Uracil is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine and guanine. In RNA, uracil binds to adenine via two hydrogen bonds. In DNA, the uracil nucleobase is replaced by thymine. Uracil is a demethylated form of thymine. Uracil is a common and occurring pyrimidine derivative; the name "uracil" was coined in 1885 by the German chemist Robert Behrend, attempting to synthesize derivatives of uric acid. Discovered in 1900 by Alberto Ascoli, it was isolated by hydrolysis of yeast nuclein, it is a unsaturated compound that has the ability to absorb light. Based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, it is believed that uracil and related molecules can be formed extraterrestrially. In 2012, an analysis of data from the Cassini mission orbiting in the Saturn system showed that Titan's surface composition may include uracil. In RNA, uracil base-pairs with adenine and replaces thymine during DNA transcription.
Methylation of uracil produces thymine. In DNA, the evolutionary substitution of thymine for uracil may have increased DNA stability and improved the efficiency of DNA replication. Uracil pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding; when base pairing with adenine, uracil acts as both a hydrogen bond acceptor and a hydrogen bond donor. In RNA, uracil binds with a ribose sugar to form the ribonucleoside uridine; when a phosphate attaches to uridine, uridine 5'-monophosphate is produced. Uracil undergoes amide-imidic acid tautomeric shifts because any nuclear instability the molecule may have from the lack of formal aromaticity is compensated by the cyclic-amidic stability; the amide tautomer is referred to as the lactam structure, while the imidic acid tautomer is referred to as the lactim structure. These tautomeric forms are predominant at pH 7; the lactam structure is the most common form of uracil. Uracil recycles itself to form nucleotides by undergoing a series of phosphoribosyltransferase reactions.
Degradation of uracil produces the substrates aspartate, carbon dioxide, ammonia. C4H4N2O2 → H3NCH2CH2COO− + NH4+ + CO2Oxidative degradation of uracil produces urea and maleic acid in the presence of H2O2 and Fe2+ or in the presence of diatomic oxygen and Fe2+. Uracil is a weak acid; the first site of ionization of uracil is not known. The negative charge is placed on the oxygen anion and produces a pKa of less than or equal to 12; the basic pKa = -3.4, while the acidic pKa = 9.389. In the gas phase, uracil has 4 sites. Uracil is found in DNA, this may have been an evolutionary change to increase genetic stability; this is because cytosine can deaminate spontaneously to produce uracil through hydrolytic deamination. Therefore, if there were an organism that used uracil in its DNA, the deamination of cytosine would lead to formation of uracil during DNA synthesis. Uracil-DNA glycosylase excises uracil bases from double-stranded DNA; this enzyme would therefore recognize and cut out both types of uracil – the one incorporated and the one formed due to cytosine deamination, which would trigger unnecessary and inappropriate repair processes.
This problem is believed to have been solved in terms of evolution, i.e. by "tagging" uracil. Methylated uracil is identical to thymine. Hence the hypothesis that, over time, thymine became standard in DNA instead of uracil. So cells continue to use uracil in RNA, not in DNA, because RNA is shorter-lived than DNA, any potential uracil-related errors do not lead to lasting damage. Either there was no evolutionary pressure to replace uracil in RNA with the more complex thymine, or uracil has some chemical property, useful in RNA, which thymine lacks. Uracil-containing DNA still exists, for example in DNA of several phages Endopterygote development Hypermutations during the synthesis of vertebrate antibodies. In a scholarly article published in October 2009, NASA scientists reported having reproduced uracil from pyrimidine by exposing it to ultraviolet light under space-like conditions; this suggests that one possible natural original source for uracil in the RNA world could have been panspermia.
More in March 2015, NASA scientists reported that, for the first time, additional complex DNA and RNA organic compounds of life, including uracil and thymine, have been formed in the laboratory under outer space conditions, using starting chemicals, such as pyrimidine, found in meteorites. Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the most carbon-rich chemical found in the Universe, may have been formed in red giants or in interstellar dust and gas clouds, according to the scientists. There are many laboratory syntheses of uracil available; the first reaction is the simplest of the syntheses, by adding water to cytosine to produce uracil and ammonia: C4H5N3O + H2O → C4H4N2O2 + NH3The most common way to synthesize uracil is by the condensation of malic acid with urea in fuming sulfuric acid: C4H4O4 + NH2CONH2 → C4H4N2O2 + 2 H2O + COUracil can be synthesized by a double decomposition of thiouracil in aqueous chloroacetic acid. Photodehydrogenation of 5,6-diuracil, synthesized by beta-alanine reacting with urea, produces uracil.
Uracil undergoes regular reactions including oxidation and alkylation. While in the presence of phenol and sodium hypochlorite, uracil can be visualized in ultraviolet light. Uracil has the capability to react with elemental halogens because of the presence of more than one e
Aelita known as Aelita: Queen of Mars, is a silent film directed by Soviet filmmaker Yakov Protazanov made at the Mezhrabpom-Rus film studio and released in 1924. It was based on Alexei Tolstoy's novel of the same name. Nikolai Tseretelli and Valentina Kuindzhi were cast in leading roles. Though the main focus of the story is the daily lives of a small group of people during the post-war Soviet Union, the enduring importance of the film comes from its early science fiction elements, it tells of a young man, traveling to Mars in a rocket ship, where he leads a popular uprising against the ruling group of Elders, with the support of Queen Aelita who has fallen in love with him after watching him through a telescope. In its performances in the cinemas in Leningrad, Dmitri Shostakovich played on the piano the music he provided for the film. In the United States, Aelita was edited and titled by Benjamin De Casseres for release in 1929 as Aelita: Revolt of the Robots. Moscow, 1921. A mysterious wireless message is received by various stations: its text is'Anta Odeli Uta'.
Someone facetiously suggests it has come from Mars, in order to tease Los, an engineer, obsessed with the idea of going to Mars. This inspires him to daydream about a strange civilization there. We see the queen, they live in a society where aristocrats rule over slaves who are confined underground and put into cold storage when not required. Los's wife Natasha is pestered by Ehrlich, a bourgeois playboy before the revolution, now a dishonest minor official, he uses his connections to steal a large amount of sugar with the intention of selling it on the black market. Los, who has seen Erlich making up to Natasha but has not seen her rejecting him, becomes jealous. Los continues to daydream: he imagines that Aelita has access to a telescope by which she can see people on Earth and has become attracted to him. Spiridnov, an intellectual engineer and friend of Los's, is being swindled by Ehrlich, he disappears. Los's jealousy gets out of control and he shoots Natasha: disguising himself as Spiridnov with a wig, false beard and glasses, he goes into hiding and makes plan to escape to Mars in a rocketship he has been constructing.
A friend of his, Gussev, an ex-soldier, agrees to go with him. They take off. Los confuses Kratsov by removing the disguise, they land on Mars. Tuskub orders them killed, ignoring Aelita's pleas for their safety. Kratsov is taken before Tuskub and demands that the soldiers arrest the other two: he is promptly arrested; the chief astronomer tells her where Los's ship has landed. The maid is arrested and sent to the slave's caves - Gussev, who has taken a fancy to her, follows. Aelita and Los meet and fall in love, though Los sees her as Natasha, they are sent to the caves. Gussev tells the slaves of his own countries' revolution and foments a revolt, which Aelita takes command of. Tuskub is overthrown and the army sides with Aelita - she commands them to fire on the workers and herd them back to the caves - she intends to rule Mars herself. Disgusted, Los kills Aelita. Back on Earth, it's clear that all this is a daydream. Erlich is arrested for theft. A poster on a wall advertises a maker of tires -'Anta Odeli Uta': the wireless message had been an advertisement.
Los had not injured or killed Natasha and they make up: he burns his spaceship plans and promises to stop daydreaming. Yuliya Solntseva as Aelita, Queen of Mars Igor Ilyinsky as Kravtsov - amateur sleuth Nikolai Tsereteli as Engineer Los / Evguieni Spiridinov Nikolay Batalov as Gusev, Red Army Soldier Vera Orlova as Nurse Masha, Gusev's Wife Valentina Kuindzhi as Natasha, Los' Wife Pavel Pol as Viktor Ehrlich, Sugar Profiteer Konstantin Eggert as Tuskub, Ruler of Mars Yuri Zavadsky as Gol, Radiant Energy Tower Guardian Aleksandra Peregonets as Ihoshka, Aelita's Maidservant Sofya Levitina as President House Committee One of the earliest full-length films about space travel, the most notable part of the film remains its remarkable constructivist Martian sets by Isaac Rabinovich and Victor Simov and costumes designed by Aleksandra Ekster, their influence can be seen in a number of films, including the Flash Gordon serials and Fritz Lang's Metropolis and Woman in the Moon and in the more recent Liquid Sky.
Parts of the plot were loosely adapted for the 1951 film Flight to Mars. While popular at first, the film fell out of favor with the Soviet government and was thus difficult to see until after the Cold War; the 2004 DVD from Ruscico runs 104 min. and has a musical score based on the music of Scriabin and Glazunov. In a retrospective on Soviet science fiction film, British director Alex Cox remarking on BFI Southbank's celebration of "Eastern Bloc science fiction" called Aelita "Strangest of these in which the human pastime of kissing creates turmoil on the red planet." List of films set on Mars List of films featuring surveillance 1924 in science fiction Aelita on IMDb Aelita at AllMovie "Science Fiction of the Domestic" by Andrew J. Horton The movie complete, with English intertitles on Yo
The Connecticut Green Party is the Connecticut affiliate of the Green Party of the United States. It is governed by three co-chairs, one of whom must be a woman, all of whom are elected at their Annual Meeting each May; the party is committed to social justice, non-violence and ecological wisdom. Those are the four pillars of Green politics. Ralph Nader, one of the more well-known Green Party figures in the United States, is from Connecticut, though he has never been a party member. For the 2006 election year, the Connecticut Green Party endorsed Cliff Thornton to run for Governor, Ralph Ferrucci to run for U. S. Senate; the Connecticut Greens endorsed Daniel Sumrall and Richard Duffee to run for Congress in the 3rd and 4th districts respectively. In 2007 elections two party members were elected. In New Haven Allan Brison was elected alderman in the 10th Ward, in Windham, party Co-chair Jean deSmet was elected First Selectman. DeSmet is the first Green Party candidate in the state to win a top municipal office.
In 2017, the CTGP saw numerous victories at the polls, established their first minority caucus in a municipal legislature in the state party's history with the election of four Greens to the Waterford Representative Town Meeting. As of November 2017, the following members hold elected office: Colleen Ann Reidy, Thompsonville Fire Commission, Enfield Daphne Dixon, Zoning Board of Appeals Alternate, Fairfield Rob Barstow, Zoning Board of Appeals Alternate, Marlborough Mirna Martinez, Board of Education, New London Joseph DeGregorio, Board of Finance, New Milford Leif Smith, Redding Billy Gene Collins, Zoning Board of Appeals Alternate, Waterford Carl D'Amato, Representative Town Meeting, District 4, Waterford Andrew Frascarelli, Representative Town Meeting, District 1, Waterford Joshua Steele Kelly, Representative Town Meeting, District 3, Waterford Baird Welch-Collins, Representative Town Meeting, District 2, Waterford Darcy Van Ness, Zoning Board of Appeals Alternate, Waterford Cassandra Martineau, Zoning Board of Appeals Alternate, Willimantic Dagmar Noll, Town Council, Willimantic Douglas Lary, Board of Finance, Windham Michael Westerfield, Board of Assessment Appeals, Windham Official website