Texas State Highway 154
State Highway 154 or SH 154 is a state highway that runs from Cooper to Marshall in northeast Texas. The route was designated on March 19, 1930 between Cooper and Quitman as a renumbering of SH 37A. A proposed extension west to Ladonia was added on February 8, 1933. On July 15, 1935, the extension was cancelled. On December 22, 1936, the extension of SH 154 to Ladonia was restored. On August 4, 1937, this section to Cooper was renumbered as new SH 247, SH 154 was rerouted north over old SH 247 to northeast of Cooper. On November 16, 1937, SH 154 extended to Gilmer. On September 26, 1939, it was extended southeast from Gilmer to Marshall along its current route; this extension replaced part of SH 155. On August 24, 1960, the section north of Sulphur Springs was transferred to SH 19. On August 28, 1961, SH 154 was extended north and west to Cooper, replacing part of FM 64. On January 31, 1969, SH 154 extended southeast from US 80 to SH 43, concurrent with SH 43 to US 59, east to FM 31 and southeast concurrent with FM 31 to I-20.
On November 16, 1987, SH 154 was rerouted through Sulphur Springs. On January 28, 2005, the section of SH 154 from US 59 to FM 31 was cancelled as it was never built, the concurrent portions were removed, with the section of SH 154 south of Loop 390 to SH 43 becoming part of Loop 390
U.S. Route 80
U. S. Route 80 is an east-west United States Numbered Highway, much of, once part of the early auto trail known as the Dixie Overland Highway; as the "0" in the route number indicates, it was a cross-country route, from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Its original western terminus was in California. However, the entire segment west of Dallas, has been decommissioned in favor of various Interstate Highways and state highways; the highway's western terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 30 on the Dallas–Mesquite, Texas city line. The highway's eastern terminus is in Tybee Island, Georgia, at the intersection of Butler Avenue, Inlet Avenue, Tybrisa Street, near the Atlantic Ocean. Modern US 80 begins as a significant component of the urban freeway system of Texas. With Spur 557, it serves as the shortest freeway route from the central and northern portions of Dallas to I-20, heading east towards Shreveport, Louisiana. From its origin at I-30 in eastern Dallas, through its interchange with the I-635 "LBJ" Loop, to its junction with I-20 southwest of Terrell, US 80/Spur 557 is a full Interstate-grade, limited-access freeway.
In western Terrell, US 80 leaves the freeway, which continues southeast as Spur 557 to I-20, while US 80 runs north of I-20 through a number of small towns and cities, including Terrell, Mineola and Marshall. It rejoins I-20 for about five miles, before splitting to pass through downtown Waskom before crossing into Louisiana. US 80 is parallel to the newer I-20, which has supplanted it as a long-distance route, for the entirety of its length in Louisiana; the highway crosses the state line from Texas into Caddo Parish as a two-lane road and crosses over to the south of I-20 without connecting with the freeway. It passes through the town of Greenwood where it meets US 79 coming north from Texas, these two routes run concurrently eastward from there to Minden. US 79/US 80 crosses over I-20 again, this time at an interchange, enters the city of Shreveport as Greenwood Road; the highway passes over I-220 without an interchange and continues east to an intersection with Jefferson Paige Road where it expands to four undivided lanes and enters the main part of the urbanized area.
US 171 ends at US 79/US 80 at the intersection with Hearne Avenue. At this intersection, the road narrows to two through lanes. US 80 intersects I-20 again just east of here. At Mansfield Road, the highway name changes to Texas Avenue and angles northeast through an industrial area; the road skirts the I-20/I-49 interchange and expands to four lanes for its final approach to downtown. At the west edge of downtown, eastbound jogs one block east on Crockett Street and two blocks north on Common Street north to Texas Street. US 79/US 80 passes through downtown Shreveport on Texas Street before crossing the Red River on the 1930s vintage Long–Allen Bridge and entering Bossier City and Bossier Parish. Through Bossier Parish, US 79/US 80 comprises a major urban and suburban arterial carrying a minimum of four lanes. In the eastern reaches of the parish, continuing into Webster Parish, it is a divided highway; the road intersects the east end of I-220 at an interchange. US 79/US 80 stays to the north of I-20, except for a stretch east of Haughton where it strays to the south for a period, skirting the north edge of the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant.
At Dixie Inn, the highway intersects US 371. In Minden, US 79 continues its northeasterly trajectory toward Arkansas. East of Minden, US 80 crosses to the south of I-20 and serves the Bienville Parish towns of Gibsland and Arcadia. Entering Lincoln Parish, the highway serves Simsboro and Grambling before entering Ruston and overlapping US 167 on a north–south couplet of streets through the business district. US 80 resumes its eastward path on the north side of Ruston and exits the city on East Georgia Avenue. Between Ruston and Monroe the highway serves the small communities of Calhoun. Now on the north side of the interstate, it enters Ouachita Parish and approaches the Monroe area as a two-lane road. US 80 crosses Louisiana Highway 143 and enters West Monroe on Cypress Street, where it continues south into the business district and widens to a four-lane urban arterial. At junction LA 34, US 80 makes a left turn, angling northeast, crosses the Ouachita River, entering the city of Monroe; as Louisville Avenue it passes north of downtown, but the downtown area can be accessed via Business US 165 which intersects US 80 at North 5th/North 6th Street and becomes concurrent from there to the east.
Louisville Avenue becomes a commercialized urban arterial and remains so as it passes through the city curving southwestward and meeting the intersection with Desiard Street. As Desiard Street, US 80 meets mainline US 165, on its expressway bypass alignment, at a diamond interchange. Eastward from there, US 80 passes through suburban areas until it meets LA 139, where it is forced to turn off its four-lane alignment at an intersection which favors LA 139 traffic. Now a two-lane road, US 80 continues east through northeast Louisiana, passing through Richland and Madison parishes and serving the communities and towns of Start, Delhi, Tallulah and Delta. Just west of Delta, US 80 turns off its original route and runs a short distance south to an interchange with I-20; the orig
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States from 1841 to 1845 after serving as the tenth vice president. Tyler ascended to the presidency after Harrison's death in April 1841, only a month after the start of the new administration, he was a stalwart supporter of states' rights, as president he adopted nationalist policies only when they did not infringe on the powers of the states. His unexpected rise to the presidency, with the resulting threat to the presidential ambitions of Henry Clay and other politicians, left him estranged from both major political parties. Tyler, born to a prominent Virginia family, became a national figure at a time of political upheaval. In the 1820s the nation's only political party, the Democratic-Republicans, split into factions, he was a Democrat, but opposed Andrew Jackson during the Nullification Crisis, seeing Jackson's actions as infringing upon states' rights, criticized Jackson's expansion of executive power during the Bank War. This led Tyler to ally with the Whig Party.
Tyler served as a Virginia state legislator, governor, U. S. representative, U. S. senator. He was put on the 1840 presidential ticket to attract states' rights Southerners to a Whig coalition to defeat Martin Van Buren's re-election bid. With the death of President Harrison after just one month in office, Tyler became the first vice president to succeed to the presidency without election, he served longer than any president in U. S. history not elected to the office. To forestall constitutional uncertainty, Tyler took the oath of office, moved into the White House, assumed full presidential powers, a precedent that governed future successions and was codified in the Twenty-fifth Amendment. While Tyler did sign into law some of the Whig-controlled Congress's bills, as a strict constructionist he vetoed the party's bills to create a national bank and raise the tariff rates. Believing that the president should set policy rather than Congress, he sought to bypass the Whig establishment, most notably Kentucky Senator Henry Clay.
Most of Tyler's Cabinet resigned soon into his term, the Whigs, dubbing him His Accidency, expelled him from the party. Tyler was the first president to see his veto of legislation overridden by Congress. Although he faced a stalemate on domestic policy, he had several foreign-policy achievements, including the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with Britain and the Treaty of Wanghia with Qing China; the Republic of Texas separated from Mexico in 1836. He sought election to a full term as president, but after failing to gain the support of either Whigs or Democrats, he withdrew in support of Democrat James K. Polk, who favored annexation. Polk won the election, Tyler signed a bill to annex Texas three days before leaving office. Under Polk, the process was completed. After the American Civil War began in 1861, Tyler joined the government of the Confederacy. Although some have praised Tyler's political resolve, his presidency is held in low regard by historians, he is considered an obscure president, with little presence in American cultural memory.
John Tyler was born on March 29, 1790. The Tyler family traced its lineage to colonial Williamsburg in the 17th century. John Tyler Sr. known as Judge Tyler, was a friend and college roommate of Thomas Jefferson and served in the Virginia House of Delegates alongside Benjamin Harrison V, father of William. The elder Tyler served four years as Speaker of the House of Delegates before becoming a state court judge, he subsequently served as governor and as a judge on the U. S. District Court at Richmond, his wife, Mary Marot, was the daughter of Robert Booth Armistead. She died of a stroke. With two brothers and five sisters, Tyler was reared on Greenway Plantation, a 1,200-acre estate with a six-room manor house his father had built; the Tylers' forty slaves grew various crops, including wheat and tobacco. Judge Tyler paid high wages for tutors. Tyler was of frail health and prone to diarrhea throughout life. At the age of twelve, he entered the preparatory branch of the elite College of William and Mary, continuing the Tyler family's tradition of attending the college.
Tyler graduated from the school's collegiate branch at age seventeen. Among the books that formed his economic views was Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, he acquired a lifelong love of Shakespeare, his political opinions were shaped by Bishop James Madison, the college's president and namesake of the future president. After graduation Tyler read the law with his father, a state judge at the time, with Edmund Randolph, former United States Attorney General. Tyler was erroneously admitted to the Virginia bar at the premature age of 19—the admitting judge neglected to ask his age. By this time his father was serving as Governor of Virginia, the young Tyler started a practice in Richmond, the state capital. In 1813 he purchased Woodburn plantation, resided there until 1821. In 1811, at age 21, Tyler was elected to represent Charles City County in the House of Delegate
U.S. Route 259
U. S. Route 259 is a north–south spur of U. S. Route 59 that runs for 250 miles through rural areas of southeast Oklahoma; the highway's southern terminus is near Nacogdoches, Texas at an interchange with its parent route, US 59. Its northern terminus is in the Ouachita Mountains, about 15 miles south of Heavener, Oklahoma where it reunites with U. S. 59. For most of its length, US 259 lies 30–50 miles to the west of its parent route. US 259 begins at an intersection with US 59, on the north side of Nacogdoches, Texas; the highway continues due north, passing through Mount Enterprise, around the eastern side of Henderson and Kilgore. In Kilgore, Texas, US 259 is known as the Charles K. Devall Memorial Highway, as named by the Texas legislature, it has a concurrency with Interstate 20 of about 6 miles continues north around the eastern edge of Longview along Eastman Rd. The highway continues due north, crossing Interstate 30 in northern Morris County, crossing into Oklahoma in northwest Bowie County.
After crossing into McCurtain County, Oklahoma, US-259 meets up with State Highway 87, continues north through Harris. Maps indicate that US-259 and SH-87 overlap to Idabel, but this is not the case, ODOT signage does not reflect a concurrency. US-259 bypasses Idabel to the south and east, concurring with U. S. Highway 70 Bypass. East of Idabel, the bypass route ends, US-259 begins a concurrency with mainline US-70 and SH-3; the three highways continue north to Broken Bow, where US-70 splits to the east toward DeQueen, Arkansas and SH-3 splits to the west, bound for Antlers. US-259 continues north alone, taking a winding path through the Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma; the route passes Broken Bow Lake on its west side, with State Highway 259A serving as an access loop to the lake and Beavers Bend State Resort. Near the lake, US-259 crosses through the Ouachita National Forest for the first time. Near Smithville, the highway serves as the western terminus of State Highway 4. North of the SH-4 junction, US-259 crosses into Le Flore County.
The U. S. route serves as the eastern terminus of SH-144 near Octavia. US-259 reenters the National Forest north of this junction, intersects SH-63 at Big Cedar, it has a junction with SH-1, the Talimena Drive. The highway reunites with US-59 about 10 miles south of Heavener. In Texas, the highway was designated in 1962 and assumed the entire route of a previous iteration and alignment of State Highway 26, cancelled. Prior to 1985, US 259 between Kilgore and Longview followed the current route of Texas State Highway 31, it entered Longview from the southwest at the intersection of South St. and Spur 63. It followed Spur 63 to US 80. US 259 ran concurrently with US 80 to Eastman Road. At the US 80/Eastman Rd. intersection, the previous alignment of US 259 turned left to go north on Eastman. In 1985, US 259 was rerouted to its current route along Interstate 20 to Eastman Rd. left to go north, along the eastern edge of Longview, bypassing the central business district. US-259 has one Business route in Texas.
In 2006, a new bypass was completed around the eastern side of Kilgore. The bypass had been proposed as early as 1965, but funding did not become available until the late 1990s; the new bypass was designated as US-259, while the previous route through the Kilgore business district was designated as a business route. The new business route was approved by the AASHO in September 2006. US-259 continued into downtown Idabel, the southeast portion of the Idabel bypass was double-designated as US-70 Bypass and US-259 Bypass. On 6 March 2000, the bypass route was decommissioned, mainline US-259 was moved onto the bypass. However, as of 2008, some bypass signage is still in place, including signage indicating the former terminus of Bypass US-259 at US-70/SH-3. SH-259A, an Oklahoma state highway, is a 10-mile loop to Broken Bow Lake and Beavers Bend Resort Park north of Broken Bow, Oklahoma, it lies in the Ouachita National Forest and is signed as a U. S. highway. U. S. Route 59 U. S. Route 159 Media related to U.
S. Route 259 at Wikimedia Commons Endpoints of U. S. Highway 259
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as