Munsö is a village and a former island in Ekerö Municipality, Stockholm County in Sweden. Because of post-glacial rebound, this island in Lake Mälaren is now connected to the island Ekerön; the village has a 12th-century round church
Post-glacial rebound is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression. Post-glacial rebound and isostatic depression are phases of glacial isostasy, the deformation of the Earth's crust in response to changes in ice mass distribution; the direct raising effects of post-glacial rebound are apparent in parts of Northern Eurasia, Northern America and Antarctica. However, through the processes of ocean siphoning and continental levering, the effects of post-glacial rebound on sea level are felt globally far from the locations of current and former ice sheets. During the last glacial period, much of northern Europe, North America and Antarctica was covered by ice sheets, which reached up to three kilometres thick during the glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago; the enormous weight of this ice caused the surface of the Earth's crust to deform and warp downward, forcing the viscoelastic mantle material to flow away from the loaded region.
At the end of each glacial period when the glaciers retreated, the removal of this weight led to slow uplift or rebound of the land and the return flow of mantle material back under the deglaciated area. Due to the extreme viscosity of the mantle, it will take many thousands of years for the land to reach an equilibrium level; the uplift has taken place in two distinct stages. The initial uplift following deglaciation was immediate due to the elastic response of the crust as the ice load was removed. After this elastic phase, uplift proceeded by slow viscous flow at an exponentially decreasing rate. Today, typical uplift rates are of the order of less. In northern Europe, this is shown by the GPS data obtained by the BIFROST GPS network. Studies suggest; the total uplift from the end of deglaciation depends on the local ice load and could be several hundred metres near the centre of rebound. The term "post-glacial rebound" is being replaced by the term "glacial isostatic adjustment"; this is in recognition that the response of the Earth to glacial loading and unloading is not limited to the upward rebound movement, but involves downward land movement, horizontal crustal motion, changes in global sea levels and the Earth's gravity field, induced earthquakes, changes in the Earth's rotation.
Another alternate term is "glacial isostasy", because the uplift near the centre of rebound is due to the tendency towards the restoration of isostatic equilibrium. That term gives the wrong impression that isostatic equilibrium is somehow reached, so by appending "adjustment" at the end, the motion of restoration is emphasized. Post-glacial rebound produces measurable effects on vertical crustal motion, global sea levels, horizontal crustal motion, gravity field, Earth's rotation, crustal stress, earthquakes. Studies of glacial rebound give us information about the flow law of mantle rocks, important to the study of mantle convection, plate tectonics and the thermal evolution of the Earth, it gives insight into past ice sheet history, important to glaciology and changes in global sea level. Understanding postglacial rebound is important to our ability to monitor recent global change. Erratic boulders, U-shaped valleys, eskers, kettle lakes, bedrock striations are among the common signatures of the Ice Age.
In addition, post-glacial rebound has caused numerous significant changes to coastlines and landscapes over the last several thousand years, the effects continue to be significant. In Sweden, Lake Mälaren was an arm of the Baltic Sea, but uplift cut it off and led to its becoming a freshwater lake in about the 12th century, at the time when Stockholm was founded at its outlet. Marine seashells found. Other pronounced effects can be seen on the island of Öland, which has little topographic relief due to the presence of the level Stora Alvaret; the rising land has caused the Iron Age settlement area to recede from the Baltic Sea, making the present day villages on the west coast set back unexpectedly far from the shore. These effects are quite dramatic at the village of Alby, for example, where the Iron Age inhabitants were known to subsist on substantial coastal fishing; as a result of post-glacial rebound, the Gulf of Bothnia is predicted to close up at Kvarken in more than 2,000 years. The Kvarken is a UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site, selected as a "type area" illustrating the effects of post-glacial rebound and the holocene glacial retreat.
In several other Nordic ports, like Tornio and Pori, the harbour has had to be relocated several times. Place names in the coastal regions illustrate the rising land: there are inland places named'island','skerry','rock','point' and'sound'. For example, Oulunsalo "island of Oulujoki" is a peninsula, with inland names such as Koivukari "Birch Rock", Santaniemi "Sandy Cape", Salmioja "the brook of the Sound". In Great Britain, glaciation affected Scotland but not southern England, the post-glacial rebound of northern Great Britain is causing a corresponding downward movement of the southern half of the island; this will lead to an increased risk of floods in southern England and south-western Ireland. Since the glacial isostatic adjustment process causes the land to move relative to the sea, ancient shoreli
Södertörn is a triangular peninsula and artificial island in eastern Södermanland, bordered by: Lake Mälaren and the inlet of Saltsjön to the north, Himmerfjärden and Hallsfjärden to the west and The Baltic Sea to the east and the south. The Södertälje Canal to the south west; this canal is man-made, so the area isn't separated from the mainland by nature. Since 2005, the whole of Södertörn has been included in Metropolitan Stockholm. Before that, the southern parts of the island, which lie within Nynäshamn Municipality, the western parts, which are in Södertälje Municipality, were – although in Stockholm County – not included in the metropolitan area; the northern areas of Södertörn are to a large extent made up of rift-valley countryside with high ground, either pine forest or bare. The long valleys of the south become level ground; the waters surrounding the area are either brackish water with poor salinity. The bedrock is entirely gneiss, its name derives from the Old Norse dialect word tor, meaning "broken rocky beaches", which cut deep into the coast of Södertörn.
The highest point on Södertörn is Tornberget in Haninge at 110.9 metres above sea level. It is located in Hanveden, a large area of coniferous forest south of Stockholm, whose eastern areas form the Tyresta National Park; the southernmost parts of Södertörn were connected to Stockholm in 1901, when the Nynäs Line was opened. The railway runs between Nynäshamn in the south and Älvsjö in the north, where it joins with the main southern railway. Botkyrka Haninge Huddinge Nacka Nynäshamn Salem Stockholm Södertälje TyresöAll these municipalities are located both in Stockholm County and the province Södermanland. Though incorrect, the two remaining municipalities to fulfil these criteria — Södertälje and Nykvarn — both located west of Södertälje Canal, are sometimes thought of as part of Södertörn. Södertörn University College
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Ultuna is a locality in Uppsala Municipality, Uppsala County, Sweden with 449 inhabitants in 2017. Located 5 kilometres south of central Uppsala, it hosts the headquarters and main campus of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Ultuna is known for sharing Sweden's heat record of 38.0 °C, recorded on 9 July 1933. The name the name of an estate, is first recorded in 1221; the first element is the genitive case of the name of the Norse god Ullr. The last element is tuna'enclosed field'
Uppsala Castle is a 16th-century royal castle in the historic city of Uppsala, Sweden. Throughout much of its early history, the castle played a major role in the history of Sweden; the medieval Archbishop's Castle in Uppsala was close to the site of the present-day Archbishop's Palace, west of the cathedral, was confiscated by King Gustav I Vasa during the protestant reformation. King Gustav I ordered the construction of the renaissance castle in 1549, on the present site on a hill south of Uppsala Cathedral, with the old Archbishop's Castle being used for building material and subsequently demolished. Uppsala Castle was built during the time. Kings Erik XIV, John III and Charles IX all remodeled and expanded the citadel into a representative renaissance palace. During Erik XIV's reign, the castle was the site of the Sture Murders. In 1630, King Gustavus II Adolphus announced the decision that Sweden should participate in the Thirty Years' War, it was in the castle that the Swedish government announced the abdication of Queen Kristina in 1654.
Uppsala Castle was seriously damaged by fire in 1702. Reconstruction took many years and was indeed hampered by the remains of the castle being used as a quarry for stone to be used in building Stockholm Palace. Uppsala Castle was the administrative center of Uppland and the site of the Hall of State for many years. Uppsala Castle is the residence of the County Governor of Uppsala County. Dag Hammarskjöld, former Secretary-General of the United Nations, spent his childhood days in the castle when his father, Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, was governor of Uppsala County. Today, the castle is the site of the Uppsala Art Museum. Welcome to Uppsala Castle
Bålsta is a locality and the seat of Håbo Municipality, Uppsala County, Sweden with 13 138 inhabitants in 2015. Although not in Stockholm County, it has the north-western terminus of the Stockholm suburban rail system. Many inhabitants commute to Stockholm; the travel time is 40 minutes by suburban train, less than 30 minutes by commuter-or intercity rail. Lasse Åberg, a famous Swedish actor and artist, lives in Bålsta and has opened a museum there. Though Bålsta's small size, there are many organizations and activity-centers in the town, such as a hockey-arena hosting the team Bålsta HC, it has a mall with several stores. Martin Björk, Swedish television presenter Daniel Jarl, Swedish football player Marcus Nilson, Swedish professional ice hockey player