Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Uppsala is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Malmö. It had 168,096 inhabitants in 2017. Located 71 km north of the capital Stockholm it is the seat of Uppsala Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala has been the ecclesiastical centre of Sweden, being the seat of the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden. Uppsala is home to Scandinavia's largest cathedral – Uppsala Cathedral. Founded in 1477, Uppsala University is the oldest centre of higher education in Scandinavia. Among many achievements, the Celsius scale for temperature was invented there. Uppsala was located a few kilometres north of its current location at a place now known as Gamla Uppsala. Today's Uppsala was called Östra Aros. Uppsala was, according to medieval writer Adam of Bremen, the main pagan centre of Sweden, the Temple at Uppsala contained magnificent idols of the Norse gods; the Fyrisvellir plains along the river south of Old Uppsala, in the area where the modern city is situated today, was the site of the Battle of Fyrisvellir in the 980s.
The present-day Uppsala was a port town of Gamla Uppsala. In 1160, King Eric Jedvardsson was attacked and killed outside the church of Östra Aros, became venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. In 1274, Östra Aros overtook Gamla Uppsala as the main regional centre, when the cathedral of Gamla Uppsala burnt down, the archbishopric and the relics of Saint Eric were moved to Östra Aros, where the present-day Uppsala Cathedral was erected; the cathedral is built in the Gothic style and is one of the largest in northern Europe, with towers reaching 118.70 metres. The city is the site of the oldest university in Scandinavia, founded in 1477, is where Carl Linnaeus, one of the renowned scholars of Uppsala University, lived for many years. Uppsala is the site of the 16th-century Uppsala Castle; the city was damaged by a fire in 1702. Historical and cultural treasures were lost, as in many Swedish cities, from demolitions during the 1960s and 1970s, but many historic buildings remain in the western part of the city.
The arms bearing the lion can be traced to 1737 and have been modernised several times, most in 1986. The meaning of the lion is uncertain, but is connected to the royal lion depicted on the Coat of Arms of Sweden. Situated on the fertile Uppsala flatlands of muddy soil, the city features the small Fyris River flowing through the landscape surrounded by lush vegetation. Parallel to the river runs the glacial ridge of Uppsalaåsen at an elevation around 30 m, the site of Uppsala's castle, from which large parts of the town can be seen; the central park Stadsskogen stretches from the south far into town, with opportunities for recreation for many residential areas within walking distance. Only some 70 km or 40 minutes by train from the capital, many Uppsala residents work in Stockholm; the train to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport takes only 17 minutes, rendering the city accessible by air. The commercial centre of Uppsala is quite compact; the city has a distinct town and gown divide with clergy and academia residing in the Fjärdingen neighbourhood on the river's western shore, somewhat separated from the rest of the city, the ensemble of cathedral and university buildings has remained undisturbed until today.
While some historic buildings remain on the periphery of the central core, retail commercial activity is geographically focused on a small number of blocks around the pedestrianized streets and main square on the eastern side of the river, an area, subject to a large-scale metamorphosis during the economically booming years in the 1960s in particular. During recent decades, a significant part of retail commercial activity has shifted to shopping malls and stores situated in the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, the built-up areas have expanded and some suburbanization has taken place. Uppsala lies south of the 60th parallel north and has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. Due to its northerly location, Uppsala experiences over 18 hours of visible sunshine during the summer solstice, under 6 hours of sunshine during the winter solstice. Despite Uppsala's northerly location, the winter is not as cold as other cities at similar latitudes due to the Gulf Stream. For example, in January Uppsala has a daily mean of −2.7 °C.
In Canada, at the same latitude, Fort Smith experiences a daily mean of −22.4 °C. With respect to record temperatures, the difference between the highest and lowest is large. Uppsala’s highest recorded temperature was 37.4 °C, recorded in July 1933. On the same day Ultuna, which lies a few kilometres south of the centre of Uppsala, recorded a temperature of 38 °C; this is the highest temperature recorded in the Scandinavian Peninsula, although the same temperature was recorded in Målilla, Sweden, 14 years later. Uppsala’s lowest temperature was recorded in January 1875, when the temperature dropped to −39.5 °C. The second-lowest temperature recorded is −33.1 °C, which makes the record one of the hardest to beat, due to the fact that temperatures in Uppsala nowadays goes below −30 °C. The difference between the two records is 76.9 °C. The warmest month recorded is July 1914, with a daily mean of 21.4 °C. Since 2002 Uppsala has experienced 5 months where the d
Fanny and Alexander
Fanny and Alexander is a 1982 historical period drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. The plot focuses on two siblings and their large family in Uppsala, Sweden during the first decade of the twentieth century. Following the death of the eponymous children's father, their mother remarries a prominent bishop who becomes abusive towards Alexander for his vivid imagination. Bergman intended Fanny and Alexander to be his final picture before retiring, his script is semi-autobiographical; the characters Alexander and stepfather Edvard are based on himself, his sister Margareta and father Erik Bergman, respectively. Many of the scenes were filmed on location in Uppsala; the documentary film The Making of Fanny and Alexander was made with the feature and chronicles its production. The production was conceived as a television miniseries and cut in that version, spanning 312 minutes; the television version has since been released as a complete film, both versions have been shown in theaters throughout the world.
The 312-minute cut is one of the longest cinematic films in history. The theatrical version was released to positive reviews, it won four Academy Awards, including for Best Foreign Language Film. Fanny and Alexander was followed by stage adaptations and further semi-autobiographical screenplays by Bergman, released as films in 1992: The Best Intentions, directed by Bille August, Sunday's Children, directed by Daniel Bergman. In 1907, the young boy Alexander, his sister Fanny and their well-to-do family, the Ekdahls, live in a Swedish town and run a moderately profitable theatre. At Christmastime, the Ekdahls hold a Nativity play and a large Christmas party; the siblings' parents and Oscar, are married until Oscar dies from a stroke. Shortly thereafter, Emilie marries Edvard Vergérus, the local bishop and a widower, moves into his home where he lives with his mother, sister and maids. Emilie expects that she will be able to carry over the free, joyful qualities of her previous home into the marriage, but realises that Edvard's harsh authoritarian policies are unshakable.
The relationship between the bishop and Alexander is cold, as Alexander invents stories, for which Edvard punishes him severely. As a result, Emilie asks for a divorce. Meanwhile, the rest of the Ekdahl family has begun to worry about their condition, Emilie secretly visits her former mother-in-law, revealing she is pregnant. During Emilie's absence, Edvard confines the children to their bedroom, ostensibly for their safety. There, Alexander shares a story, claiming he was visited by the ghosts of the Vergérus family, who revealed the bishop was responsible for their deaths; the maid Justina reports the story to Edvard. After Emilie returns, the Ekdahl family friend Isak Jacobi helps smuggle the children from the house, they live temporarily with his nephews in their store. Emilie's former brothers-in-law confront Vergérus to negotiate a divorce, using the children, the bishop's debts, the threat of a public scandal for leverage, but Vergérus is unmoved. Emilie, now in the stages of her pregnancy, refuses to restore the children to Edvard's home.
Emilie allows Edvard to drink a large dosage of her bromide sedative. She explains to him, he threatens to ruin their lives, but blacks out. After Emilie gets away, Edvard's dying Aunt Elsa knocks over a gas lamp, setting her bedclothes and hair on fire, she runs through the house in flames igniting him. Despite the sedative, he dies shortly thereafter. Alexander had fantasised about his stepfather's death while living with Isak and his nephews Aron and Ismael Retzinsky; the mysterious Ismael explains. The Ekdahl family reunites for the christening celebration of Emilie's and the late bishop's daughter as well as the extra-marital daughter of Alexander's uncle, Gustav Adolf, the family maid, Maj. Alexander encounters the ghost of the bishop who knocks him to the floor, tells him that he will never be free. Emilie, having inherited the theatre, hands Helena a copy of August Strindberg's play A Dream Play to read, tells her that they should perform it together onstage. Scoffing at the idea and declaring Strindberg a "misogynist," Helena takes to the idea and begins reading it to a sleeping Alexander.
The cast consists of:The Ekdahl house The Bishop's house Jacobi's house The Theatre Director Ingmar Bergman conceived of Fanny and Alexander while working on his 1980 film From the Life of the Marionettes, wrote the screenplay at Fårö in summer 1979. Bergman intended Fanny and Alexander to be his last feature film, although he wrote several screenplays afterwards and directed for television, he told the press he decided to retire, because, "I don't have the strength any more, neither psychologically nor physically". The screenplay was semi-autobiographical, attempting to portray Bergman's fondest memories in what he called a "happy and privileged" childhood, his recollections of his grandmother's home were a particular inspiration. He commented on his boyhood: It was difficult to differen
Uppsala University is a research university in Uppsala, is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477. It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings; the university embraces natural sciences. The university rose to pronounced significance during the rise of Sweden as a great power at the end of the 16th century and was given a relative financial stability with the large donation of King Gustavus Adolphus in the early 17th century. Uppsala has an important historical place in Swedish national culture and for the Swedish establishment: in historiography, literature and music. Many aspects of Swedish academic culture in general, such as the white student cap, originated in Uppsala, it shares some peculiarities, such as the student nation system, with Lund University and the University of Helsinki. Uppsala belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities and to the Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities.
The university has nine faculties distributed over three "disciplinary domains". It has 2,300 doctoral students, it has a teaching staff of 1,800 out of a total of 6,900 employees. Twenty-eight per cent of the 716 professors at the university are women. Of its turnover of SEK 6.6 billion in 2016, 29% was spent on education at Bachelor's and Master's level, while 70% was spent on research and research programs. Architecturally, Uppsala University has traditionally had a strong presence in Fjärdingen, the neighbourhood around the cathedral on the western side of the River Fyris. Despite some more contemporary building developments further away from the centre, Uppsala's historic centre continues to be dominated by the presence of the university; as with most medieval universities, Uppsala University grew out of an ecclesiastical center. The archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century. Uppsala had long been a hub for regional trade, had contained settlements dating back into the deep Middle Ages.
As was the case with most medieval universities, Uppsala had been chartered through a papal bull. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477, established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna; this included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law and philosophy, to award the bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees. The archbishop of Uppsala was named as the university's Chancellor, was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members; the turbulent period of the reformation of King Gustavus Vasa resulted in a drop in the relatively insignificant number of students in Uppsala, seen as a center of Catholicism and of potential disloyalty to the Crown. Swedish students travelled to one of the Protestant universities in Germany Wittenberg. There is some evidence of academic studies in Uppsala during the 16th century.
At the end of the century the situation had changed, Uppsala became a bastion of Lutheranism, which Duke Charles, the third of the sons of Gustavus Vasa to become king used to consolidate his power and oust his nephew Sigismund from the throne. The Meeting of Uppsala in 1593 established Lutheran orthodoxy in Sweden, Charles and the Council of state gave new privileges to the university on 1 August of the same year. Theology still had precedence, but in the privileges of 1593, the importance of a university to educate secular servants of the state was emphasized. Three of the seven professorial chairs which were established were in Theology. A fourth chair was given to Ericus Jacobi Skinnerus, appointed rector, but whose discipline was not mentioned in the charter. Of the professors, several were taken over from the Collegium Regium in Stockholm, functioning for a few years but closed in 1593. An eighth chair, in Medicine, received no appointee for several years. In 1599 the number of students was 150.
In 1600 the first post-reformation conferment of degrees took place. In the same year, the antiquarian and mystic Johannes Bureus designed and engraved the seal of the university, today used as part of the logotype; the medieval university had been a school for theology. The aspirations of the emergent new great power of Sweden demanded a different kind of learning. Sweden both grew through conquests and went through a complete overhaul of its administrative structure, it required a much larger class of civil educators than before. Preparatory schools, were founded during this period in various cathedral towns, notably Västerås in 1623. Beside Uppsala, new universities were founded in more distant parts of the Swedish Realm, the University of Dorpat in Estonia and the University of Åbo in Finland. Af
Uppsala Cathedral is a cathedral located between the Uppsala University Main Building and the River Fyris in the centre of Uppsala, Sweden. A church of the Lutheran Church of Sweden, Uppsala Cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Uppsala, the primate of Sweden; the current archbishop is Antje Jackelén and the current bishop is Ragnar Persenius. The cathedral dates to the late 13th century and at a height of 118.7 metres, it is the tallest church in the Nordic countries. Built under Roman Catholicism, it was used for coronations of Swedish monarchs for a lengthy period following the Protestant Reformation. Several of its chapels were converted to house the tombs of Swedish monarchs, including Gustav Vasa and John III. Carl Linnaeus, Olaus Rudbeck, Emanuel Swedenborg, several archbishops are buried here; the church was designed in the French Gothic style by French architects including Étienne de Bonneuil. It is in the form of a cross formed by the transept. Most of the structure was built between 1272 and 1420 but the western end was completed only in the middle of the 15th century.
Twin towers were built shortly afterwards on the west end of the church. High spires were added but after a fire in 1702, they were adorned with low helms by Carl Hårleman in 1735, they were redesigned by Helgo Zetterwall who undertook substantial changes to the building in the 1880s. The cathedral's principal construction material is brick but the pillars and many details are of Gotland limestone; the vaults were all built according to the original 13th-century plan although some of them were erected as late as around 1440. In addition to the artwork in the funeral chapels, several of the church's older furnishings can be seen in the Treasury Museum. In 1702, many features were destroyed in a major fire. During the renovation work carried out in the 1970s, many of the medieval frescoes, whitewashed over after the Reformation were uncovered and restored. At the end of the Viking Era, the pagan temple at Gamla Uppsala, about 5 kilometres to the north of today's Uppsala, was replaced by a Christian church.
Although the exact date of its construction is not known, in 1123 Siward was ordained Bishop of Uppsala by the Archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg. It is however uncertain if Siward assumed office, as he had been expelled and was in Germany in the early 1130s; the catalogue of bishops mentions Severeinus as the first bishop, he may have been the replacement for Siward. Henrik, ‘Finland's Apostle’, was the fourth bishop. In 1164, Sweden became an archbishopric under the control of Lund; the first archbishop was the Cistercian monk Stefan of Alvastra. After the cathedral in Gamla Uppsala was damaged by fire in 1204, the Chapter sought permission from the Holy See to move the building to a larger site. Pope Alexander IV granted this request in 1258 on condition. At a meeting in Söderköping in September 1270, Archbishop Fulco Angelus and the cathedral chapter decided the site should be in Östra Aros. Formal authorization of the move was issued in 1271 by Bishop Carolus of Västerås whom the Pope had appointed to oversee the case.
About 1272, work began on building a new cathedral in Östra Aros near the Fyris River to the south. It was constructed on the site of the earlier stone church dedicated to the Holy Trinity, located exactly where the cathedral's chancel now stands, it was here that Sweden's patron saint Eric Jedvardsson had attended mass before he was murdered in 1160. The name of Uppsala was kept, the surrounding town Östra Aros soon changed its name accordingly; the relics of Saint Eric, the treasure of Uppsala, were moved from Gamla Uppsala to the new site in 1273, along with the formal move of the archbishopric. The church was designed by French architects although the name of the author of the detailed initial plans who supervised work until 1281 has not been recorded. In 1287, a promissory note drawn up by the provost of Paris covers the expenses to be incurred by master builder Étienne de Bonneuil and his assistants in travelling to Sweden to work on the construction of a cathedral at Uppsala. Étienne is credited with work at the east and south chapels of the chancel, the transepts and the south portal, although in most of his work he appears to have meticulously followed the plans of his predecessor.
Progress was slow as a result of the plague and many financial difficulties. It was not until the end of the 14th century that work on the initial plans was completed, thanks in particular to the contribution of the master builder Nikolaus från Västerås who began construction of the nave; when consecrated in 1435 by Archbishop Olaus Laurentii, the cathedral still was not complete. It was dedicated to Saint Lawrence cherished in all of Sweden at that time, it was completed over the following decades. Although there are no documentary records of the consecration, there are several references from the same period to the cathedral's chapels, including their altars which were dedicated to the Holy Cross, to the Virgin Mary or to other saints; the last main component of the cathedral, the towers, were built between 1470 and 1489. The cathedral was damaged by fire on several occasions during the great fire of 1702 which destroyed much of the city. Restoration work was not completed until the middle of the century.
The church was not the regular place of worship of laypeople until the Reformation. It was reserved for official services of the Catholic Church hierarchy; the parish churches in Uppsala were the Holy Trinity Church or
Fyrisån is a river in the Swedish province of Uppland, which passes through the city of Uppsala and ends in Lake Mälaren. The "Sala" river in Uppland was changed in the 17th century in memory of the Fyrisvellir battle, mentioned in the Icelandic sagas. Since it was the belief that the marshy plains called "Föret" was the site of the famous Battle of Fýrisvellir in the late 10th century. Boats can sail up the river from Lake Mälaren all the way to central Uppsala where two weirs make further progress impossible. In the summer of 2007 the construction of a fish ladder was started, in order to make it possible for the asp, an endangered and potamodromous fish, to pass the weirs and reach its spawning waters. On the last day of April every year, students attempt to navigate the weirs on homemade rafts with predictable results. Media related to Fyrisån at Wikimedia Commons
Ernst Ingmar Bergman was a Swedish director and producer who worked in film, television and radio. Considered to be among the most accomplished and influential filmmakers of all time, Bergman's films include Smiles of a Summer Night, The Seventh Seal, Wild Strawberries, Persona and Whispers, Scenes from a Marriage, Fanny and Alexander. Bergman directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television screenings, most of which he wrote, he directed over 170 plays. He forged a creative partnership with his cinematographers Gunnar Fischer and Sven Nykvist. Among his company of actors were Harriet and Bibi Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar Björnstrand, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in Sweden, many films from Through a Glass Darkly onward were filmed on the island of Fårö. Philip French referred to Bergman as "one of the greatest artists of the 20th century... he found in literature and the performing arts a way of both recreating and questioning the human condition."
Director Martin Scorsese commented. It's impossible to overestimate the effect. It's not. It's that he worked in a symbolic and an emotional language, serious and accessible, he was young, he was setting an incredible pace, but he was looking at memory, old age, the reality of death, the reality of cruelty, it was so vivid. So dramatic. Bergman's connection with the audience was somewhat like Hitchcock's – direct, immediate." Ingmar Bergman was born in Uppsala, the son of Erik Bergman, a Lutheran minister and chaplain to the King of Sweden, Karin, a nurse who had Walloon ancestors. He grew up with his older brother Dag and sister Margareta surrounded by religious imagery and discussion, his father was a conservative parish minister with strict ideas of parenting. Ingmar was locked up in dark closets such as wetting the bed. "While father preached away in the pulpit and the congregation prayed, sang, or listened", Ingmar wrote in his autobiography Laterna Magica, I devoted my interest to the church's mysterious world of low arches, thick walls, the smell of eternity, the coloured sunlight quivering above the strangest vegetation of medieval paintings and carved figures on ceilings and walls.
There was everything that one's imagination could desire—angels, dragons, devils, humans... Although raised in a devout Lutheran household, Bergman stated that he lost his faith when aged eight, only came to terms with this fact while making Winter Light in 1962, his interest in theatre and film began early: "At the age of nine, he traded a set of tin soldiers for a magic lantern, a possession that altered the course of his life. Within a year, he had created, by playing with this toy, a private world in which he felt at home, he recalled, he fashioned his own scenery and lighting effects and gave puppet productions of Strindberg plays in which he spoke all the parts."Bergman attended Palmgren's School as a teenager. His school years were unhappy, he remembered them unfavourably in years. In a 1944 letter concerning the film Torment, which sparked debate on the condition of Swedish high schools, the school's principal Henning Håkanson wrote, among other things, that Bergman had been a "problem child".
Bergman wrote in a response that he had disliked the emphasis on homework and testing in his formal schooling. In 1934, aged 16, he was sent to Germany to spend the summer holidays with family friends, he attended a Nazi rally in Weimar. He wrote in Laterna Magica about the visit to Germany, describing how the German family had put a portrait of Hitler on the wall by his bed, that "for many years, I was on Hitler's side, delighted by his success and saddened by his defeats". Bergman commented, he electrified the crowd.... The Nazism I had seen seemed fun and youthful". Bergman did two five-month stretches in Sweden of mandatory military service, he entered Stockholm University College in 1937, to study literature. He spent most of his time involved in student theatre and became a "genuine movie addict". At the same time, a romantic involvement led to a pugilistic confrontation with his father which resulted in a break which lasted for years. Although he did not graduate, he wrote a number of plays and an opera, became an assistant director at a theatre.
In 1942, he was given the opportunity to direct one of Caspar's Death. The play was seen by members of Svensk Filmindustri, which offered Bergman a position working on scripts, he married Else Fisher in 1943. Bergman's film career began in 1941 with his work rewriting scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment, a film directed by Alf Sjöberg. Along with writing the screenplay, he was appointed assistant director of the film. In his second autobiographical book, Images: My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut; the film sparked debate on Swedish formal education. When Henning Håkanson wr