A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy in the form of photons; this effect is called electroluminescence. The color of the light is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap of the semiconductor. White light is obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of light-emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are used in remote-control circuits, such as those used with a wide variety of consumer electronics; the first visible-light LEDs were of low intensity and limited to red. Modern LEDs are available across the visible and infrared wavelengths, with high light output. Early LEDs were used as indicator lamps, replacing small incandescent bulbs, in seven-segment displays. Recent developments have produced white-light LEDs suitable for room lighting.
LEDs have led to new displays and sensors, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources, including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, faster switching. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive headlamps, general lighting, traffic signals, camera flashes, lighted wallpaper and medical devices. Unlike a laser, the color of light emitted from an LED is neither coherent nor monochromatic, but the spectrum is narrow with respect to human vision, functionally monochromatic. Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat's-whisker detector. Russian inventor Oleg Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927, his research was distributed in Soviet and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades.
In 1936, Georges Destriau observed that electroluminescence could be produced when zinc sulphide powder is suspended in an insulator and an alternating electrical field is applied to it. In his publications, Destriau referred to luminescence as Losev-Light. Destriau worked in the laboratories of Madame Marie Curie an early pioneer in the field of luminescence with research on radium. Hungarian Zoltán Bay together with György Szigeti pre-empted led lighting in Hungary in 1939 by patented a lighting device based on SiC, with an option on boron carbide, that emmitted white, yellowish white, or greenish white depending on impurities present. Kurt Lehovec, Carl Accardo, Edward Jamgochian explained these first light-emitting diodes in 1951 using an apparatus employing SiC crystals with a current source of battery or pulse generator and with a comparison to a variant, crystal in 1953. Rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.
Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures using gallium antimonide, GaAs, indium phosphide, silicon-germanium alloys at room temperature and at 77 kelvins. In 1957, Braunstein further demonstrated that the rudimentary devices could be used for non-radio communication across a short distance; as noted by Kroemer Braunstein "…had set up a simple optical communications link: Music emerging from a record player was used via suitable electronics to modulate the forward current of a GaAs diode. The emitted light was detected by a PbS diode some distance away; this signal was played back by a loudspeaker. Intercepting the beam stopped the music. We had a great deal of fun playing with this setup." This setup presaged the use of LEDs for optical communication applications. In September 1961, while working at Texas Instruments in Dallas, James R. Biard and Gary Pittman discovered near-infrared light emission from a tunnel diode they had constructed on a GaAs substrate. By October 1961, they had demonstrated efficient light emission and signal coupling between a GaAs p-n junction light emitter and an electrically isolated semiconductor photodetector.
On August 8, 1962, Biard and Pittman filed a patent titled "Semiconductor Radiant Diode" based on their findings, which described a zinc-diffused p–n junction LED with a spaced cathode contact to allow for efficient emission of infrared light under forward bias. After establishing the priority of their work based on engineering notebooks predating submissions from G. E. Labs, RCA Research Labs, IBM Research Labs, Bell Labs, Lincoln Lab at MIT, the U. S. patent office issued the two inventors the patent for the GaAs infrared light-emitting diode, the first practical LED. After filing the patent, Texas Instruments began a project to manufacture infrared diodes. In October 1962, TI announced the first commercial LED product, which employed a pure GaAs crystal to emit an 890 nm light output. In October 1963, TI announced the first commercial hemispherical LED, the SNX-110; the first visible-spectrum LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr. while working at General Electric. Holonyak first reported his LED in the journal Applied Physics Letters on December 1, 1962.
M. George Craford, a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972. In 1976, T. P. Pearsall created the first high-brightness, high-efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunicat
Megamind is a 2010 American 3D computer-animated superhero comedy film directed by Tom McGrath, produced by DreamWorks Animation and distributed by Paramount Pictures. The film premiered on October 28, 2010, in Russia, while it was released in the United States in Digital 3D, IMAX 3D and 2D on November 5, 2010, it features the voices of Will Ferrell, Tina Fey, Jonah Hill, David Cross, Brad Pitt. The film tells the story of a super-intelligent alien supervillain, who after a long-lasting battle one day destroys his foe, the much-loved superhero Metro Man. Having Metro City for himself, Megamind finds out that his villainy has no purpose and thus creates a new superhero to serve as his nemesis, his plan backfires. With Metro City spiraling out of control, Megamind attempts to set things right and discovers his newfound purpose—as a superhero. Megamind received positive reviews from critics, praising its strong visuals and the cast's performances, but criticizing its unoriginality. With a budget of $130 million, the film grossed over $321 million worldwide, becoming one of DreamWorks Animation's lowest-grossing CG animated films of the 2010s.
A short film, titled Megamind: The Button of Doom, was released on February 25, 2011, on the Megamind DVD and Blu-ray. Since they arrived on Earth as infants, supervillain Megamind has fought superhero Metro Man for dominance of Metro City. In his latest plan and his sidekick Minion kidnap reporter Roxanne Ritchi and hold her hostage in a copper-lined observatory; when Metro Man arrives to save her, he reveals he is weak to copper, Megamind obliterates him with a death ray. Megamind takes control of the city, but his celebration is short-lived as without Metro Man to challenge him, he finds his life is meaningless. While wandering the opened Metro Man Museum, Megamind sees Roxanne nearby, uses his holographic disguise watch to take the form of Bernard, the museum's curator, he talks to Roxanne and becomes attracted to her, is inspired by one of her statements to create a new superhero for him to fight. Megamind returns to his lair and creates a serum containing Metro Man's DNA which he plans to inject into a proper candidate with his Defuser Gun.
However, Roxanne's arrival at his lair with her dimwitted cameraman Hal Stewart causes Megamind to inadvertently inject Hal with the serum. Megamind disguises himself as Hal's "Space Dad" and convinces him to become the superhero "Titan", as it's the only name he could trademark, but Hal misspells it as “Tighten”. Titan spends several days training with his Space Dad before issuing a challenge to fight Megamind. On the day before the fight, Megamind gets into an argument with Minion about giving up villainy for Roxanne, while Titan tries and fails to woo her. Megamind, disguised as Bernard, takes Roxanne on a dinner date. Titan sees them, as he had been infatuated with Roxanne, becomes upset and leaves. Shortly thereafter, Megamind's disguise fails; the situation leaves him unable to find his invisible car, where he left the Defuser Gun he used to inject the serum into Hal. Titan does not arrive at the scheduled fight, Megamind finds that he has used his abilities for criminal purposes; as "Space Dad" and "Bernard" Megamind goads Tighten into fighting him.
Tighten engages in a super-powered fight with Megamind. When Titan decides to kill Megamind rather than arrest him, Megamind lures Titan into a copper trap, but he is unaffected and continues to fight. Megamind seeks out Roxanne, hoping she can help, she offers to take him to Metro Man's secret headquarters, where they are both surprised to find Metro Man alive. Metro Man explains that he faked his death and weakness to copper, as he had become tired of being a superhero and wanted to retire to become a music star, he declines to help, but offers Megamind the advice that a hero will always rise up to challenge evil. Returning to the city, Megamind does not believe he can become the hero the city needs, allows himself to be imprisoned. Titan kidnaps Roxanne and demands Megamind show himself. Megamind has a change of heart and pleads with the prison warden, apologizing for his past actions; the warden reveals himself to be Minion in disguise, accepting Megamind's apology, frees him so they can fight Hal.
As Hal is about to kill Roxanne, Megamind frees her. The two escape, but Hal traps Megamind under rubble when Metro Man arrives, Hal flees. Roxanne discovers that "Megamind" is an injured Minion in disguise, while "Metro Man" is Megamind. Hal, in his flight, recognizes Megamind's distinctive mispronunciations, realizes he was duped. Hal fights Megamind, during which Megamind finds his invisible car, he grabs the Defuser Gun and is able to extract the Metro Man serum from Titan, restoring him to normal. Hal is arrested for his crimes. Now hailed as heroes and Minion appear at the reopening of Metro Man's museum, now dedicated to Megamind instead, while Metro Man, in disguise within the crowd, silently congratulates his former rival. During the credits, Bernard is knocked out by Minion. Will Ferrell as Megamind, an extraterrestrial mastermind who turns from supervillain to superhero, he is a spoof of Lex Luthor and Brainiac, while his "Space Dad" persona is a parody of both Jor-El as played by Marlon Brando in the 1978 film Superman and Brando's performance as Vito Corleone in The Godfather.
The DVD commentary notes that his showmanship are purposely evocative of Alice Cooper. Tina Fey as Roxanne "Roxie" Ritchi, a TV news reporter who becomes Megamind's love interest, she is a spoof of Lois Lane. Jonah Hill as Hal Stewart/Titan, Roxanne Ritchi's hapless, dimw
Renzo Piano, is an Italian architect. His notable buildings include the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, The Shard in London, the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City and Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center in Athens, he won the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1998. Piano was born in Genoa, into a family of builders, his grandfather had created a masonry enterprise, expanded by his father, Carlo Piano, his father's three brothers, into the firm Fratelli Piano. The firm prospered after World War II, constructing houses and factories and selling construction materials; when his father retired the enterprise was led by Renzo's older brother, who studied engineering at the University of Genoa. Renzo studied architecture at the Milan Polytechnic University, he graduated in 1964 with a dissertation about modular coordination supervised by Giuseppe Ciribini and began working with experimental lightweight structures and basic shelters. Piano taught at the Polytechnic University from 1965 until 1968, expanded his horizons and technical skills by working in two large international firms, for the modernist architect Louis Kahn in Philadelphia and for the Polish engineer Zygmunt Stanlislaw Makowski in London.
He completed his first building, the IPE factory in Genoa, in 1968, with a roof of steel and reinforced polyester, created a continuous membrane for the covering of a pavilion at the Milan Triennale in the same year. In 1970, he received his first international commission, for the Pavilion of Italian Industry for Expo 70 in Osaka, Japan, he collaborated with the family firm, which manufactured the structure. It was lightweight and original composed of steel and reinforced polyester, it appeared to be artistic and industrial; the 1970 Osaka structure was admired by the British architect Richard Rogers, in 1971 the two men decided to open their own firm and Rogers, where they worked together from 1971 to 1977. The first project of the firm was the administrative building of B&B Italia, an Italian furniture company, in Novedrate, Italy; this design featured suspended container and an open bearing structure, with the conduits for heating and water on the exterior painted in bright colors. These unusual features attracted considerable attention in the architectural world, influenced the choice of the jurors who selected Piano and Rogers to design the Pompidou Center.
In 1971 the thirty-four-year old Piano and Richard Rogers, thirty-eight, in collaboration with the Italian architect Gianfranco Franchini, competed with the major architectural firms in the United States and Europe, were awarded the commission for the most prestigious project in Paris, the Centre Georges Pompidou, the new French national museum of 20th century art. The award came a surprise, to the architectural world, since the two were little-known, had no experience with museums or other major structures; the New York Times declared that their design "turned the architecture world upside down". More it turned architecture inside-out, since in the new museum, the apparent structural frame of the building and the heating and air conditioning ducts were on the exterior, painted in bright colors; the escalator, in a transparent tube, crossed the facade of the building at a diagonal. The building was an astonishing success transforming the character a run-down commercial section near the Marais in Paris, made Piano one of the best-known architects in the world.
The media dubbed the style of the building as "high-tech", but this was disputed by Piano. "Beaubourg," he said, "was a joyous urban machine, a creature which might have come out of a Jules Verne novel, a sort of bizarre boat in dry dock... It is a double provocation. To consider it as a high-tech object is a mistake." In 1977 Piano ended his collaboration with Rogers and began a new collaboration with engineer Peter Rice, who had assisted in the design of the Pompidou Center. They established their offices in Genoa. One of their first projects was a plan for the rehabilitation of the old port of Otranto from an industrial site into a commercial and tourist attraction, their first major building was the Menil Collection, in art museum for the art collector Dominique de Menil. The chief requirements of the owner for this building was to make the maximum use of natural light in the interiors. Piano wrote, "Paradoxically, the Menil Collection, with its serenity, its calm, its discretion, is much more modern, scientifically speaking, than the Beaubourg."
The Menil Collection building, with its simple gray and white cubic forms, is the stylistic opposite of the Pompidou Center. The technological innovations were not expressed on the facade, but in the high-tech but discreet systems of shutters and screens and air conditioning which allowed maximum illumination while protecting against the intense Texas heat and sunlight. In the mid-1980s Piano and his firm took on a wide variety of projects, using the most advanced technology available, but, in contrast to the Pompidou Center, as discreetly as possible, his portable pavilion for IBM was an example. It composed of a series of pyramids of polycarbonate supported by a wooden frame, could be transported in a truck, it was designed to integrate the scenery outside into displays in the interior. He designed a two major reconstruction projects in northern Italy.
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City. It offers services in investment management, asset management, prime brokerage, securities underwriting; the bank is one of the largest investment banking enterprises in the world, is a primary dealer in the United States Treasury security market and more a prominent market maker. The bank owns Goldman Sachs Bank USA, a direct bank. Goldman Sachs was founded in 1869 and is headquartered at 200 West Street in Lower Manhattan with additional offices in other international financial centers; as a result of its involvement in securitization during the subprime mortgage crisis, Goldman Sachs suffered during the 2007-2008 financial crisis, received a $10 billion investment from the United States Department of the Treasury as part of the Troubled Asset Relief Program, a financial bailout created by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008. The investment was made in November 2008 and was repaid in June 2009.
Former employees of Goldman Sachs have moved on to government positions. Notable examples includes former U. S. Secretaries of the Treasury Robert Rubin and Henry Paulson. In addition, former Goldman employees have headed the New York Stock Exchange, the World Bank, competing banks such as Citigroup and Merrill Lynch; the company is ranked 70th on the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Goldman Sachs was founded in New York in 1869 by Marcus Goldman. In 1882, Goldman's son-in-law Samuel Sachs joined the firm. In 1885, Goldman took his son Henry and his son-in-law Ludwig Dreyfuss into the business and the firm adopted its present name, Goldman Sachs & Co; the company made a name for itself pioneering the use of commercial paper for entrepreneurs and joined the New York Stock Exchange in 1896. By 1898, the firm's capital stood at $1.6 million, was growing rapidly. Goldman entered the initial public offering market in 1906 when it took Sears and Company public.
The deal occurred due to Henry Goldman's personal friendship with an owner of Sears, Julius Rosenwald. Other IPOs followed, including Continental Can. In 1912, Henry S. Bowers became the first non-member of the founding family to become partner of the company and share in its profits. In 1917, under growing pressure from the other partners in the firm due to his pro-German stance, Henry Goldman resigned. Control of the firm was now in the hands of the Sachs family. Waddill Catchings joined the company in 1918. In 1920, the firm moved from 60 Wall Street to $1.5 million 12-storey premises on 30-32 Pine Street. By 1928, Catchings was the Goldman partner with the single largest stake in the firm. On December 4, 1928, the firm launched a closed-end fund; the fund failed during the Stock Market Crash of 1929, amid accusations that Goldman had engaged in share price manipulation and insider trading. In 1930, the firm ousted Catchings, Sidney Weinberg assumed the role of senior partner and shifted Goldman's focus away from trading and toward investment banking.
It was Weinberg's actions. On the back of Weinberg, Goldman was lead advisor on the Ford Motor Company's IPO in 1956, which at the time was a major coup on Wall Street. Under Weinberg's reign the firm started an investment research division and a municipal bond department, it was at this time that the firm became an early innovator in risk arbitrage. Gus Levy joined the firm in the 1950s as a securities trader, which started a trend at Goldman where there would be two powers vying for supremacy, one from investment banking and one from securities trading. For most of the 1950s and 1960s, this would be Levy. Levy was a pioneer in block trading and the firm established this trend under his guidance. Due to Weinberg's heavy influence at the firm, it formed an investment banking division in 1956 in an attempt to spread around influence and not focus it all on Weinberg. In 1969, Levy took over as Senior Partner from Weinberg, built Goldman's trading franchise once again, it is Levy, credited with Goldman's famous philosophy of being "long-term greedy", which implied that as long as money is made over the long term, trading losses in the short term were not to be worried about.
At the same time, partners reinvested all of their earnings in the firm, so the focus was always on the future. That same year, Weinberg retired from the firm. Another financial crisis for the firm occurred in 1970, when the Penn Central Transportation Company went bankrupt with over $80 million in commercial paper outstanding, most of it issued through Goldman Sachs; the bankruptcy was large, the resulting lawsuits, notably by the SEC, threatened the partnership capital and reputation of the firm. It was this bankruptcy that resulted in credit ratings being created for every issuer of commercial paper today by several credit rating services. During the 1970s, the firm expanded in several ways. Under the direction of Senior Partner Stanley R. Miller, it opened its first international office in London in 1970 and created a private wealth division along with a fixed income division in 1972, it pioneered the "white knight" strategy in 1974 during its attempts to defend Electric Storage Battery against a hostile takeover bid from International Nickel and Goldman's rival M
Volatile organic compound
Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air, a trait known as volatility. For example, which evaporates from paint and releases from materials like resin, has a boiling point of only –19 °C. VOCs are numerous and ubiquitous, they include both human-made and occurring chemical compounds. Most scents or odors are of VOCs. VOCs play an important role in communication between plants, messages from plants to animals; some VOCs are dangerous to human cause harm to the environment. Anthropogenic VOCs are regulated by law indoors, where concentrations are the highest. Harmful VOCs are not acutely toxic, but have compounding long-term health effects; because the concentrations are low and the symptoms slow to develop, research into VOCs and their effects is difficult.
Diverse definitions of the term VOC are in use. The definitions of VOCs used for control of precursors of photochemical smog used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and state agencies in the US with independent outdoor air pollution regulations include exemptions for VOCs that are determined to be non-reactive, or of low-reactivity in the smog formation process. In the US, regulatory requirements for VOCs vary among the states. Most prominent is the VOC regulation issued by the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California and by the California Air Resources Board. However, this specific use of the term VOCs can be misleading when applied to indoor air quality because many chemicals that are not regulated as outdoor air pollution can still be important for indoor air pollution. California's ARB uses the term "reactive organic gases" to measure organic gases after public hearing in September 1995; the ARB revised the definition of "Volatile Organic Compounds" used in the consumer products regulations, based on their committee's findings.
Health Canada classifies VOCs as organic compounds that have boiling points in the range of 50 to 250 °C. The emphasis is placed on encountered VOCs that would have an effect on air quality; the European Union defines a VOC as "any organic compound having an initial boiling point less than or equal to 250 °C measured at a standard atmospheric pressure of 101.3 kPa." The VOC Solvents Emissions Directive is the main policy instrument for the reduction of industrial emissions of volatile organic compounds in the European Union. It covers a wide range of solvent using activities, e.g. printing, surface cleaning, vehicle coating, dry cleaning and manufacture of footwear and pharmaceutical products. The VOC Solvents Emissions Directive requires installations in which such activities are applied to comply either with the emission limit values set out in the Directive or with the requirements of the so-called reduction scheme. Article 13 of The Paints Directive, approved in 2004, amended the original VOC Solvents Emissions Directive and limits the use of organic solvents in decorative paints and varnishes and in vehicle finishing products.
The Paints Directive sets out maximum VOC content limit values for paints and varnishes in certain applications. The People's Republic of China defines a VOC as those compounds that have "originated from automobiles, industrial production and civilian use, burning of all types of fuels and transportation of oils, fitment finish, coating for furniture and machines, cooking oil fume and fine particles," and similar sources; the Three-Year Action Plan for Winning the Blue Sky Defence War released by the State Council in July 2018 creates an action plan to reduce 2015 VOC emissions 10% by 2020. The Central Pollution Control Board of India released the Air Act in 1981, amended in 1987, to address concerns about air pollution in India. While the document does not differentiate between VOCs and other air pollutants, the CPCB monitors "oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, fine particulate matter and suspended particulate matter." VOCs are defined in the various laws and codes under which they are regulated.
Other definitions may be found from government agencies advising about VOCs. EPA regulates VOCs in the air and land; the federal regulations issued under the Safe Drinking Water Act set maximum contaminant level standards for several organic compounds in public water systems. EPA publishes wastewater testing methods for chemical compounds, including a range of VOCs, pursuant to the Clean Water Act. In addition to drinking water, VOCs are regulated in pollutant discharges to surface waters, as hazardous waste, but not in non-industrial indoor air; the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulates VOC exposure in the workplace. Volatile organic compounds that are classified as hazardous materials are regulated by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration while being transported. Not counting methane, biological sources emit an estimated 1150 teragrams of carbon per year in the form of VOCs; the majority of VOCs are produced by the main compound being isoprene. The remainder are produced by microbes.
Microbial volatile organic compounds can be beneficial, when used to control plant pathogens, for instance. The strong odor emitted by many plants consists of a subset of VOCs. Emissions are affected by a variety of factors, such as temperature, whi
Michael Heizer is a contemporary artist specializing in large-scale and site-specific sculptures. Working outside the confines of the traditional art spaces of galleries and museums, Heizer has redefined sculpture in terms of size, mass and process. A pioneer of 20th century Land Art, he is recognized for sculptures and earthworks made with earth-moving equipment, which he began creating in the American West in 1967, he lives and works in Hiko and New York City. Heizer began his artistic career in New York in 1966 with a series of geometric canvases painted with PVA latex; the paintings that would follow, characterized by non-traditionally shaped shaped canvases, demonstrate Heizer's early exploration of positive and negative forms. In Trapezoid Painting and Track Painting, he emphasizes the perimeters of raw canvases by painting them black, while the white interiors are perceived as negative spaces; these hard-edged "displacement paintings" parallel the immense geometries he achieves when moving earth.
The slate grey contours of U Painting, for example, anticipate the shapes of the depressions and angular mounds that appear in his forthcoming project City. In the late 1960s, Heizer left New York City for the deserts of California and Nevada, where he began making his first "negative" sculptures; these works were created by removing earth to shape subterranean negative forms directly into desert floor. Completed in 1967, East, West, consisted of several geometrically-shaped holes dug in the Sierra Nevada; the following year Heizer completed "Nine Nevada Depressions", a series of large negative sculptures located on dry lakes throughout the state, Jean Dry Lake, Black Rock Desert and Massacre Dry Lake, near Vya, Nevada among them. In 1969, Heizer made the series Primitive Dye Paintings, in which white lime powder and concentrated aniline dyes were spread over the dry desert landscape, covering large areas that, when viewed from the air, formed amorphous, organic shapes; the culmination of this critical early period was the creation of Double Negative in 1969 and 1970, a project for which he displaced 240,000 tons of rock in the Nevada desert, cutting two enormous trenches—each one 50-feet-deep and 30-feet-wide and together spanning 1,500 feet—at the eastern edge of Mormon Mesa near Overton, Nevada.
Heizer has since continued his exploration of the dynamics between positive forms and negative space. His Adjacent, Upon juxtaposes three large granite slabs in different relationships to cast concrete forms. For "Displaced/Replaced Mass" installed outside the Marina del Rey, home of Roy and Carol Doumani, he planted four granite boulders of different sizes from the High Sierra into lid-less concrete boxes in the earth so that the tops of the rocks are level with the ground. For a 1982 work at the former IBM Building in New York, Heizer sheared off the top of a large rock and cut grooves into the surface before setting it on supports hidden within a stainless steel structure. Designed as a fountain, the boulder appears to float over running water, he called it a title he would use again in future. Commissioned by the president of the Ottawa Silica Company, the Effigy Tumuli earthwork in Illinois is composed of five abstract animal earthworks reclaiming the site of an abandoned surface coal mine along the Illinois River.
In 2012, Heizer completed Levitated Mass. On permanent installation at Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, Levitated Mass is a massive white, diorite boulder that sits atop a 456-foot-long sloped walkway, allowing viewers to experience the weight of the rock as they walk through the empty space below, it took eleven nights, from February 28 to March 10, 2012, to move the 340-ton rock from Jurupa Valley to the museum. The installation is situated in a field of polished concrete slices, set at a slight angle between the Resnick Pavilion and Sixth Street. Heizer opened the exhibit on June 24, 2012. A feature documentary named Levitated Mass, was directed and edited by the filmmaker Doug Pray, it details the making of the sculpture as it relates to Heizer's career, while portraying the boulder's 105-mile journey through Los Angeles and the public’s reaction to its installation. The film premiered at the Los Angeles Film Festival in June 2013 and opened theatrically at the Landmark's Nuart Theater in Los Angeles, CA on September 5, 2014.
Heizer's most recent work is Tangential Circular Negative Line in Mauvoisin, commissioned by Fondation Air&Art directed by Jean Maurice Varone. In the early 1970s, Heizer began work on City, an enormous complex in the rural desert of Lincoln County, Nevada, his work on the project continues to this day, supported by the Dia Art Foundation through a grant from the Lannan Foundation. City is not yet available to the public. A campaign to have the Basin and Range area around City designated as a national monument to protect it from development took place, a group of American museums, including the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the Institute of Contemporary Art and the Walker Art Center, have joined together to draw public attention to a petition urging preservation of the area. In July 2015, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation creating the Basin and Range Nat