy than on the Bible. In the ensuing decades, Stiernhielm and his followers made further attempts at writing tragedies, pastoral poetry, but when the last volume of Atlantica was published, the Gothicism movement was already on decline. This was for part an natural reaction to the failed Swedish wars. By 1720, gothicismus was a thing of the past, and Swedish culture took a turn towards science, an ecclesiastical body of literature affected by Gothicism was the Swedish hymn production of the late 17th century. The first official Swedish hymn book was published in 1695 and it is attributed to the bishop Jesper Svedberg, assisted by the bishop Haqvin Spegel. Svedberg was an advocate of the strength and high status of Swedish. In fact, he was the last strong proponent and new-thinker of his kind, the hymn book became widespread and beloved in sermons all over Sweden for a full century, and its weight cannot be overestimated. But the Gothicism ideals on which it was based had become superseded with the dawn of the 18th century, algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature, published by the Swedish Institute,1989Swedish Reformation and Renaissance literature – Front page of the first complete Swedish translation of the Bible in 1541, known as the Gustav Vasa Bible.
21. Swedish enlightenment literature – Swedish enlightenment literature was written between approximately 1732 and 1809. Key figures included the mystic Emanuel Swedenborg, the botanist Carl Linnaeus, the poet Johan Henrik Kellgren, there were only a few notable writers in spiritual matters in the 18th century. The most notable exception is Emanuel Swedenborg who published some 30 mystical 30 works, such as Heaven and its Wonders and Hell From Things Heard, Swedenborg almost exclusively wrote in Latin, but his work did have a significant influence on others for centuries to come. In the 18th century, Latin accelerated its decline in favor of the national language, one of the first proponents of producing material for a general public was the botanist Carl Linnaeus. Later key figures included the poet Johan Henrik Kellgren and the songwriter and performer Carl Michael Bellman, Carl Michael Bellman is one of few Swedish 18th century characters who has never lost the appreciation of common people. He was born in Stockholm and lived there for most of his life, education did not turn out well, instead he became interested in pleasurable activities. He made himself a reputation as a poet and singer-songwriter. Bellmans two principal works are Fredmans Epistles in 1790 and Fredmans Songs in 1791, each comprising some 80 songs, a striking theme is the freedom with which his main characters display themselves, they drink anywhere at any time, and make love anywhere at any time. All the same, death is always lurking around the corner, algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature, published by the Swedish Institute,1989Swedish enlightenment literature – The Swedish enlightenment songwriter Carl Michael Bellman portrayed by Per Krafft, 1779
22. Swedish Romantic literature – Swedish Romantic literature denotes Swedish literature between 1809 and 1830. In Europe, the period from circa 1805–1840 is known as Romanticism and it was also strongly featured in Sweden, based on German influences. During this relatively short period, there were so many great Swedish poets, the period started around 1810 when several periodicals were published that contested the literature of the 18th century. An important society was the Gothic Society, and their periodical Iduna, one significant reason was that several poets for the first time worked towards a common direction. D. A. Geijer was one of the earliest and most prominent members of the neo-gothicist Gothic Society, stagnelius spent his short adult years living as an outsider in Stockholm. Many of his poems deal with the beauty in nature, encompassing the loneliness of the soul, the fame of Atterbom comes from his flower poetry, Lycksalighetens ö, 1824–1827, and a collection of poetry called Blommorna. Esaias Tegnér has been described as the first modern Swedish man and his great success lies on Frithiofs Saga, a romanticized version of the Icelandic sagas but in a modern dress. The work was translated into several languages, put to music in Sweden, fredrika Bremer was the first writer of realism novel, in the spirit of Jane Austen, and her most important contribution is that she introduced the novel in Swedish on a large scale. Her most important novel was her last, Hertha, in 1856, Hertha is not so much a novel as it is a political debate of womens rights. Viktor Rydberg was a key figure in the Swedish culture between 1855 and the breakthrough in 1879. In the spirit of Dickens, Rydberg wrote adventurous novels and stories that in reality were dealing with the poor, several works tried to define a world where Christianity became integrated with humanistic ideals of ancient Greece. Rydberg was also noted for groundbreaking historical and theological works, when Sweden lost Finland in 1809, Finnish literature moved in its own direction. For the remainder of the 19th century however, it was still the educated Swedish speaking minority in Finland that authored most of Finlands literature. A key figure was the Swedish speaking Johan Ludvig Runeberg, was established himself as Finlands national poet and his most important work was The Tales of Ensign Stål, an epic poem about the Finnish War, the first verse of which became Finlands national anthem. After Runeberg, it was to be Zacharius Topelius to take the role of national Finnish author, although he wrote both novels and poetry, his most important contributions were childrens books, with Läsning för barn. Algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature, published by the Swedish Institute,1989, ISBN 91-520-0239-X Gustafson, Alrik A History of Swedish Literature,1961Swedish Romantic literature – Atterbom, 1831
23. Swedish realism – Swedish realism is the period in Swedish literature that encompassed the last two decades of the 19th century. It is generally considered to have ended in the 1910s but the year is a matter of debate. August Strindberg was a writer world-famous for his dramas and prose, noted for his exceptional talent, in 1879 he published The Red Room, which brought him immediate fame. The Red Room was a novel that relentlessly attacked the political, the academic, the philosophical. After several harsh disputes, Strindberg left Sweden in 1883, in 1884, he briefly returned to Stockholm to stand trial in a blasphemy case against his collection of short stories Married. In 1897 Strindberg engaged himself in occultism, in particular alchemy, the following year, Strindberg moved back to Sweden and settled in the city Lund. There, he resurrected his literary production by publishing Inferno, in 1898, Strindberg moved back to Stockholm. He continued writing but also engaged himself energetically in debates in a range of subjects. His most notable writings during this period were his dramas, such as The Dance of Death, the Swedish 1890s is noted for its poetic neo-romanticism, a reaction to the socio-realistic literature of the 1880s. The first literary key figure to emerge was Verner von Heidenstam, selma Lagerlöf was the arguably brighest star of the 1890s, and her impression has lasted up to modern times. Lagerlöf was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1909 for the imagination, gustaf Fröding was another key figure of the 1890s. His active literary period only spanned between 1891–1898, because of mental problems, Fröding was above all renowned for his flowing poetry. His popularity was at first based on his sense of humor and free treatment of the poetic verse. Erik Axel Karlfeldt was, like Fröding, a depictor of rural life in his native province and his poetry had the intention of sparking a cultural identity within Dalarna, and spoke warmly of traditions, family values, and so on. Although his poetry was narrow, Karlfeldt was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1931, algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature, published by the Swedish Institute,1989. ISBN 91-520-0239-X Gustafson, Alrik, A History of Swedish Literature,1961, Swedish Institute, Modern Literature, accessed October 17,2006 Tigerstedt, E. NSwedish realism – Strindberg, painted by Richard Bergh, 1906
24. Svenska Akademiens ordbok – Svenska Akademiens ordbok, abbreviated SAOB, is a dictionary published by the Swedish Academy, with the official title Ordbok över svenska språket utgiven av Svenska Akademien. This dictionary is the Swedish counterpart of the Oxford English Dictionary or the Deutsches Wörterbuch, the first volume was published in 1898 and as of 2012, when the latest volume appeared, work has progressed to the word VEDERSYN. As of September 2014, the version has reached the word TÖVLA which completes the letter T. The dictionary has approximately 450,000 main entries, and is expected to be complete around 2017, the searchable web version has been available since 1997. Svenska Akademiens ordlista Svenska Akademiens ordbok The Swedish Academy – Official siteSvenska Akademiens ordbok – A complete set of Svenska Akademiens ordbok, as of late 2014. Note that the majority of the volumes remain unbound in this set.
25. Svenska Akademiens ordlista – Svenska Akademiens ordlista, abbreviated SAOL, is a glossary published every few years by the Swedish Academy. It is a volume that is considered the final arbiter of Swedish spelling. Traditionally it carries the motto of the Swedish Academy, Snille och Smak, whenever a new edition comes out lively discussions about new and changed entries erupt around the country. In some instances the Academy has been ahead of its times and has later had to change back to older spellings. Jos – juice is probably the most well-known instance, in 2015, the fourteenth edition was published. The history of SAOL is the history of orthography of the Swedish language, the edition was revised in 1703, known as the Swedish Bible of Carolus XII. The Swedish Academy was founded in 1786 with the task of caring for Swedish literature and language, spelling evolved slowly in the 18th century and was largely based on etymology. Because of its relationship to English heart and German Herz. The word for woman was spelled qvinna, similar to English queen, the question words hvad, hvar, hvilken had a silent H, like English what, where, which still have. In 1801 the Academy published an official orthography, a shorter version for schools was published by Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Svensk Rättstafnings-Lära in 1829. Already in the 1750s, voices had been raised to adopt spelling to pronunciation, public schools were made mandatory in Sweden by law in 1842 and the influence of school teachers increased, as did the pressure to reform Swedish spelling. The most radical reformists wanted to do away with all silent letters, a similar reform movement for Danish, which at this time was the written language also in Norway, was led by Rasmus Rask and his follower Niels Matthias Petersen. In 1869 a pan-Scandinavian orthography congress gathered in Stockholm, secretary for the Swedish section was Artur Hazelius, who in 1871 published the proceedings of the conference. The Academy was not pleased, and as a countermeasure Johan Erik Rydqvist published the first edition of SAOL in 1874, a second edition followed in the same year and new ones in 1875,1880 and the 5th edition in 1883, without much change. To further reform, a Swedish orthographic society was formed on November 28,1885, chaired by linguist Adolf Noreen, and published a journal Nystavaren. There was continued opposition, not least from Academy member Esaias Tegnér Jr. However, many of the proposed changes, many words spelled with E were changed to Ä, and under Q it was stated that Q may at will be replaced with K. By a government resolution on November 16,1889, the used in this edition of SAOL was to be used for teaching in Swedish highschools. This was a blow against the societys own dictionary published in 1886Svenska Akademiens ordlista – The first thirteen editions of Svenska Akademiens ordlista
26. Mandatory Swedish – In Finland, Swedish is a mandatory school subject for Finnish-speaking pupils in the last three years of the primary education. This so-called other domestic language is mandatory in high schools, vocational schools. Furthermore, all university graduates must demonstrate a level of proficiency in Swedish. Altogether 89% of Finnish citizens are native Finnish speakers, whereas 5. 3% of the population report Swedish as their mother tongue. Currently, it is possible for Finnish citizens to report a different mother tongue for themselves at any time, according to the Finnish constitution, both Finnish and Swedish are national languages. The employees of the government and the bilingual municipal governments are required to be able to serve citizens in Swedish. Military service is not required in the region of Åland. The official term for both mandatory Swedish and Finnish is the other domestic language, however, the requirement to study Swedish is often referred to as pakkoruotsi, a somewhat charged term in Finnish meaning mandatory Swedish, or enforced Swedish. The status of Swedish as a language in Finland is defined by the Finnish constitution. There was migration of Swedish-speaking peasants to some Finnish coastal areas during the Middle Ages, during this period, when Finland was ruled by Sweden, Swedish language became part of the culture in the coastal areas. Swedish was also the language of the ruling class, the Finnish language was forbidden an official status alongside Swedish until the period of Russian rule, in 1860. The autonomous Åland Islands has only one language, Swedish. In Mainland Finland both official languages, Finnish and Swedish, are subjects for pupils in primary and secondary schools. Usually this means the completion of a so-called public servants Swedish test, supporters also say that studying Swedish makes it easier to learn other Germanic languages, such as English and German. Lastly, they argue, mandatory Swedish is necessary to ensure that Swedish-speakers can interact with governmental institutions and get service, such as health care, in their own mother tongue. The area that today is Finland was a part of Sweden proper from the Middle Ages to the end of the Finnish War in 1809. Swedish migrants settled in areas, and the language of administration was Swedish. This prompted many Finnish-speakers to learn Swedish in hopes of improving their social status, as a result of the Finnish War, Sweden ceded Finland to Russia, and the Russian tsar established the autonomous Grand Duchy of FinlandMandatory Swedish – "Away with mandatory Swedish". A campaign logo against mandatory Swedish. The character on the logo throws away an Å, a letter found in Swedish words, but not in native Finnish.
27. Swenglish – When Swedish prosody is used in English speech, it makes it sound more melodic, and this is even more apparent when Swedish stress patterns are used on English words. This is one of the most apparent causes of Swenglish, there are words that are similar in meaning and pronunciation, that have different stress patterns. For example, verbs that end with -era in Swedish are often French loanwords, the Swedish word gets its stress point at the same place, but this is not true in English. A native Swedish speaker might mispronounce generate as by following the pattern of the Swedish generera, Swedish lacks many common English phonemes. These are sometimes replaced by similar-sounding Swedish phonemes, or other English phonemes that are easier to pronounce, standard Swedish does not have any diphthong vowels, but many more monophthong vowels than English. For example, when using the nearest Swedish vowels for the English words beer and bear, in general, Swenglish will sound very articulated, due to Swedish vowels being more strongly articulated and not as often reduced to schwas. There are examples of Swenglish being used in Sweden as a means of brand management, the Swedish telecommunications company Tele2 since 2008 has aired commercials with a black sheep called Frank. The pun of the commercials is based on the English word cheap, as with most non-native speech, native Swedish speakers may pick the wrong word when speaking English based on what sounds right in their own language. Some loanwords have a specific meaning in Swedish than the original English, such as keyboard meaning only ’electronic keyboard. Compare the list of Swedish-English false friends on Swedish Wikipedia, many Swedish compounds and expressions translate directly into English, but many others do not, even if the translations can be understood. For instance, the Swedish ta med means ’bring’, but is translated as the literal take with. Non-native pronunciations of English Svorsk Språkförsvaret Swedish Chef Moon, Colin, Sweden - More Secret Files, Swedish, Swenglish and What they Really Mean. Lists some common mistakes of Swedish speakers of EnglishSwenglish – Knowledge of English in Sweden as reported by Swedes, 2005. Very good: 31% Good: 37% Basic: 21% Not enough: 11%