Ural Typhoon is Russia's multi-functional, armoured, mine resistant vehicle family. The chassis consists of the car bonnet, three-axle drive, bonneted frame and chassis; the Typhoon is part of Russia's large vehicle Typhoon program. Can be used as reconnaissance and staff vehicles, machinery EW / RTR or communications, ambulance or to conduct engineering, radiation and biological reconnaissance of transportation. Two variants have been identified thus far: Total weight: 24 tons Crew: 3 + 16 in module Configuration: 6 × 6 Power: JAMZ-5367 450 hp turbodiesel Transmission: six-speed automatic transmission, Transfer Case: mechanical two-stage, Tyres: bullet-proof with automatic sealing Armor type: Laminated glass and composite Protection class: proof from 14.5 mm armor-piercing bullets, up to 8 kg of explosives underneath Armament: remote-controlled unit mounting a 7.62 mm HMG or 14.5 mm KPV HMG, loopholes Crew: 3 + 12 Russia Kamaz Typhoon ZIL Karatel Arms-Expo Ru article Another Arms-Expo Ru article Ural-63095 article at topwar.ru
The Ural, known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia. It originates in discharges into the Caspian Sea. At 2,428 kilometres, it is the third-longest river in Europe after the Volga and the Danube, the 18th-longest river in Asia; the Ural River is conventionally considered part of the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. The Ural River arises near Mount Kruglaya in the Ural Mountains, flows south parallel and west of the north-flowing Tobol River, through Magnitogorsk, around the southern end of the Urals, through Orsk where it turns west for about 300 kilometres, to Orenburg, when the Sakmara River joins. From Orenburg it continues west, passing into Kazakhstan turning south again at Oral, meandering through a broad flat plain until it reaches the Caspian a few miles below Atyrau, where it forms a fine digitate delta at; the river begins at the slopes of the Kruglaya Mountain of the Uraltau mountain ridge in South Ural, on the territory of the Uchalinsky District of Bashkortostan.
There it flows as a typical mountain river. It falls into the Yaik Swamp and after exiting it widens up to 5 kilometres. Below Verkhneuralsk, its flow is characteristic of a flatland river. From Magnitogorsk to Orsk its banks are steep and rocky and the bottom has many rifts. After Orsk, the river abruptly turns west and flows through a 45-kilometre long canyon in the Guberlinsk Mountains. After Uralsk, it flows from north to south, through the territory of West Kazakhstan Province and Atyrau Province of Kazakhstan. There, the river has many lakes and ducts. Near the mouth, it forms vast wetlands; the Yaik distributary is shallow, with no trees on the shores, is rich in fish. Ural River has a spectacular tree-like shape of the delta; this type of delta forms in the slow rivers which deliver a great deal of sediments and flow into a quiet sea. In the delta, 13.5 kilometres from the mouth of the Zolotoy distributary lies Shalyga Island, 2.5 kilometres long, with heights of 1 to 2 metres and maximum widths of 0.3 kilometres.
The tributaries, in order going upstream, are Kushum, Chagan, Utva, Bolshaya Chobda, Sakmara, Salmys, Or and Suunduk. The entire length of the Ural River is considered the Europe-Asia boundary by most authoritative sources; the smaller, shorter Emba River is claimed as the continental boundary, but that pushes "Europe" much further into "Central Asian" Kazakhstan. The Ural River bridge in Orenburg is labeled with permanent monuments carved with the word "Europe" on one side, "Asia" on the other. Regardless, Kazakhstan has some European territory and is at times included in European political and sports organizations The river is fed by melting snow. Most of its annual discharge occurs during the spring floods, which occur in March and April near the mouth and in late April through June upstream. During the floods, the river widens to above 10 kilometres near Uralsk and to several tens of kilometers near the mouth. Water level is highest in April upstream and in May downstream, its fluctuation is 3 to 4 metres in the upper stream, 9 to 10 metres in the middle of the river and about 3 metres in the delta.
The average water discharge is 104 cubic metres per second near Orenburg, 400 cubic metres per second at the Kushum village, 76.5 kilometres from the mouth. The maximum discharge is 14,000 cubic metres per second and the minimum is 1.62 cubic metres per second. Average turbidity is 280 grams per cubic metre at Orenburg and 290 grams per cubic metre near Kushum; the river freezes at the source in early November and in the middle and lower reaches in late November. It opens in early April in the upper reaches; the ice drift is short. The average depth is 1 to 1.5 metres near the source, it increases in the middle reaches and near the mouth. The density of underwater vegetation increases from the source to the mouth, so as the richness of the fauna; the bottom in the upper stream is rocky, with sand. The basin is asymmetrical – its left side from the river is 2.1 times larger in area than the right side. The density of the tributaries is 0.29 km/km2 in the right and 0.19 km/km2 in the left side of the basin.
The right-side tributaries are typical mountain rivers whereas the left-side tributaries have flatland character. About 200 kilometres from the mouth there is a dangerous spot for shipping called Kruglovskaya prorva. Here the river creates a strong vortex over a deep pit; the climate is continental with strong winds. Typical annual precipitation is 530 millimetres; the wetlands at and near the delta of the Ural River are important to migrating birds as an
Ural Airlines is an airline based in Yekaterinburg, operates scheduled and chartered domestic and international flights out of Koltsovo International Airport. In 2016, the company transported 6.5 million passengers. The airline was founded in 1943 as Sverdlovsk State Air Enterprises, became part of Aeroflot, the Soviet state airline, being in charge of Yekaterinburg Airport. Following the split-up of Aeroflot, Ural Airlines became a joint stock company incorporated under the laws of the Russian Federation on 28 December 1993, the airline business was separated from the airport. In 2010, Ural Airlines retired all of its Antonov Ilyushin Il-86s and Tupolev Tu-154B2s; the airline's Tupolev Tu-154M, in 164-seat two-class configuration, was retired on October 16, 2011. Ural Airlines has 3348 employees; the technical base of the airline is one of the most modern in Russia. Its technical equipment and experienced engineers allow Ural Airlines to provide necessary services in-house. In 2012, the airline opened its training complex for pilots.
The system of training for Airbus A320 was 7.5 million euro. The complex included; the airline's CEO says that pilot training now is not 4 hours. The airline plans to buy the training complex for the Airbus A330-300. In 2017, Skytrax gave Ural Airlines 3 stars, which made it the fourth airline with three stars in Russia and CIS after S7 Airlines, Uzbekistan Airlines and Air Moldova. Main hubs of Ural Airlines are Moscow-Domodedovo and Yekaterinburg. In plans of Ural Airlines is to increase its number of hubs, by developing hubs at Moscow-Sheremetyevo and Moscow-Zhukovsky. A million passengers per year was first achieved in 2006. Since the airline and its passenger numbers have both grown. In 2013, the airline transported the sixth most in Russia that year. Passengers transported from 2007-2016: 2018 — 9.001 million. The airline considered purchasing Irkut MC-21, however the plans were most withdrawn. Ural Airlines announced the purchase of 2 Airbus A321neoLR, that will be delivered in 2019, with a possible replacement of older Airbus A321-200.
The airline moved up its plans to increase its fleet size from 43 to 50 in 2018, moving up its original plans to do so by 2020. Babyflot Media related to Ural Airlines at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Ural owl is a medium-sized nocturnal owl of the genus Strix, with up to 15 subspecies found in Europe and northern Asia. The Ural owl is smaller than the great grey owl, much larger than the tawny owl, which it superficially resembles. Distinguishing features apart from the size are the pale, buffish grey-brown plumage, with copious dark brown streaking on the back of the head and underparts, it has a round head with orange-yellow bill and small black eyes. The tail is long and wedge-shaped, with dark barring on the upper tail, the wings are rounded. Flight is purposeful, recalling that of the common buzzard. Sexes are similar, with no seasonal variation. Length can range wingspan from 110 to 134 cm. Weight in males is 500 -- 730 g; the Ural owl has an extended distribution area in Europe and Asia, from Sakhalin and Korea in the east to Scandinavia in the west. The northern border is at 65 degrees north latitude, the southern border follows the southern delimitation of the taiga. There are relict populations in the mountains of central Europe belonging to the subspecies S. u. macroura.
Birds in northeast Poland and Scandinavia belong to the subspecies S. u. liturata, those in western Siberia to the dominant race S. u. uralensis. The northern populations of the Ural owl occupy similar habitat to the great grey owl, nesting in lowland forests but avoiding dense areas those of purely conifers. In central Europe it is an upland species, it occupies open woodland and is more found in moist rather than dry areas. It nests in hollow tree trunks in old raptor nests, in nestboxes, it lays two to four eggs, which hatch after 27–34 days. The young will not fly until about six weeks old, it is a aggressive owl, chasing other birds of prey from its territory, it will attack human intruders when young are present. The Ural owl feeds on rodents and medium-sized to large birds such as jays and willow ptarmigan, although only up to the size of a woodpigeon, its territorial call, which can carry up to two kilometres, is a soft, deep wo-ho….. Woho uhwo-ho. Birds give unmistakable yapping bau - wau calls, which are delivered by both sexes.
Austrian Ural owl Competence Centre
Ural economic region
Ural Economic Region is one of twelve economic regions of Russia. This prominent industrial region consists of the following subdivisions: Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast and Udmurt Republic, it is located in the Central, in the Southern and Northern parts of the Urals, but includes parts of the East European and West Siberian Plains. Its extent is different from that of the Ural Federal District. Perm Krai and Udmurtia are in the Volga Federal District while the other three are in the Ural Federal District; the region is crossed by rivers belonging to Ob basin and the Ural River basin. Their potential hydropower resources are estimated at 3.3 million kilowatts. By 2010, there are only two dams and associated reservoirs, both on the Kama River: Votkinsk Reservoir and Kama Reservoir; the climate is temperate continental in the western and continental in the eastern part of the region. More than 40% of the area is covered by taiga forests having the timber reserves of 3.5 billion cubic meters.
The southern part is dominated by the steppe, cultivated. The area is exceptionally rich in various ores and minerals, such as valuable chalcopyrite, nickel oxide, magnetite, potassium salts, aluminium, platinum, as well as coal and natural gas; the area is famous for semi-precious stones, such as emerald, aquamarine, rhodonite and diamond. Ural economic region accounted for 10 per cent of the national GRP in 2008, it has a complex structure of machinery and metal industries. Nationwide importance have ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, mechanical engineering, mining of minerals and natural gas and wood processing; the Ural industry is characterized by the high concentration of production around certain areas, such as transport hubs, close cooperation between different branches and recycling of industrial waste. The timber production is concentrated in the north and agriculture in the south; the areas of the Central Ural regions on the both sides of the Ural Mountains are dominated by mining and processing of metals and suburban agriculture.
The basin of Kama River has developed chemical and wood processing industries, machine building and some areas of agriculture. Metallurgical industry is based on the rich local deposits. Major metalworking enterprises are Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, Nizhniy Tagil Iron and Steel Works and Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant, they process ores not only from the Urals, but from Kazakhstan and the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, whereas the coking coal for their operation is brought from Kuzbass and Karaganda coal basins. There are many reconstructed historical plants. More than half of the iron ore for metallurgy comes from deposits of Magnitogorsk, Pervouralsk and Vysokogorsky Districts, it is used not only for traditional metalworking, but there is a large-scale production of ferroalloys. A major mining plant was opened near Kachkanar in 1963 to process the abundant titanomagnetite ores of the region. Ural economic region contains major metallurgical and chemical enterprises of Russia, such as Uralmash, Uralhydromash, etc.
There are major machinery plants producing freight wagons and motorcycles, machine-tools. The chemical industry of the region is focused on the production of basic chemicals such as potassium and magnesium salts, sulfuric acid and sulfur and its derivatives. Developed is production of Coke, paint, synthetic fibers and yarns and resins, alcohols, as well as petrochemical industry. Ural is one of the most important Russian mining and processing regions of talc and construction materials. In 1975, it produced 14.6 million tonnes of cement and 6.8 million cubic meters of precast reinforced concrete structures and components. About half of the harvested timber is processed locally, in Perm, Tavda and other cities for paper, sawn timber and plywood. Unprocessed timber is floated down the Kama to the Volga area. There is significant mining of coal, oil and peat, but it is not sufficient for the industry and therefore Urals imports coal from the Kuzbass and Karaganda and oil. Refining centers are in Perm and Orsk.
Orenburg has one of Europe's largest gas condensate deposits. Electricity is provided by a network of thermal and hydroelectric power stations and by the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station; the electrical network is connected to the power grids of the Tyumen and Aktobe regions and the central European parts of Russia. The food industry of the Ural economic region specializes in producing wheat and dairy around the major industrial centers. Most fields are locate
The Ural-375 is a general purpose 4.5 ton 6×6 truck, produced at the Ural Automotive Plant in the Russian SFSR since 1961. The Ural 375 replaced the ZIL-157 as the standard Soviet Army truck in 1979, it was itself replaced by the Ural-4320. The Soviets found the trucks an ideal platform for the BM-21 Grad rocket launcher. Other modes for the Ural-375D included supply carrier, etc.. The Ural-375 came in a variety of forms: Ural-375 has an open cab roof that could be covered by a canvas - i.e.: a softtop cab rather than a hardtop. Ural-375A has a enclosed all-steel cab, was a chassis for wagon-style body, payload 12,787 lb, framework shortened to 13.2' Ural-375D Most produced 375. Ural-375E KET-L was a recovery vehicle equipped a front-mounted and a rear-mounted winch along with a jib crane. Ural-375S was a tractor-trailer truck with framework shortened to 5.3'. Ural-377-civilian 6×4 truck Ural-377S was a civilian 6×4 tractor-trailer; the Ural-375D has the same equipment as the GAZ-66 and ZIL-131.
Hood design, 3 seats cab. Payload: 9,920 lb, 4500 kg full weight:, loading height: 4'7.9". Suspension: solid axles, leaf springs, rear wheels at balance-cart. Engine: 180 horsepower ZIL-375YA 7.0L V8 petrol pushrod engine. Gearbox: 5×2 steps, max. speed 47 mph. Brakes: drums, with pneumatic control. Stopping distance from 20 mph - 36'. Measures: L×W×H = 24 ft 1 in×8'10"×8'9.5", wheelbase 13'9.4". Track 6 ft 7 in Maneuverability: turning circle 69', Ground Clearance: 15.7", overcome ford: 4 ft 11 in Curb weight: 18,520 lb. Tires: 14-20", pressure 0.3-2 p.s.i.. Fuel tank: 79+16 gal. Fuel economy: 4.9 mpg, 2.94 mpg. BM-21 Grad Ural-4320 Ural Automotive Plant Ural-5323 Russian Ground Forces Official website GAZ Group Ural
IMZ-Ural is a Russian maker of heavy sidecar motorcycles. In 1940, the Soviet Union acquired the design and production techniques for BMW R71 motorcycles and sidecars; the first M-72 model was finished in 1941. Factories were to be located in Moscow and Kharkov, but due to the approach of Nazi German troops, the Moscow facilities were moved to Irbit, the Leningrad and Kharkov facilities to Gorkiy. Plans for the M-72 were sold to the Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation, a Chinese industrial firm, to build the Chang Jiang; the origins of the IMZ-Ural are linked to developments in the Eastern Front during World War II. The Soviet Union was preparing for possible military action by Nazi Germany. Joseph Stalin ordered the Soviet military to prepare in all possible areas, including the ground forces that would be defending the Soviet Union against invading German tanks and infantry. Mobility was stressed after the Soviet Union had witnessed the effect of the blitzkrieg on Poland. A meeting was held at the Soviet Defence Ministry to devise a motorcycle that would be suitable for the Red Army.
The Red Army wanted to modernize its equipment after the suspension of the Winter War with Finland. The motorcycles used up to that point had not been satisfactory; the motorcycle was "modeled after a late-1930s BMW sidecar bike called the R71, which Nazi Germany provided to the Soviet Union after the countries signed a nonaggression Molotov–Ribbentrop pact in 1939."According to official accounts, after lengthy discussion, the BMW R71 motorcycle was found to match the Red Army's requirements. Five units were covertly purchased through Swedish intermediaries. Soviet engineers in Moscow dismantled the five BMWs, reverse engineered the BMW design in every detail and made molds and dies to produce engines and gearboxes in Moscow. Early in 1941, the prototypes of the Dnepr M-72 motorcycle were shown to Stalin who made the decision to enter mass production. One of the original BMWs purchased through the Swedish intermediaries survives, is displayed in the IMZ-Ural factory museum. In 1941, BMW began series production of the R75 and ended production of the R71.
As production escalated, the Moscow Motorcycle Plant was established, producing hundreds of Russian M-72 sidecar motorcycles. The Nazi Blitzkrieg was so fast and effective that Soviet strategists worried that the Moscow factory was within range of German bombers; the decision was made to move the motorcycle plant east, out of bombing range and into the resource rich Ural mountain region. The site chosen was the town of Irbit, located on the fringe of Siberia in the Ural mountains. Irbit had once been an important Trade and Fair centre in Russia before the Revolution of 1917; the only available substantial building was a brewery outside of town, beyond the railway line. It was converted into a research and development building to prepare for the construction of a massive new facility to build the M-72 motorcycle. On October 25, 1942 the first batch of motorcycles went to the front. During WWII a total of 9,799 M-72 motorcycles were delivered for reconnaissance detachments and mobile troops. After WWII the factory was expanded, in 1950 the 30,000th motorcycle was produced.
The "URAL" was built for the military only. In the late 1950s, the KMZ plant in Ukraine assumed the task of supplying the military, the Irbit Motorcycle Works focused on making bikes for domestic consumers. In the late 1950s the full production of the plant was turned over to non-military production. In 1957, the M-72 production lines were sold to the People's Republic of China; the export history of URALs started at first to developing countries. Between 1973 and 1979, Ural was one of the makes marketed by SATRA in the UK as Cossack motorcycles; the main products today are the heavy duty Ural sidecar motorcycles with two-wheel-drive designed for rough, rugged terrain, cT model for urban commuting and paved road touring. There are many places in Russia where poor roads, or a lack of roads, makes horses and URAL motorcycles necessary to transport gear. URAL motorcycles have four-stroke, fuel injected air-cooled, flat-twin engines, a four speed gear box with reverse gear, shaft drive, two disc dry clutch, spring shock absorbers, disc brakes on all three wheels.
The company has developed an engine that meets the standards required by the modern sporting and leisure rider. Though the outward appearance of the engine is the same as before, new quality control techniques employ better alloying and casting, better engineering tolerances, better paint, powder coating and stainless steel exhausts while retaining the advantage of continuity with the inherently balanced design of a horizontally-opposed flat twin engine with roller bearings in a solid frame; the motorcycles are exported to Australia, the UK, Netherlands, Spain, Norway, Iceland, Germany, Iran, South Africa, Uruguay and the US. The number sold since the factory was founded exceeds 3.2 million. IMZ-Ural is the only Russian manufacturer of large capacity motorcycles and one of few manufacturers of sidecar motorcycles in the world. Like most motorcycle manufacturers, Ural now sources pre-made components in many cases — buying alternators from Nippon Denso, brakes from Brembo, handlebar controls from Domino, forks from Paioli, ignitions from Ducati Energia, etc.
The company makes the frame and body parts. The 2003 USA model featured a newl