Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s. The term was used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, drums, one or more saxophones, sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships and aspirations; the term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, it was applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music.
In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands. Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B", it combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop, electronic music. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Prince, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Chaka Khan, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey. In the 21st century, R&B has remained a popular genre becoming more pop orientated and alternatively influenced with successful artists including Usher, Bruno Mars, Chris Brown, Justin Timberlake, The Weeknd, Frank Ocean and Khalid. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943.
It replaced the term "race music", which came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans", he has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.
Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass and saxophone. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow and hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are engaged with the lyrics intensely so, they remain cool, in control; the bands dressed in suits, uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics seemed fatalistic, the music followed predictable patterns of chords and structure; the migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz and related genres of music.
These genres of music were performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, T-Bone Walker. There was increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Jordan's band, the Tympany Five, consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano and drums. Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat".
Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, is now referred to as jump blues. Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blu
God the Son
God the Son is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology. The doctrine of the Trinity identifies Jesus as the incarnation of God, united in essence but distinct in person with regard to God the Father and God the Holy Spirit; the phrase "God the Son" is not found in the Bible, but is found in Christian sources. By scribal error the term is in one medieval manuscript, MS No.1985, where Galatians 2:20 has "Son of God" changed to "God the Son". The term in English follows Latin usage as found in the Athanasian Creed and other texts of the early church: In Greek "God the Son" is Theos o Iios as distinct from o Iios nominative tu Theu genitive, ὁ υἱός του Θεού, "Son of God". In Latin "God the Son" is Deus Filius; the term deus filius is found in the Athanasian Creed: "Et tamen non tres omnipotentes, sed unus omnipotens. Ita Deus Pater, Deus Filius, Deus Spiritus Sanctus.", but this phrase is translated "So the Father is God: the Son is God: and the Holy Ghost is God". The distinction holds true in other modern languages apart from English, for example: In Hebrew "God the Son" is used in modern Israeli Christian literature in relation to the "Holy Trinity".
As distinct from the term "son of God" as found in Hebrew versions of the New Testament. The term deus filius is used in the Athanasian Creed and formulas such as Deus Pater, Deus Filius, Deus Spiritus Sanctus: Et non tres Dii, sed unus est Deus; the term is used by Saint Augustine in his On the Trinity, for example in discussion of the Son's obedience to God the Father: deo patri deus filius obediens. and in Sermon 90 on the New Testament "2. For hold this fast as a firm and settled truth, if you would continue Catholics, that God the Father begot God the Son without time, made Him of a Virgin in time."The Augsburg Confession adopted the phrase as Gott der Sohn. Jacques Forget in the Catholic Encyclopedia article "Holy Ghost" notes that "Among the apologists, Athenagoras mentions the Holy Ghost along with, on the same plane as, the Father and the Son.'Who would not be astonished', says he,'to hear us called atheists, us who confess God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Ghost, hold them one in power and distinct in order.'
" "Son of God" is used to refer to Jesus in the Gospel of Mark at the beginning in verse 1:1 and at its end in chapter 15 verse 39. Max Botner wrote, "Indeed, if Mark 1:1 presents the "normative understanding" of Jesus' identity it makes a significant difference what the text includes"; the Gospel of John is understood to identify Jesus with the pre-existent Logos or Word, "In the beginning was the Word, the Word was with God, the Word was God." The disputed Comma Johanneum includes the Son in the formula "For there are three that bear witness in heaven: the Father, the Word, the Holy Spirit. Jesus identified himself in New Testament canonical writings. "Jesus said to them,'Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.' ", which some Trinitarians believe is a reference to Moses in his interaction with preincarnate God in the Old Testament. "And God said to Moses,'I AM WHO I AM.' And He said,'Thus you shall say to the children of Israel, "I AM has sent me to you."' A manuscript variant in John 1:18 has led to translations including "God the One and Only" referring to the Son.
Theological use of this expression reflects what came to be the standard interpretation of New Testament references, understood to imply Jesus' divinity, but with the distinction of his person from another person of the Trinity called the Father. As such, the title is associated more with the development of the doctrine of the Trinity. Trinitarians believe that a clear reference to the Trinity occurs in Matthew 28:19, "Go, make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit." Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament Sons of God Catholic Encyclopedia: The Blessed Trinity The Jewish Encyclopedia: Son of God—by Kaufmann Kohler, Emil G. Hirsch Jesus' Divinity—by christians.eu
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Christian rock is a form of rock music that features lyrics focusing on matters of Christian faith with an emphasis on Jesus performed by self-proclaimed Christian individuals. The extent to which their lyrics are explicitly Christian varies between bands. Many bands who perform Christian rock have ties to the contemporary Christian music labels, media outlets, festivals, while other bands are independent. Rock music was not viewed favorably by most traditional and fundamentalist Christians when it became popular with young people from the 1950s, although early rock music was influenced by country and gospel music. In 1952 Archibald Davison, a Harvard professor, summed up the sound of traditional Christian music and why its supporters may not like Rock music when he said: "... a rhythm that avoids strong pulses. Based upon Archibald Davison's statement it is easy to see how different these two genres of music are. Christians in many regions of the United States did not want their children exposed to music with unruly, impassioned vocals, loud guitar riffs and jarring, hypnotic rhythms.
Rock and roll differed from the norm, thus it was seen as a threat. The music was overtly sexual in nature, as in the case of Elvis Presley, who became controversial and massively popular for his suggestive stage antics and dancing. However, Elvis was a religious person who released a gospel album: Peace in the Valley. Individual Christians may have listened to or performed rock music in many cases, but it was seen as anathema to conservative church establishments in the American South, he Touched Me was a 1972 gospel music album by Elvis Presley which sold over 1 million copies in the US alone and earned Presley his second of three Grammy Awards. Not counting compilations, it was his third and final album devoted to gospel music; the song "He Touched Me" was written in 1963 by Bill Gaither, an American singer and songwriter of southern gospel and Contemporary Christian music. In the 1960s, rock music developed artistically, attained worldwide popularity and became associated with the radical counterculture alienating many Christians.
In 1966 The Beatles, regarded as one of the most popular and influential rock bands of their era, ran into trouble with many of their American fans when John Lennon jokingly offered his opinion that Christianity was dying and that the Beatles were "more popular than Jesus now". The romantic, melodic rock songs of the band's early career had been viewed as inoffensive, but after the remark, churches nationwide organized Beatles record burnings and Lennon was forced to apologize. Subsequently, the Beatles and most rock musicians experimented with a more complex, psychedelic style of music, that used anti-establishment, drug related, or sexual lyrics, while The Rolling Stones sang "Sympathy for the Devil", a song written from the point of view of Satan. Allegations of Satanic intent arose from the Beatles' et al. use of the controversial backmasking recording technique. This further increased Christian opposition to rock music; as the decade continued, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights Movement, the Paris student riots and other events served as catalysts for youth activism and political withdrawal or protest, which became associated with rock bands, whether or not they were political.
Moreover, many saw the music as promoting a lifestyle of promiscuous "sex and rock and roll" reflected in the behavior of many rock stars. However, there was growing ideological potential of rock. Countless new bands sprang up in the mid-to-late 1960s, as rock displaced older, smoother pop styles to become the dominant form of pop music, a position it would enjoy continuously until the end of the 20th century, when hip-hop eclipsed it in sales. Among the first bands that played Christian rock was The Crusaders, a Southern Californian garage rock band, whose November 1966 Tower Records album Make a Joyful Noise with Drums and Guitars is considered one of the first gospel rock releases, or "the first record of Christian rock", Mind Garage, "arguably the first band of its kind", whose 1967 Electric Liturgy was recorded in 1969 at RCA's "Nashville Sound" studio. Both of these recordings were preceded by the rockabilly praise LP I Like God's Style and performed by one 16-year-old Isabel Baker and released on the private Wichita, Kansas Romco label in 1965, which slipped into obscurity before being rediscovered around 2007.
Larry Norman described as the "father of Christian rock music", in his years "the Grandfather of Christian rock", who, in 1969 recorded and released Upon This Rock, "the first commercially released Jesus rock album", challenged a view held by some conservative Christians that rock music was anti-Christian. One of his songs, "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?" Summarized his attitude and his quest to pioneer Christian rock music. A cover version of Larry Norman's Rapture-themed "I Wish We'd All Been Ready" appears in the Evangelical Christian feature film A Thief in the Night and appeared on Cliff Richard's Christian album Small Corners along with "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?". Another Christian rock pioneer, Randy Stonehill, released his first album in 1971, the Larry Norman-produced Born Twice. In the most common pressing of th
Edwin Reuben Hawkins was an American gospel musician, choir master and arranger. He was one of the originators of the urban contemporary gospel sound, he was best known for his arrangement of "Oh Happy Day", included on the "Songs of the Century" list. The Edwin Hawkins Singers made a second foray into the charts one year backing folk singer Melanie on "Lay Down". Hawkins was born in Oakland, California, on August 19, 1943. At the age of seven, he was the keyboardist to accompany the family's gospel group. Together with Betty Watson in May 1967, he was co-founder of the Northern California State Youth Choir of the Church of God in Christ, which included fifty members; this ensemble recorded its first album, Let Us Go into the House of the Lord, at the Ephesian Church of God in Christ in Berkeley, California. The choir used this LP as a fundraiser to go to the 1968 Youth Congress for the COGIC in Washington, D. C. to represent the Northern California area. The choir did come in second place at the competition, but, one of many surprises coming their way.
Upon their return from that trip, the LP found its way into the hands of a KSAN Underground Rock DJ in San Francisco who happened to pick "Oh Happy Day" to play on his station. The soloists on the album were Elaine Kelly, Margarette Branch, Dorothy Combs Morrison, Tramaine Davis, Reuben Franklin, Donald Cashmere, Betty Watson, Ruth Lyons. Once "Oh Happy Day" started being played in other parts of the country and the group was made aware of its rising success on the radio, they began to get in contact with the right people in the industry who helped them get a major record deal; the group signed on with the newly created Pavilion label, released a second LP, called He's A Friend Of Mine, in 1969, but it was "Oh Happy Day" that rocketed to sales of more than a million copies within two months. It crossed over to the pop charts, making U. S. No. 4, UK No. 2, Canada No. 2, No. 2 on the Irish Singles Chart, No. 1 on the French Singles Charts and the German Singles Charts in 1969. It became an international success, selling more than 7 million copies worldwide, Hawkins was awarded his first Grammy for it.
His arrangement of the song was covered by The Four Seasons on their 1970 album Half & Half. The choir's second LP Top 10 hit on the Billboard Hot 100 charts was the 1970 Melanie single "Lay Down," on which the label listed the performers as "Melanie with The Edwin Hawkins Singers"; the song peaked at No. 6 in the U. S. and Top 10 in several other countries. In 1990, credited as a solo performer, had a number 89 hit on the R&B chart with "If At First You Don't Succeed". In the 1992 movie Leap of Faith, Hawkins is the choir master for the gospel songs. Hawkins died of pancreatic cancer on January 15, 2018 in his home, in Pleasanton, California, at the age of 74, his survivors were his sisters, Carol and Lynette, one brother, nieces, godsons, Cameron Hasel and DeShad Ali Khan, honorary sons, DeShawn Little and Stabe Wilson and the Kings, Pittman, Love Center Church and Music & Arts families. 1968: Let Us Go into the House of the Lord 1969: He's A Friend Of Mine 1969: Oh Happy Day 1969: Jesus, Lover of My Soul 1969: Hebrew Boys 1969: Lord Don't Move That Mountain 1969: Ain't It Like Him 1970: Live at the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam 1970: Candles in the Rain with Melanie Safka 1970: Pray For Peace 1970: More Happy Days 1971: Try the Real Thing 1969: Peace Is Blowin' In The Wind 1971: Children Get Together 1972: I'd Like To Teach the World To Sing 1973: New World 1976: Wonderful 1977: The Comforter 1977: Edwin Hawkins Presents the Matthews Sisters 1979: Edwin Hawkins Live at the Symphony 1981: Edwin Hawkins Live With The Oakland Symphony Orchestra 1982: Imagine Heaven 1982: Edwin Hawkins Live With The Oakland Symphony Orchestra & The Love Center Choir Volume II 1983: Edwin Hawkins presents The Music and Arts Seminar Mass Choir 1984: Angels Will Be Singing with the Music and Arts Seminar Mass Choir 1985: Have Mercy with the Music and Arts Seminar Mass Choir 1987: Give Us Peace with the Music and Arts Seminar Mass Choir 1988: People In Need with Tramaine Hawkins and the Edwin Hawkins Singers to benefit Homeless USA 1988: That Name with the Music and Arts Seminar Mass Choir 1990: Face to Face 1994: Kings and Kingdoms with the Music and Arts Seminar Mass Choir 1995: Anything is Possible 1998: Love Is the Only Way 1989: 18 Great Songs 1998: The Very Best Of Altogether Hawkins has won four Grammy Awards: 1970: Best Soul Gospel Performance – "Oh Happy Day", performed by the Edwin Hawkins Singers 1971: Best Soul Gospel Performance – "Every Man Wants to Be Free", performed by the Edwin Hawkins Singers 1977: Best Soul Gospel Performance, Contemporary – "Wonderful!"
1993: Best Gospel Choir or Chorus Album – choir director on Edwin Hawkins Music & Arts Seminar Mass Choir – Recorded Live in Los Angeles, performed by the Music & Arts Seminar Mass ChoirIn 2007, Hawkins was inducted into the Christian Music Hall of Fame. Edwin Hawkins at Facebook.com Biography at gospel.it Edwin Hawkins at AllMusic Edwin Hawkins discography at Discogs Edwin Hawkins at AllMusic entry for the Edwin Hawkins Singers Edwin Hawkins discography at Discogs entry for the Edwin Hawkins Singers
Donald Andrew "Donnie" McClurkin, Jr. is an American gospel singer and minister. He has won three Grammy Awards, ten Stellar Awards, two BET Awards, two Soul Train Awards, one Dove Award and one NAACP Image Awards, he is one of the top selling Gospel music artists, selling over 10 million albums worldwide. Variety dubbed McClurkin as a “Reigning King of Urban Gospel”. McClurkin was born in South Carolina in the United States of America; when he was eight years old, his two-year-old brother was killed by a speeding driver. Soon after the loss, McClurkin experienced family turmoil due to the loss of his brother and shortly thereafter he was a victim of childhood sexual abuse at the hands of his great uncle, years after that by his great uncle's son. Two of his sisters dealt with substance abuse problems, that's when the young McClurkin found solace in his going to a church. By the time that he was a teenager, he had formed the McClurkin Singers, he formed another group, the New York Restoration Choir, with recordings from as early as 1975.
He was hired, as an associate minister, at Marvin Winans' Perfecting Church in Detroit, Michigan, in 1989. McClurkin served as an assistant to Winans for over a decade. In 1991, a sharp pain and swelling, followed by internal bleeding led, he says, to his being diagnosed as having leukemia; the doctor suggested immediate treatment, but McClurkin, 31, decided to take his own advice. "I tell people to believe that God will save you," he says, " I had to turn around and practice the thing that I preached."He was ordained and sent out by the Winans in 2001 to establish Perfecting Faith Church in Freeport, New York, where he is now Senior Pastor. A friendship with a Warner Alliance executive resulted in his signing to the label for his 1996 self-titled LP, with producers Bill Maxwell, Mark Kibble of Take 6, Cedric and Victor Caldwell plus Andraé Crouch; the disc, which featured the perennially popular "Stand," went gold shortly after being publicly lauded by Oprah Winfrey. At the 48th Annual Grammy Awards, he won in the category Traditional Soul Gospel Album, for "Psalms, Hymns & Spiritual Songs".
McClurkin is best known for his hit songs "Stand" and "We Fall Down" which were played in heavy rotation on both Gospel and Urban radio. His three solo albums have topped the Billboard charts. Dovetailing off the success of his near double-platinum selling album,"Live in London and More" McClurkin released "Psalms,Hymns and Spiritual Songs" in 2005 and "We All Are One: Live In Detroit" in 2009 which topped Billboard charts across various musical genres. McClurkin's love for people and desire to share gospel music, globally, is the reason he includes a language medley: Japanese, Russian and Dutch in most live performances. Tom Versen and Tony Sisti of T&T Creative signed McClurkin to a radio syndication deal with advertising giant Dial-Global and syndicator Gary Bernstein. T&T Creative provided a mobile recording studio in Pastor Donnie's church that he can take on the road, he is quoted as saying, "As much as I love music and singing, I love doing radio and the direct feedback I get from my listeners all over the country.
I never thought I would be having this much fun doing radio and I could touch and impact so many beautiful people." In 2009, he broadcast his own television series, Perfecting Your Faith, on cable television. His television appearances include Good Morning America, CBS’s The Early Show, The View and The Parkers, he has been featured in such films as The Gospel and The Fighting Temptations. He played a Church Pastor. McClurkin, in 2002, told a Christian website that, due to the sexual abuse, he had struggled with homosexuality, he said that he had rejected that "lifestyle": "I’ve been through this and have experienced God’s power to change my lifestyle. I am delivered and I know God can deliver others, too."In 2016, it was reported that McClurkin had entered a relationship with CCM singer-songwriter Nicole C. Mullen. Live in London and More... Again Psalms, Hymns & Spiritual Songs Music Videos "Stand" "We Fall Down" "The Prayer" "Ooh Child" "I Need You" Film 1998: The Prince of Egypt 2003: The Fighting Temptations 2004: Apollo at 70: A Hot Night in Harlem 2004: The Donnie McClurkin Story: From Darkness to Light 2005: The GospelTelevision 2002: 17th Annual Stellar Gospel Music Awards – co-host 2004: 19th Annual Stellar Gospel Music Awards – co-host 2005: 20th Annual Stellar Gospel Music Awards – co-host 2006: 21st Annual Stellar Gospel Music Awards – co-host 2006: An Evening of Stars: Tribute to Stevie Wonder 2009: 24th Annual Stellar Gospel Music Awards – co-host 2010–15: BET's Sunday Best – judge 2010: 25th Annual Stellar Gospel Music Awards – host Over his storied career, McClurkin has won a number of awards, including three Grammy Awards, two BET Awards and two Soul Train Music Awards.
Official website The Donnie McClurkin Show: radio broadcast Exclusive Interview on BlackGospel.com: Interview Música de Donnie McClurkin