U.S. Route 19 in Georgia
U. S. Route 19 is a 349-mile-long U. S. Highway in the U. S. state of Georgia. It travels from the Florida state line south-southeast of Thomasville, through Albany and Atlanta, to the North Carolina state line at a point north of Lake Nottely. US 19 enters Georgia in a concurrency with SR 3 and SR 300 as the Georgia-Florida Parkway south-southeast of Thomasville. Within the vicinity of Thomasville, it has a concurrency with US 84 where it has intersections with Georgia State Route 122 and U. S. Route 319 before US 84 branches off to the west, it continues north, traveling through Meigs where it intersects SR 3 ALT and SR 111. It runs through Albany, where it becomes a limited-access highway, has a brief concurrency with US 82, the concurrency with SR 300 comes to an end. Further north, it runs through Americus, where it joins US 280 for one mile Ellaville, where it intersects SR 26. Between Taylor and Upson County, it has a concurrency with US 80 that ends south of Thomaston, runs through Zebulon where it runs in a one-way pair and intersects SR 18.
It joins proceeds north to Griffin. It proceeds through the western tip of Henry County, traveling through Hampton, home of the Atlanta Motor Speedway. US 19 continues north through Clayton County where it is known as Tara Boulevard, before entering Atlanta. Within Atlanta, US 19/US 41 runs along Northside Drive where it is joined by US 29/Georgia Connecting Route 3. From there, US 19/29/41/SR 3 runs north and curves northeast, passing by a group of condominiums called "The Villages of Castleberry Hill," before the road curves straight north between Nelson Street Southwest and Markham Street Southwest. Here the routes run along the west side of the Mercedes-Benz Stadium next door to the Georgia World Congress Center. US 29 leaves the concurrency with US 19/41 in the vicinity Georgia Tech, turns northwest onto US 78/US 278/SR 8, which leaves US 19/41 to go west; the highway curves northeast as it passes over some Norfolk Southern Railway lines turns north again at a partial interchange with Tech Parkway Northwest.
Leaving the vicinity of Georgia Tech, it splits from US 41/SR 3 after traveling through downtown Atlanta and turns right onto on 14th Street, the western beginning of SR 9. One block after the interchange with I-75/85 in Midtown, it has an intersection with a one-way pair with Spring Street before turning north on Peachtree Street The one-way pair ends at the vicinity of a complex interchange with Georgia State Route 13 and the Savannah College of Art and Design Atlanta Campus, just south of a crossing over I-85, which includes the historic Peachtree. After several miles, it intersects SR 141 in Buckhead, it follows Roswell Road north through the city of Sandy Springs. At its southern interchange with I-285, it splits from SR 9, overlaps I-285 between Exits 25 and 27, the latter of, for SR 400, which it overlaps north of there. Most of this section is a limited-access road with four lanes in each direction, becoming two lanes in each direction as the highway continues away from the northern suburbs of Atlanta.
It arrives in Dahlonega, where it is no longer concurrent with SR 400, before about 37 miles of curvy road, which includes a concurrency with US 129. From the north side of the state, the last major town it travels through is Blairsville. Northwest from there, US 19/129/SR 11 passes the southwest border of the Butternut Creek Golf Course before entering Youngstown; the road turns north again where it utilizes a short causeway over Wellborn Branch, a tributary of the Nottely River before intersecting the northern terminus of Pat Haralson Memorial Drive, across from this a local marina with a gas station/convenience store, small bait & tackle store and gift shop before the intersection with Pat Colwell Road. Random current and former boating and automotive-related businesses can be found along the way as the road enters Canal Lake where another short causeway that makes a pond leading to Stevens Branch Creek, is served by the Nottely Marina. Between an antique store and a furniture store, a power line right-of-way crosses from southeast to northwest as it heads over a mountain, the road runs along the east side of that power line.
Moving further away from those power lines, the road passes by a Cott Beverages production facility. A third causeway that creates a pond for Ivylog Creek, whereas further north a small culvert over Conley Creek is not used as a dam. Flashing lights on the top and bottom of the two signal crossing signs are an indication the routes are about to enter Ivylog where the eastern terminus of Georgia State Route 325 can be found across from Ivy Log Road. North of the heart of Ivy Log, the Ivy Log Cemetery can be found hidden away in a driveway among more residential zoning; the rest of the surroundings are farm and ranch land as it runs under another power line right-of-way running from southwest to northeast south of T Chapel Road. The last two intersections in the State of Georgia are local roads, the first named Tate Road and a dead end street named B. King Lane which leads to an antique store. A gas station and strip mall can be found on the southwest corner of the North Carolina state line, where SR 11 meets its northern terminus, while US 19 continues towards Erie, Pennsylvania and US 129 continues towards Knoxville, Tennessee.
In 2006, business and government officials in Southwest Georgia began a campaign to have I-185 extended to Monticello and connect with I-10. The proposed route of the highway would have traveled parallel to SR 520 to Albany, parallel to US 19. Loca
Georgia's 3rd congressional district
Georgia's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Republican Drew Ferguson; the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia. The first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections; the district is based in west-central Georgia. It includes most of the southern suburbs of Atlanta--where most of its population is located--as well as the wealthier portions of Columbus and its northern suburbs; the district is located close to Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport, a number of airport and airline employees live there. Carroll County Coweta County Fayette County Harris County Heard County Henry County Lamar County Meriwether County Muscogee County Pike County Spalding County Troup County Upson County As of January 2019, there are two former members of the House the district; the most recent representative and most serving representative to die was Jack Brinkley on January 23, 2019.
Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 3rd district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 3rd district at GovTrack.us
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Sandy Springs, Georgia
Sandy Springs is a city in northern Fulton County, United States, part of the Atlanta metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, Sandy Springs had a population of 93,853, its 2017 estimated population was 106,739. Sandy Springs is Georgia's sixth-largest city and is the site of several corporate headquarters such as UPS, Inspire Brands, Cox Communications, Mercedes-Benz USA's corporate offices. In 1842, the Austin-Johnson House was erected on, it is the oldest house in Sandy Springs. In 1851, Wilson Spruill donated 5 acres of land for the founding of the Sandy Springs United Methodist Church, near the natural spring for which the city is named. In 1905, the Hammond School was built at Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway, across the street from the church. In 1950, the state legislature blocked Atlanta from annexing the community, which remained rural until the Interstate Highway System was authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. In 1959, after a fire at Hammond Elementary School, William Hartsfield, the mayor of Atlanta, urged residents to support annexation so that the area would have better firefighting protection.
Community opposition killed the proposal. In the early 1960s, Georgia 400 and Interstate 285 were constructed, connecting Sandy Springs to metro Atlanta and initiating a housing boom that brought new residents and major land development. In 1966, annexation by Atlanta was defeated with two-thirds voting against. On January 16, 1997, Eric Rudolph bombed an abortion clinic in Sandy Springs. Efforts to incorporate Sandy Springs began in 1966, in response to attempts by the city of Atlanta to annex this unincorporated area of North Fulton County. Sandy Springs residents, led by Eva Galambos, fought for 40 years to obtain their own government. In the 1970s, the city of Atlanta attempted to use a state law to force annexation of Sandy Springs; the attempt failed. In response, the Committee for Sandy Springs was formed in 1975. In every legislative session, state legislators representing the area introduced a bill in the Georgia General Assembly to authorize a referendum on incorporation. Legislators representing Atlanta and southwestern Fulton County, who feared tax revenue that would be lost from incorporation, blocked the bills using the procedural requirement that all local legislation be approved first by a delegation of representatives from the affected area.
In 1989, a push was made for Sandy Springs to join neighboring Chattahoochee Plantation in Cobb County. This move was blocked by Speaker Tom Murphy; when the Republican Party gained a majority in both houses of the General Assembly in 2005, the procedural rules used to prevent a vote by the full chamber were changed so that the bill was handled as a state bill and not as a local bill. The assembly repealed the requirement that new cities must be at least 3 miles from existing cities, because the new city limits border both Roswell and Atlanta; the bill allowing for a referendum on incorporation was introduced and passed as HB 37. The referendum initiative was signed by Governor Sonny Perdue; the referendum was held on June 21, 2005, residents voted 94% in favor of incorporation. Shortly afterwards, voters returned to the polls selecting Eva Galambos as the City’s first mayor. Many residents expressed displeasure with county services, based upon financial information provided by the county, that the county was redistributing revenues to fund services in less financially stable areas of the county, ignoring local opposition to rezoning, allowing excessive development.
Many residents of unincorporated and less-developed south Fulton County opposed incorporation, fearing the loss of tax revenues which fund county services. County residents outside Sandy Springs were not allowed to vote on the matter. Efforts such as requesting the U. S. Justice Department to reject the plan were unsuccessful. A mayor and six city council members were elected in early November 2005, with Eva Galambos, who had initiated and led the charge for incorporation, elected mayor by a wide margin. Formal incorporation occurred on December 1, making Sandy Springs the third-largest city to incorporate in the U. S; the city's police force and fire department began service in 2006. Prior to 2005, residents relied upon a large, traditionally modeled county government for the provision of services, which residents felt did not adequately meet their needs; these challenges formed the basis for desiring a streamlined government physically closer to constituents and responsive to community desires.
Sandy Springs initiated a non-traditional approach by operating as a Public Private Partnership, with nearly half of City staff employed by a private company. In 2010, the City undertook a comprehensive procurement process to rebid all general city services, resulting in multiple providers, providing considerable savings and higher levels of service for the City; the Sandy Springs PPP model is regarded as an example for other local governments, with city leaders from across the country and around the globe, including China, Korea and others visiting Sandy Springs to learn about the PPP model. Since the incorporation of Sandy Springs, several other metro cities have formed – Dunwoody, Peachtree Hills and Johns Creek – each instituting a form of the Public-Private model. In 2010, the city became the first jurisdiction in Georgia to "bail out" from the preclearance requirements of Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act; the boundaries of Sandy Springs are Atlanta to the south, Cobb Count