Kumar Sangakkara is a Sri Lankan cricket commentator and former cricketer and captain of the Sri Lankan national team. He is regarded as one of the world's most influential cricketers and one of the greatest batsmen of all-time. Sangakkara has forged many formidable partnerships with long time teammate and friend, Mahela Jayawardene and holds numerous batting records in the modern era across all formats of the game, he scored 28,016 runs in international cricket across all formats in a career. A left-handed top-order batsman, he is a record-breaking wicket-keeper, although he no longer kept wicket at the end of his Test career, he is the second-highest run-scorer in ODI cricket and the sixth-highest run scorer in Test cricket. Sangakkara is described as one of the "prudent of batsmen" in cricket, he dominated the number one spot in the ICC Test batting rankings between 2005 and 2015. Sangakkara was a key member of the team that won the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 and was part of the team that made the final of the 2007 Cricket World Cup, 2011 Cricket World Cup, 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and 2012 ICC World Twenty20.
He won the Man of the Match award in the final of the 2014 ICC World Twenty20, where he helped the team win their first title. He was the youngest person and the first active international player to deliver the MCC Spirit of Cricket Cowdrey Lecture, praised by the cricketing community for its outspoken nature. In terms of a number of innings required, Sangakkara is the fastest batsman to reach 8,000, 9,000, 11,000 and 12,000 runs in Test cricket, he is joint fastest to 10,000. He won the ICC Cricketer of the Year in 2012, Test Cricketer of the Year in 2012, ODI Cricketer of the Year multiple times in 2011 and 2013, he has won the LG People's Choice Award twice, in 2011 and 2012. Sangakkara has featured in the World Test XI and World ODI XI, appearing six times and three times in them, respectively, he was selected as Leading Cricketer in the World in the 2015 edition of Wisden. He was named the Wisden Leading Cricketer in the World in 2011 and 2015, he is one of two players to have won this award twice, along with Indian opener Virender Sehwag, who won the award in 2008 and 2009.
Sangakkara was rated as the Greatest ODI player of all time in a public poll conducted by Cricket Australia in 2016. On 29 January 2015, Sangakkara became Sri Lanka's highest ODI run scorer, surpassing the previous record of 13,430 runs held by Sanath Jayasuriya. In the same match, he broke the record for ODI wicketkeeping dismissals, breaking the previous record of 472 held by Adam Gilchrist. Sangakkara was born to Anuska Surangana and Swarnakumara Sangakkara, an attorney-at-law at Matale, Sri Lanka in 1977, his parents settled in Kandy. Sangakkara received his primary and secondary education at Trinity College, Kandy, an independent elite private boys' school situated in the central highlands of Sri Lanka, he has two sisters: Thushari and Saranga, an elder brother: Vemindra, all who have made national-level achievements during their schooling. Sangakkara began to play a number of sports: badminton, swimming, table tennis and cricket at the junior school, he was able to win national colours activities for tennis at a young age.
The principal of the Trinity College, Leonard de Alwis, advised his mother to encourage Sangakkara to concentrate on cricket. His parents hid Tamil families during the Black July riots in 1983, he represented his school's under-13 cricket XI under coach Upananda Jayasundera. Berty Wijesinghe coached Sangakkara for under-17, under-19 and first XI squads, he was awarded The Trinity Lion, the most prestigious prize awarded to a Trinity sportsman, for his exceptional batting and wicket-keeping skills in the 1996 season, at the age of 19. Sangakkara was selected to represent Sri Lankan A cricket team's tour to South Africa in 1998–99, his knock of an unbeaten 156 against Zimbabwe A team during a one-day match, helped him secure a place in the Sri Lankan national cricket team that year. Sanga was the Senior Prefect of school, he did his Advanced Level examination in the Arts stream in 1996, he was awarded the highest honor of Trinity College, the Ryde Gold Medal, for the best all-round student in his year.
Following his father, a lawyer in Kandy, he entered the Law Faculty of the University of Colombo, but was unable to finish his degree due to his cricketing commitments. Sangakkara played the violin during his school days, he was cited as an inspiration to continue his higher education by Bangladeshi captain Mushfiqur Rahim, upon receiving his master's degree. At the age of 22 Sangakkara made his Test debut on 20 July 2000, keeping wicket in the first fixture of a three-match series against South Africa. Sri Lanka won the match and in his side's only innings Sangakarra batted at the fall of the third wicket and scored 23 runs before he was dismissed leg before wicket by spin bowler Nicky Boje, he made 35 runs in his One-day cricket debut against Pakistan and he received his first man of the match award in the 2nd match of the Singer Triangular Series, 2000, scoring 85 runs against South Africa. He ended the series with 199 runs, at an average of 66.33, securing his place for the upcoming Test series against South Africa.
Before reaching his first Test century, he was twice dismissed in the 90s, once against each of South Africa and England. In August 2001, India toured Sri Lanka for three Tests and in the opening match Sangakkara scored his first century, his innings of 105 not out at number three helped set up a ten-wicket victory for Sri Lanka. That year Sangakkara scored his sec
The captain of a cricket team referred to as the skipper, is the appointed leader, having several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of the other players. As in other sports, the captain is experienced and has good communication skills, is to be one of the most regular members of the team, as the captain has a say in team selection. Before the game the captains toss for innings. During the match the captain decides the team's batting order, who will bowl each over, where each fielder will be positioned. While the captain has the final say, decisions are collaborative. A captain's knowledge of the complexities of cricket strategy and tactics, shrewdness in the field, may contribute to the team's success. Due to the smaller coaching/management role played out by support staff, as well as the need for greater on-field decision-making, the captain of a cricket team shoulders more responsibility for results than team captains in other sports. Before the start of a match the home captain tosses a coin and the away captain calls heads or tails.
The captain who wins the toss bowl first. The decision depends on the condition of the pitch and whether it is to deteriorate, the weather conditions and the weather forecast; the decision depends on the relative strengths of the team's batting and bowling. For instance in Test Cricket, a side with only fast bowlers may choose to bowl first to try to take advantage of any early moisture in the pitch, knowing that it will be harder to take wickets in the match. A side with a weak opening batting pair may choose to bowl first in order to protect their batsmen; the captain decides where the fielders will stand, in consultation with the bowler and sometimes other senior players. The fielding positions will be dictated by the type of bowler, the batsman's batting style, the captain's assessment of the state of the match; the captain decides. If a batsman is seeking to dominate the current bowler, the captain may ask someone else to bowl. If the regular bowlers are not achieving the desired results, the captain may decide to use non-regular bowlers to attempt to unsettle the batsmen.
The captain may change the bowlers around to introduce variation, to prevent the batsmen getting "set". In limited overs cricket the captain additionally has to make certain that bowlers bowl no more than their allotted maximum number of overs, that experienced bowlers are available at the end of the batting side's innings, when the batsmen are looking to take risks to attack and score quickly. In the longer forms of cricket, when a new ball becomes available the captain decides whether to use it; when the team bats, the captain decides the batting order. In professional cricket the captain changes the established batting order only for exceptional reasons, because batsmen tend to specialise in batting at certain positions. However, in certain circumstances it may be in the team's interest to change the batting order. If quick runs are needed, a attacking batsman may be promoted up the order. A player who is'in form' may be promoted to a higher batting position, at the expense of a player who is'out of form'.
If a wicket falls near the end of a day's play if the light is failing, or if the bowlers seem confident, the captain may choose to send in a non-specialist batsman, referred to as a nightwatchman. If the nightwatchman does not get out before the end of that day's play the specialist batsman will have been protected, will not need to bat until the following day when conditions are to have improved. If the nightwatchman does get out, the cost of losing a late wicket will have been minimised, because the specialist batsman is still available to bat; the captain may declare the team's innings closed at any time, but only does so as an attacking ploy, for instance if the captain thinks the team has enough runs to win the match, or if a sudden change in conditions has made it advantageous to bowl rather than bat. In a two-innings match, if the situation arises the captain decides; the captain is consulted on whether an injured batsman from the opposing team may use a runner when batting. Permission is given if the batsman has become injured during the course of the match, but if the batsman was carrying the injury at the start of the match the captain may refuse.
As well as decisions taken either before or during a match, captains often have some responsibility for the good running of the cricket club. For instance, they may decide when the team is to practise, for how long. In professional cricket the captain has some say in who will form the squad from which teams are selected, may decide how young up-and-coming players are to be encouraged and improved, how members of the squad who are not selected for first-team matches are to gain match practice. Prior to July 2015, the captain was responsible for deciding when to take batting and bowling powerplays in limited overs matches; the captain may be assisted in some instances joint vice-captains. This is useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding; some teams allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, dis
Deshabandu Sanath Teran Jayasuriya is a former Sri Lankan cricketer and a former captain of the Sri Lankan national team. Considered one of the greatest One Day International players of all time, Jayasuriya is well known for his powerful striking and match winning all-round performances in ODI cricket. Jayasuriya is credited for having revolutionized one-day international cricket with his explosive batting with Romesh Kaluwitharana in 1996, which initiated the hard-hitting modern day batting strategy of all nations. Jayasuriya was an all-rounder, who had an international cricket career that spread over two decades, He is the only player to score over 12,000 runs and capture more than 300 wickets in One Day International cricket, hence regarded as one of the best all rounders in the history of limited-overs cricket, he was named the Most Valuable Player of 1996 Cricket World Cup and Wisden Cricketers' Almanack broke an age old tradition by naming him one of Five Cricketers’ of the Year 1997 despite not playing the previous season in England.
Jayasuriya was the captain of the Sri Lankan cricket team from 1999 to 2003. He retired from Test cricket in December 2007 and from limited overs cricket in June 2011. On 28 January 2013, Sri Lanka Cricket appointed him as the chairman of cricket selection committee. Sri Lanka won the ICC World Twenty20 for the first time in 2014, during his tenure as the chief selector. Jayasuriya ran for public office at the 2010 Sri Lankan general elections and was elected to the parliament from his native Matara District, he topped the UPFA parliamentary election list for Matara district by obtaining 74,352 preferential votes. He served as the deputy minister of Postal services in the former UPFA government led by Mahinda Rajapaksa, as the Deputy Minister of Local Government & Rural Development under president Maithripala Sirisena. Jayasuriya did not contest for the 2015 Sri Lankan general election, though he won most votes from Matara district under UPFA in the 2010 Sri Lankan general election. In February 2019, Jayasuriya was banned for two years in taking part in any cricket-related activity by the International Cricket Council's anti-corruption unit, after he failed to co-operate in a corruption investigation.
Sanath Jayasuriya was born in the Southern Sri Lankan city of Matara, to the family of Dunstan and Breeda Jayasuriya. He has Chandana Jayasuriya, he was educated at St. Servatius' College, where his cricketing talents were nourished by his school principal, G. L. Galappathy, cricket coach, Lionel Wagasinghe, he excelled in cricket while at St. Servatius College and captained the college cricket team at the annual St. Thomas'–St. Servatius Cricket Encounter in 1988. Jayasuriya was picked as the'Observer Schoolboy Cricketer of the Year' in the Outstation Segment in 1988, he received the awards for the'Best Batsman' and'Best All-rounder' in the Outstation Segment at the Observer School Cricket Awards ceremony in the same year. Jayasuriya represented Sri Lanka in the inaugural ICC Under-19 Cricket World Cup, held in Australia in 1988 and was subsequently selected for a tour in Pakistan a few months with the Sri Lanka'B' team, where he made two unbeaten double centuries. Shortly afterwards he was drafted into the national side for the tour to Australia in 1989–90.
He made his One Day International debut against Australia at Melbourne on Boxing Day of 1989 and his Test debut against New Zealand at Hamilton in February 1991. Along with his opening partner Romesh Kaluwitharana, Jayasuriya revolutionized One Day International batting with his aggressive tactics during the 1996 Cricket World Cup, a strategy they first tried on the preceding tour of Australia; the tactic used was to take advantage of the early fielding restrictions by smashing the opening bowlers to all parts of the cricket ground by lofting their deliveries over the mandatory infielders, rather than the established tactic of building up momentum gradually. This was a novel but match-winning tactic at that time, Sri Lanka, who had never made it out of the preliminary rounds, went on to win the World Cup without a single defeat, their new gameplan is now the standard opening batting strategy in limited overs cricket for the modern era. Glenn McGrath cited Jayasuriya in his XI of toughest batsmen, noting "it is always a massive compliment to someone to say they changed the game, his storming innings in the 1996 World Cup changed everyone's thinking about how to start innings."Jayasuriya is known for both cuts and pulls along with his trademark shot, a lofted cut over point.
He was one of the key players in Sri Lanka's victory in the 1996 Cricket World Cup, where he was adjudged Man of the Tournament in recognition of his all-round contributions. His philosophy towards batting is summarized by an all-aggression approach and over the years he has dominated every one day bowling combination that he has faced at one stage or another; this is because of his ability to make huge match-winning contributions at rapid pace once he gets in, he holds the record for the second highest number of one day centuries and has scored the second most 150+ scores. His devastating performances have ensured that Sri Lanka have won 80% of the matches that he scored over 50 runs in limited overs cricket; when asked in an interview who are the most challenging bowlers he had faced in the game, he named in the order Wasim Akram, Shane Warne, Glenn McGrath, Courtney Walsh, Curtly Ambrose. Jayasuriya was a left arm orthodox spin bowler known for getting through his overs. Although a spinner, he was used to bowl faster balls and yorkers with quick arm action which g
Ricky Thomas Ponting, AO, is an Australian cricket commentator and former cricketer, two-time World Cup winning captain in 2003 and 2007 regarded as one of the greatest batsmen of all time. Ponting was captain of the Australian national team during its'golden era', he is a specialist right-handed batsman, an excellent slip / close catching fielder, as well as a occasional bowler. He was named "Cricketer of the Decade 2000", he led Australia to victory at the 2003 and 2007 Cricket World Cups and was a member of the 1999 World Cup winning team under Steve Waugh. He led Australia to a ICC Champions Trophy victory twice in a row, in 2006 and 2009. Ponting is considered the most successful captain in international cricket history, with 219 matches won overall from 322 matches with a winning ratio of 68%, he represented the Tasmanian Tigers in Australian domestic cricket, the Hobart Hurricanes in Australia's domestic T20 competition the Big Bash League, played in the Indian Premier League with the Kolkata Knight Riders in 2008.
He is considered to be one of the best batsmen of the modern era, alongside Sachin Tendulkar of India and Brian Lara of the West Indies. On 1 December 2006, he reached the highest rating achieved by a Test batsman for 50 years, though this was surpassed by Steve Smith in December 2017, he stands second in the List of cricketers by number of international centuries scored behind Sachin Tendulkar. After being involved in over 160 Tests and 370 ODIs, Ponting is Australia's leading run-scorer in Test and ODI cricket, he is one of only four players in history to have scored 13,000 Test runs. Statistically, he is one of the most successful captains of all time, with 48 victories in 77 Tests between 2004 and 31 December 2010; as a player, Ponting is the only cricketer in history to be involved in 100 Test victories. Ponting holds the record to have been involved in the most ODI victories as a player, with 262 wins. On 29 November 2012 Ponting announced his retirement from Test cricket, the day before he would play in the Perth Test against South Africa.
This was his 168th and last Test appearance. Ponting retired on 3 December 2012 with a Test batting average of 51.85. He continued to play cricket around the world. In February 2013 it was announced that he would be captaining the Mumbai Indians team in the Indian Premier League, and in March 2013 he was announced as the first international franchise player for the Caribbean Premier League. That month it was revealed by Ponting that this would be his last season playing cricket, as at the end of the competition he would be retiring from all forms of the game. In July 2018, he was inducted into the ICC Hall of Fame. Ponting is the current assistant coach of the Australian national men’s cricket team, having been appointed to the role in February 2019. Born in Launceston, Tasmania on 19 December 1974, Ricky Ponting is the eldest of Graeme and Lorraine Ponting's four children. Graeme was "a good club cricketer" and played Australian rules football, while Lorraine was a state vigoro champion, his uncle Greg Campbell played Test cricket for Australia in 1989 and 1990.
Ponting's parents first lived in Prospect 4.1 km south of city centre. After marrying his long-time girlfriend, law student Rianna Jennifer Cantor, in June 2002, Ponting credited her as the reason for his increased maturity, their daughter Emmy Charlotte was born in Sydney on 26 July 2008. Second daughter Matisse Ellie was born in Sydney on 8 September 2011. Third child, first son, Fletcher William was born in Melbourne on 24 September 2014. Introduced to cricket by father Graeme and uncle Greg Campbell, Ponting played for the Mowbray Under–13s team at the age of 11 in 1985–86. In January 1986, he took part in the five-day annual Northern Tasmania junior cricket competition. After scoring four centuries in a week, bat manufacturer Kookaburra gave Ponting a sponsorship contract while in just eighth grade on the back of these four centuries. Ponting took this form into the Under-16s week-long competition less than a month scoring an century on the final day. Ted Richardson, the former head of the Northern Tasmanian Schools Cricket Association said: "Ricky is the equal of David Boon at this level.
Australian Rules football was a big part of Ponting's sporting life, is a keen follower of the North Melbourne Kangaroos. During the winter he played junior football for North Launceston and up until he was 14, it could have become a possible sporting option; this was before he broke the humerus in his right arm playing for North Launceston Under–17s as a 13-year-old. Ponting's arm was so badly damaged. Told to endure a 14-week lay-off, he never played competitive football again. During Tasmanian Sheffield Shield matches at the NTCA Ground, Ponting helped out with the scoreboard, thereby surrounding himself with international cricketers. After leaving school at the end of year 10 in 1990, he began work as a groundsman at Scotch Oakburn College, a private school in Launceston. In 1991 the Northern Tasmanian Cricket Association sponsored Ponting to attend a fortnight's training at the Australian Cricket Academy in Adelaide; the two weeks turned into a full two-year sponsorship as he was said to be the best 17-year-old batsman Academy coach Rod Marsh had seen.
Playing five games for Tasmania for the 1992 Under–19 carnival in Perth, Ponting scored 350 runs, earning him selection in the 13-man na
Zimbabwe national cricket team
The Zimbabwe national cricket team is administered by Zimbabwe Cricket. Zimbabwe is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test and One Day International status; as of November 2018, Zimbabwe is ranked tenth in Tests, eleventh in ODIs and twelfth in Twenty20 Internationals by the ICC. Zimbabwe – known as Rhodesia until 1980 – had a national cricket team before it achieved Test status. A brief summary of key moments: Rhodesia was represented in the South African domestic cricket tournament, the Currie Cup, sporadically from 1904 to 1932, regularly from 1946 until independence. Following independence, the country began to play more international cricket. On 21 July 1981, Zimbabwe became an associate member of the ICC. Zimbabwe participated in the 1983 Cricket World Cup, as well as the 1992 events. Zimbabwe's first World Cup campaign in 1983 ended in the group stage, as they lost five of their six matches. However, they threw a surprise against Australia. Batting first, Zimbabwe reached a total of 239 for 6 in the allotted 60 overs, with skipper Duncan Fletcher top-scoring with 69 not out.
Fletcher produced career-best figures of 4 for 42 to restrict Australia to 226 for 7, thereby recording a stunning upset in cricket history. In the 1987 World Cup, Zimbabwe lost all six of their group-stage matches, though they came close to winning against New Zealand. Chasing 243 to win from 50 overs, wicketkeeper-batsman David Houghton scored 142, but Zimbabwe were all out for 239 in the final over, thus losing by three runs. In the 1992 tournament, Zimbabwe failed to progress beyond the round-robin stage, losing seven of their eight matches, though there were two notable achievements. Against Sri Lanka in their first match, Zimbabwe posted their then-highest total of 312 for 4, with wicketkeeper-batsman Andy Flower top-scoring with 115 not out. However, the Sri Lankans chased this total down with four balls to spare. In their final match, Zimbabwe faced England in an inconsequential encounter, England having made the semi-finals. Batting first, Zimbabwe were all out for 134. Eddo Brandes produced a stunning spell of 4 for 21, including dismissing Graham Gooch first ball, to help restrict England to 125 all out and thus give Zimbabwe a shock nine-run victory.
These twenty World Cup matches were Zimbabwe's only international games during this period. Zimbabwe was granted Test status by the ICC in July 1992 and played its first Test match in October that year, against India at Harare Sports Club, they became the ninth Test nation. Zimbabwe's early Test performances were weak, leading to suggestions that they had been granted Test status prematurely. Of their first 30 Test matches, they won just one, at home against Pakistan in early 1995. In the one-day arena, the team soon became competitive, if not strong. In particular, world respect was gained for their fielding ability. In spite of his team's difficulties, wicket-keeper/batsman Andy Flower was at one point rated the best batsman in world cricket. During this era, Zimbabwe produced such cricketers as Flower's brother Grant, allrounders Andy Blignaut and Heath Streak. Murray Goodwin was a world-class batsman. Another world-class batsman was David Houghton, who holds the record for the highest individual Test score for Zimbabwe of 266 against Sri Lanka in 1994/95.
Sometime captain and middle order batsman Alistair Campbell, leg-spinning all rounder Paul Strang, Eddo Brandes, pace bowler/opener Neil Johnson were other important contributors for Zimbabwe on the world stage at this time. With the appearance of these quality players, a breakthrough was achieved in levels of performance in the late 1990s where the Zimbabwean team began winning Tests against other nations, which included a series win against Pakistan; the political situation in Zimbabwe declined at around the same time, which had a detrimental effect on the national team's performances. Zimbabwe excelled at the 1999 Cricket World Cup, coming in fifth place in the Super Sixes and only missing out on a semi-final place due to having an inferior net run-rate than New Zealand. In the group stage, Zimbabwe beat India by three runs, before facing their neighbours South Africa the best team in the world. Batting first, Zimbabwe made 233 for 6, with a well-fought 76 by opening batsman Neil Johnson.
In reply, South Africa collapsed to 40 for 6, before Lance Klusener and Shaun Pollock scored half-centuries to reduce the margin of defeat to 48 runs. This was one of Zimbabwe's most famous wins. Neil Johnson excelled with the ball, taking three wickets and claiming the Man of the Match award. Johnson quit playing for Zimbabwe after this tournament. During this period, Zimbabwe beat all Test-playing nations regularly. Zimbabwe beat New Zealand both home and away in 2000–2001; the team reached finals of many multi-national one day tournaments. Increasing politicisation of cricket, including selectorial policy, along with the declining situation in Zimbabwe disrupted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Zimbabwe and South Africa. England forfeited a match scheduled to be played in Zimbabwe, risking their own progress through the competition, citing "security concerns" as their reason. Zimbabwean players Andy Flower and fast bowler Henry Olonga wore black armbands, for "mourning the death of democracy" in Zimbabwe.
Both were dismissed from the team and applied for political asylum overseas. This public political protest caused considerable embarrassment to the co-h
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December, with an epicentre off the west coast of northern Sumatra. It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9.1–9.3 Mw, reaching a Mercalli intensity up to IX in certain areas. The earthquake was caused by a rupture along the fault between the Indian Plate. A series of large tsunamis up to 30 metres high were created by the underwater seismic activity that became known collectively as the Boxing Day tsunamis. Communities along the surrounding coasts of the Indian Ocean were affected, the tsunamis killed an estimated 227,898 people in 14 countries; the Indonesian city of Banda Aceh reported the largest number of victims. The earthquake was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history; the direct results caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The earthquake was the third largest recorded and had the longest duration of faulting observed.
It caused the planet to vibrate as much as 1 centimetre, it remotely triggered earthquakes as far away as Alaska. Its epicentre was between mainland Sumatra; the plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response, with donations totaling more than US$14 billion. The event is known by the scientific community as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was documented as having a moment magnitude of 8.8. In February 2005, scientists revised the estimate of the magnitude to 9.0. Although the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has accepted these new numbers, the United States Geological Survey has so far not changed its estimate of 9.1. A 2006 study estimated a magnitude of Mw 9.1–9.3. The hypocentre of the main earthquake was 160 km off the western coast of northern Sumatra, in the Indian Ocean just north of Simeulue island at a depth of 30 km below mean sea level; the northern section of the Sunda megathrust ruptured over a length of 1,300 km.
The earthquake was felt in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Splay faults, or secondary "pop up faults", caused long, narrow parts of the sea floor to pop up in seconds; this elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, destroying the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga. Indonesia lies between the Pacific Ring of Fire along the north-eastern islands adjacent to New Guinea, the Alpide belt that runs along the south and west from Sumatra, Bali, Flores to Timor; the 2002 Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshock, preceding the main event by over two years. Great earthquakes, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, are associated with megathrust events in subduction zones, their seismic moments can account for a significant fraction of the global seismic moment across century-scale time periods. Of all the moment released by earthquakes in the 100 years from 1906 through 2005 one-eighth was due to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake; this quake, together with the Good Friday earthquake and the Great Chilean earthquake, account for half of the total moment.
Since 1900, the only earthquakes recorded with a greater magnitude were the 1960 Great Chilean earthquake and the 1964 Good Friday earthquake in Prince William Sound. The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater were off Kamchatka, Russia, on 4 November 1952 and Tōhoku, Japan in March 2011. Each of these megathrust earthquakes spawned tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. However, in comparison to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the death toll from these earthquakes was lower because of the lower population density along the coasts near affected areas, the much greater distances to more populated coasts, the superior infrastructure and warning systems in MEDCs such as Japan. Other large megathrust earthquakes occurred in 1868. All of them are believed to be greater than magnitude 9, but no accurate measurements were available at the time; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was unusually large in geological extent. An estimated 1,600 kilometres of fault surface slipped about 15 metres along the subduction zone where the Indian Plate slides under the overriding Burma Plate.
The slip did not happen instantaneously but took place in two phases over several minutes: Seismographic and acoustic data indicate that the first phase involved a rupture about 400 kilometres long and 100 kilometres wide, 30 kilometres beneath the sea bed—the largest rupture known to have been caused by an earthquake. The rupture proceeded at about 2.8 kilometres per second, beginning off the coast of Aceh and proceeding north-westerly over about 100 seconds. After a pause of about another 100 seconds, the rupture continued northwards towards the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. However, the northern rupture occurred more than in the south, at about 2.1 km/s, continuing north for another five minutes to a plate boundary where the fault t
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo