The term "runestone style" in the singular may refer to the Urnes style. The style or design of runestones varied during the Viking Age; the early runestones were simple in design, but towards the end of the runestone era they became complex and made by travelling runemasters such as Öpir and Visäte. A categorization of the styles was developed by Anne-Sophie Gräslund in the 1990s, her systematization is today a standard. The styles are RAK, Fp, Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5, they cover the period 980-1130, the period during which most runestones were made; the styles Pr1 and Pr2 correspond to the Ringerike style, whereas Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5 belong to what is more known as the Urnes style. Below follows a brief presentation of the various styles by showing sample runestones according to Rundata's annotation. RAK is the oldest style and covers the period 980-1015 AD, but the Rundata project includes the older runestones in this group, as well as younger ones; this style has no dragon heads and the ends of the runic bands are straight.
This style is from the period c. 1010/1015 to c. 1040/1050, when Pr3 appeared. It is characterized by runic bands. In the styles called Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5, the runic bands end with animal heads seen in profile; this style is contemporary with FP dated to c. 1010- c. 1050 when it was succeeded by Pr3. This style is only somewhat younger than the previous style and it is dated to c. 1020- c. 1050, it was succeeded by Pr3. This style succeeded FP, Pr1 and Pr2 and is dated to c. 1050- c. 1080. This style appeared somewhat c. 1060/1070 and lasted until c. 1100. This style was the last one, it appeared c. 1080/1100 and lasted until c. 1130. This style is used by the Rundata project; the style is common in western Södermanland and it is characterized by bordered crosses. Norse art Runemaster Anglo-Saxon art Rundata Edberg, Rune. Runriket Täby-Vallentuna – en Handledning Fuglesang, Signe Horn. Swedish Runestones of the Eleventh Century: Ornament and Dating, Runeninschriften als Quellen Interdisziplinärer Forschung.
Göttingen. Pp. 197–218 Sawyer, Peter.. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285434-6
Johan Hadorph was a Swedish director-general of the Central Board of National Antiquities. In 1667, he was appointed assessor at the government agency for antiquities, in 1679, he became its director-general. Hadorph documented ancient monuments during extensive voyages in Sweden, he collected a great many older manuscripts, such as collections of laws, he made many drawings of runestones, supervised the production of more than 1000 woodcuts of runestones. He was born at Haddorp in Slaka parish in Östergötland to Nils Johansson and his wife Anna Hansdotter, his father was the head of a kronohemman. In 1664, he married in the daughter of a clergyman. In 1671 and in 1674, his estate received exemption from taxation and in 1672, he, his wife and their descendants were ennobled, a patent, confirmed in 1681. Like many people newly arrived among nobility, he was eager to provide an honourable origin for his family, but the only distinguished descent that can be confirmed by critical scholars is the fact that his wife was the niece of a bishop with close personal ties to the royal family.
Calling himself Hadorph or Hadorphius, after the farm on which he grew up, he began to study at Uppsala University, where he was appointed secretary of the academy in 1660. He was noticed for his strong interest in national antiquities by Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie and Lindsköld. In 1666, he received a part of the salary of the director-general of the Central Board of National Antiquities, he was appointed to be the last of the its seven assessors, in 1667. In 1669, he was promoted to be the secretary of the National Archives. In the same year, he and Brenner joined de la Gardie on an excursion through de la Gardie's fiefs, Johan Hadorph made drawings of all the ancient monuments the party encountered, he had access to de la Gardie's extensive library and made a Swedish verse translation of the history of Alexander the Great, published in Visingsborg in 1672. In the same year, he joined King Charles XI of Sweden on his Eriksgata through central and southern Sweden during which he was obliged always to be present and explain all the ancient monuments and curiosities that caught the king's attention.
He received the whole position and salary as director-general of the Central Board of National Antiquities in 1679, when his co-director professor Olof Verelius was promoted to be the librarian of Uppsala University. In 1692, the Central Board of National Antiquities was transferred to Stockholm to function as an archive of antiquities rather than a college, Johan Hadorph became its director, he died in the capital on July 12, 1693. Hadorph was an determined scholar, rather than a critical scientist. Unlike his co-assessors, he never published any Norse sagas, but he hired Icelanders and arranged that they could travel and procure manuscripts for the Board and make copies of them. In 1674–76, he published the old Swedish rhyming chronicles and the rhyming saga of Saint Olaf with extensive commentaries, something, valuable to posterity, as many of the original manuscripts were destroyed in the Stockholm Palace fire of 1697, he edited the rhymed romances which bear the name of Euphemia, sister of King Magnus.
He published a Swedish translation of a Latin history of Alexander the Great in 1672. In addition, he published several medieval Swedish provincial laws, beginning with the Scanian Law in 1676, but one of his most important works was the documentation of medieval letters; as early as the 1650s, the future king Charles X Gustav of Sweden sent him on an expedition to Öland, where he made drawings of runestones. In 1671, he was authorized to travel through the country in the search of national antiquities, accompanied by a staff of artists. From 1674 onwards, he undertook such excursions every year accompanied by assistant artists, his studies concerned runestones, ruined monasteries and churches, castles and other monuments, manuscripts and popular ballads. A great number of runestones were depicted, over 1000 such depictions were made into woodcuts under his supervision, he undertook the first archaeological excavation in Sweden, which took place at Birka. Johan Hadorph's collections constituted the basis of Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.
Dahlelagen 1676 Skånelagen 1676 Gothlands-laghen: på gammal göthiska med en historisk berättelse wid ändan, huruledes Gothland först år upfunnit och besatt, så och under Swes rijke ifran … 1687 Bjärköarätten 1687 Visby stadslag 1688 Visby sjörätt 1689 Alexandri Magni Historia på Svenska rijm 1672 St Olaffs Saga på Svenska rijm 1675 Två gamla Svenska rijmrönikor. Item en stor deel af. Förlikningar, Försäkringar,"etc. 1674–76 Färentuna runstenar 1680 Hofberg, H.. Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon. Stockholm, Albert Bonniers Förlag; the article Johan Hadorph in Nationalencyklopedin Liedgren, Jan. "Johan Hadorph". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. 17. P. 697. Murray, Tim. Milestones in Archaeology: A Chronological Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-186-1
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Viking art known as Norse art, is a term accepted for the art of Scandinavian Norsemen and Viking settlements further afield—particularly in the British Isles and Iceland—during the Viking Age of the 8th-11th centuries CE. Viking art has many design elements in common with Celtic, the Romanesque and Eastern European art, sharing many influences with each of these traditions. Speaking, the current knowledge of Viking art relies upon more durable objects of metal and stone; the artistic record therefore, as it has survived to the present day, remains incomplete. Ongoing archaeological excavation and opportunistic finds, of course, may improve this situation in the future, as indeed they have in the recent past. Viking art is divided into a sequence of chronological styles, although outside Scandinavia itself local influences are strong, the development of styles can be less clear; the Vikings' regional origins lay in Scandinavia, the northern-most peninsula of continental Europe, while the term'Viking' derived from their own term for coastal raiding—the activity by which many neighbouring cultures became acquainted with the inhabitants of the region.
Viking raiders attacked wealthy targets on the north-western coasts of Europe from the late 8th until the mid-11th century CE. Pre-Christian traders and sea raiders, the Vikings first enter recorded history with their attack on the Christian monastic community on Lindisfarne Island in 793; the Vikings employed their longships to invade and attack European coasts and river settlements on a seasonal basis. Subsequently, Viking activities diversified to include trading voyages to the east and south of their Scandinavian homelands, with repeated and regular voyages following river systems east into Russia and the Black and Caspian Sea regions, west to the coastlines of the British Isles and Greenland. Evidence exists for Vikings reaching Newfoundland well before the voyages of Christopher Columbus discovered the New World. Trading and merchant activities were accompanied by settlement and colonisation in many of these territories. Wood was undoubtedly the primary material of choice for Viking artists, being easy to carve and abundant in northern Europe.
The importance of wood as an artistic medium is underscored by chance survivals of wood artistry at the beginning and end of the Viking period, the Oseberg ship-burial carvings of the early 9th century and the carved decoration of the Urnes Stave Church from the 12th century. As summarised by James Graham-Campbell: "These remarkable survivals allow us to form at least an impression of what we are missing from original corpus of Viking art, although wooden fragments and small-scale carvings in other materials provide further hints; the same is true of the textile arts, although weaving and embroidery were well-developed crafts." With the exception of the Gotlandic picture stones prevalent in Sweden early in the Viking period, stone carving was not practised elsewhere in Scandinavia until the mid-10th century and the creation of the royal monuments at Jelling in Denmark. Subsequently, influenced by the spread of Christianity, the use of carved stone for permanent memorials became more prevalent.
Beyond the discontinuous artifactual records of wood and stone, the reconstructed history of Viking art to date relies most on the study of decoration of ornamental metalwork from a great variety of sources. Several types of archaeological context have succeeded in preserving metal objects for present study, while the durability of precious metals in particular has preserved much artistic expression and endeavour. Jewellery was worn by both women, though of different types. Married women fastened their overdresses near the shoulder with matching pairs of large brooches. Modern scholars call them "tortoise brooches" because of their domed shape; the shapes and styles of women's paired brooches varied regionally. Women strung metal chains or strings of beads between the brooches, or suspended ornaments from the bottom of the brooches. Men wore rings on their fingers and necks, held their cloaks closed with penannular brooches with extravagantly long pins, their weapons were richly decorated on areas such as sword hilts.
The Vikings used silver or bronze jewellery, the latter sometimes gilded, but a small number of large and lavish pieces or sets in solid gold have been found belonging to royalty or major figures. Decorated metalwork of an everyday nature is recovered from Viking period graves, on account of the widespread practice of making burials accompanied by grave goods; the deceased was dressed in their best clothing and jewellery, was interred with weapons and household goods. Less common, but significant nonetheless, are finds of precious metal objects in the form of treasure hoards, many concealed for safe-keeping by owners unable to recover their contents, although some may have been deposited as offerings to the gods. Given the increasing popularity and legality of metal-detecting, an increasing frequency of single, chance finds of metal objects and ornaments is creating a fast expanding corpus of new material for study. Viking coins fit well into this latter category, but nonetheless form a separate category of Viking period artefact, their design and decoration inde
Balle or Red-Balle was a runemaster, active in the areas of western Uppland, Västmanland, northern Södermanland of Sweden during the second half of the 11th century. Most early medieval Scandinavians were literate in runes, most people carved messages on pieces of bone and wood. However, it was difficult to make runestones, in order to master it one needed to be a stonemason. During the 11th century, when most runestones were raised, there were a few professional runemasters. Balle was active in the 11th century and his work is representative of the Urnes runestone style. Balle signed about twenty-four surviving runestones in south-western Uppland and northern Södermanland, he signed his name in the form of Old Norse poetry as exemplified on runestone U 729 in Ågersta. There are an additional twenty runestones that have been attributed to him for stylistic reasons. Balle was noted for the consistency of his use of a dot as a punctuation mark between the words of his runic inscriptions, used dotted e-, g-, y-runes.
The Rundata catalog lists over twenty inscriptions as being signed by Balle including Sö 92 in Husby Kyrkogård, Sö 203 in Östa, Sö 210 in Klippinge, Sö 214 in Årby, U 647 in Övergran, U 699 in Amnö, U 705 in Öster-Dalby, U 707 in Kungs-Husby, U 721 in Löt, U 726 in Ramby, U 729 in Ågersta, U 740 in Hemsla, U 744 in Gidsmarken, U 750 in Viggby, U 753 in Litslena Prästgård, U 756 in Ullstämma, U 770 in Tjursåker, U 819 in Mysinge, U 829 in Furby, U 873 in Örsunda, U 1161 in Altuna, Vs 15 in Lilla Kyringe, Vs 24 in Hassmyra. The runestones Vs 15 in Lilla Kyringe and Vs 24 in Hassmyra were signed by a runemaster named Red-Balle; the runes on both runestones show the name as roþbaliʀ. However, due to differences in ornamentation and orthography on these two signed runestones, some runologists have questioned whether Balle and this Red-Balle were one and the same person; the article Balle in Nationalencyklopedin
A runemaster or runecarver is a specialist in making runestones. More than 100 names of runemasters are known from Viking Age Sweden with most of them from 11th century eastern Svealand. Many anonymous runestones have less securely been attributed to these runemasters. During the 11th century, when most runestones were raised, there were a few professional runemasters, they and their apprentices were contracted to make runestones and when the work was finished, they sometimes signed the stone with the name of the runemaster. Many of the uncovered runic inscriptions have been completed by non-professional runecarvers for the practical purposes of burial rites or record-keeping. Due to the depictions of daily life, many of the nonprofessional runecarvers could have been anything from pirates to soldiers, merchants, or farmers; the layout of Scandinavian towns provided centers where craftspeople could congregate and share trade knowledge. After the spread of Christianity in these regions, the increase in runic literacy that followed, runes were used for record-keeping and found on things like weapons and coins.
Most early medieval Scandinavians were literate in runes, most people carved messages on pieces of bone and wood. However, it was difficult to make runestones, in order to master it one needed to be a stonemason; some attributions were given to runic "skalds", or poets, indicating that many of the runemasters were authors of skaldic poetry and oral tradition who had connection to royalty by way of documenting their deeds and offering counsel. A number of historians have theorized that there may be a connection between the word erulaR in the proto-Scandinavian priesthood and the old Norse title "jarl"; this suggests that it is possible that those who were versed in runic arts formed their own secular upper class of learned runemasters. This claim is corroborated by the geographical distribution of runestones throughout Eastern Norway, but there is not enough linguistic or philological evidence to support it. Whether or not a linguistic link can be made, however, it is that the runemasters in Norway during the Viking Age would have formed an upper class due to their portrayal in ruins as near the top of the social hierarchy but still subservient to the chieftain.
Towards the middle of the 11th century, the practice of carving runes that depict figures in Norse mythology decreased, instead traditional religious imagery began to hybridize with Christian imagery. This continued with the increasing prominence of runestones that accompanied the rise of Christianity. Runemasters began to document the indulgences offered by the Catholic Church in exchange for public works projects such as the construction of bridges and roads, a donation to a church, or the beginning of a pilgrimage. Many of the runic inscriptions carved during this time were done so "for the pleasure of God," or to insure the safe passage of one's soul. Runes were erected by long-distance explorers seeking to document their visits or memorialize their fallen comrades. Runecarvers on commission or on their own carved gravestones more than anything else. In addition, memorial runes could provide additional details about an individuals death with more accuracy than oral tradition. Additionally, based on the runic texts recovered, it appears that the families who raised runestones had as many as six sons, but only one to two daughters.
This is most due to the practice of female infanticide, common in Iceland during the introduction of Christianity. Notable runemasters of the 11th to early 12th centuries include: Åsmund Kåresson Balle Fot Frögärd i Ösby Gunnborga Halvdan Öpir Torgöt Fotsarve Ulf of Borresta Visäte