Rafael José Urdaneta y Farías was a Venezuelan General and hero of the Spanish American wars of independence. He served as President of Gran Colombia from 1830 until 1831, he was one of his most trusted and loyal allies. Urdaneta served. Rafael Urdaneta was born in Maracaibo, Captaincy General of Venezuela to a prominent family of Spanish descent on October 24, 1788, he was a son of the marriage between Miguel Jerónimo de Urdaneta y Troconis and María Alejandrina de Farías. He began his elementary education in Maracaibo, his secondary education in Caracas. Prior to the independence war, he was a student of philosophy, he married Dolores Vargas París, a young and renowned heroine of the city of Santa Fe, in Santa Fe, Gran Colombia, on August 31, 1822. Before Gran Colombia was dissolved in 1831, the marriage had enjoyed much popularity. However, following the dissolution and the establishment of a dictatorship in the Republic of New Granada, they were forced to flee the country. Upon reaching Maracaibo, they suffered persecution from General Páez, who had become one of Bolívar's ideological adversaries after the end of the Venezuelan War of Independence.
Urdaneta and Dolores were supporters of Bolívar's cause. In 1832, they were able to return to Caracas through a license granted to the family by the government of Venezuela, but it stipulated that Urdaneta was not to intervene in the politics of the country; the family moved to Santa Ana de Coro. This opened the doors for Urdaneta to venture into Venezuelan politics once again, he was able to retain a position as a senator until 1845. In 1845, he was appointed Envoy of Venezuela to Spain, but he died in Paris, France, on the 23rd of August of that year from complications from kidney stones, before reaching Spain. Urdaneta is buried in the National Pantheon of Venezuela since May 16, 1876. In 2015, the 24th of October was decreed as a national holiday in Venezuela to commemorate him. Encouraged by his uncle, Martín de Urdaneta y Troconis, employed in Santa Fe, Viceroyalty of New Granada as the chief accountant of the Court of Accounts of the Real Audiencia of Santa Fe, Urdaneta traveled to that city in 1804 with the intention of developing his studies.
He lived several years in Santa Fe. On July 20, 1810, a junta was formed in Santa Fe: one of the many independence movements that were beginning to take shape across the entire continent following the establishment of the Caracas Junta in April of that year, he was incorporated into the first battalion of the patriot army of New Granada on November 1, 1810, as a lieutenant, the following year fought in the Campaña del Sur of New Granada. Following the Battle of Santa Fe in 1813, he was captured by the royalists and imprisoned for a few months before being liberated. Simón Bolívar had been exiled from Venezuelan territory after the collapse of the first republic he had established in 1811, but by 1813 he was fighting the royalists in the New Granada region, it was during this time. Bolívar's Admirable Campaign to reclaim Venezuela proved to be a stage for Urdaneta, he distinguished himself under the command of colonel José Félix Ribas on July 2, 1813, in the Battle of Niquitao, was decisive for the patriot victory at the Battle of Taguanes against the royalist forces of Colonel Julián Izquierdo.
Following the patriot victory and the establishment of the Second Republic of Venezuela, in the report before the New Granada Congress at Tunja, Bolívar described Urdaneta as: "worthy of recommendation and deserving of all esteem from the government for the valor and intelligence with which he distinguished himself in action." From that moment on he led numerous military actions, among which stand out the Battle of Barbula, the Retreat to the East, the Siege of Santa Fe, the Capture of Maracaibo, the March to San Carlos in 1821 that liberated the Province of Coro and set the stage for the Battle of Carabobo. He did not participate in the Battle of Carabobo since Bolívar considered that the exhaustion his troops had suffered during the march was too great. In view of Urdaneta's service, Bolívar requested at this moment that he be promoted to General Officer. Following the Battle of Carabobo in 1821, with Venezuela independent and after years of service to the patriotic cause, Urdaneta became one of Bolívar's closest friends and collaborators.
In 1828 Urdaneta Minister of War and presiding over the Cabinet, was in charge of judging the alleged traitors behind the September Conspiracy by which an attempt was made to assassinate Bolívar president of Gran Colombia. Convinced without any doubt that Francisco de Paula Santander was the head conspirator, along with the majority of the ministers in the Cabinet, sentenced him to death. Bolívar was afraid for the stability of the union between New Granada and Venezuela, so he forced Santander to lifelong exile instead. However, conflicts such as this one, in addition to the assassination of Antonio José de Sucre in 1830 led to the collapse of Gran Colombia and. Throughout his life, Urdaneta served as Chief of Army Staff and as Minister of War and Navy. Bolívar called him "El Brillante", for his remarkable sense of strategy in
Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas, it has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.
There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993.
A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written; this new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues.
The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak; the recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. However, such populist policies became inadequate, causing the nation's collapse as their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy; the destabilized economy led to a crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan Migrant Crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.
By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word; the official name was Estado de Venezuela, República de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Venezuela, a
Our Lady of the Rosary
Our Lady of the Rosary known as Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary in relation to the Rosary. The Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary known as Our Lady of Victory and Feast of the Holy Rosary, is a feast day of the Roman Catholic Church, celebrated on 7 October, the anniversary of the decisive victory of the combined fleet of the Holy League of 1571 over the Ottoman navy at the Battle of Lepanto. According to Dominican tradition, in 1206, St. Dominic was in Prouille, attempting to convert the Albigensians back to the Catholic faith; the young priest had little success until one day he received a vision of the Blessed Virgin, who gave him the Rosary as a tool against heretics. While Mary's giving the rosary to St. Dominic is acknowledged as a legend, the development of this prayer form owes much to the followers of St. Dominic, including the 15th-century priest and teacher, Alanus de Rupe. In 1571, Pope St. Pius V organized a coalition of forces from Spain and smaller Christian kingdoms and military orders, to rescue Christian outposts in Cyprus the Venetian outpost at Famagusta which, surrendered after a long siege on August 1 before the Christian forces set sail.
On October 7, 1571, the Holy League, a coalition of southern European Catholic maritime states, sailed from Messina and met a powerful Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Lepanto. Knowing that the Christian forces were at a distinct materiel disadvantage, the holy pontiff, Pope Pius V, called for all of Europe to pray the Rosary for victory, led a rosary procession in Rome. After about five hours of fighting on the northern edge of the Gulf of Corinth, off western Greece, the combined navies of the Papal States and Spain managed to stop the Ottoman navy, slowing the Ottoman advance to the west and denying them access to the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas. If the Ottomans had won there was a real possibility that an invasion of Italy could have followed so that the Ottoman sultan claiming to be emperor of the Romans, would have been in possession of both New and Old Rome. Combined with the unfolding events in Morocco where the Sa’adids spurned the Ottoman advances, it confined Turkish naval power to the eastern Mediterranean.
Although the Ottoman Empire was able to build more ships, it never recovered from the loss of trained sailors and marines, was never again the Mediterranean naval power it had become the century before when Constantinople fell. Pius V instituted "Our Lady of Victory" as an annual feast to commemorate the victory at Lepanto, which he attributed to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Dedications to Our Lady of Victory had preceded this papal declaration. In particular, Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester built the first shrine dedicated to Our Lady of Victory in thanks for the Catholic victory over the Albigensians at the Battle of Muret on September 12, 1213. In thanksgiving for victory at the Battle of Bouvines in July 1214, Philip Augustus of France founded the Abbey of Notre Dame de la Victoire, between Senlis and Mont l'Evêque. In 1573, Pope Gregory XIII changed the title of the "Feast of Our Lady of Victory" to "Feast of the Holy Rosary", to be celebrated on the first Sunday of October. Dominican friar Juan Lopez in his 1584 book on the rosary states that the feast of the rosary was offered "in memory and in perpetual gratitude of the miraculous victory that the Lord gave to his Christian people that day against the Turkish armada".
In 1671 the observance of this festival was extended by Clement X to the whole of Spain, somewhat Clement XI, after the victory over the Turks gained by Prince Eugene in the Battle of Petrovaradin on 5 August 1716, commanded the feast of the Rosary to be celebrated by the universal Church. Leo XIII raised the feast to the rank of a double of the second class and added to the Litany of Loreto the invocation "Queen of the Most Holy Rosary". On this feast, in every church in which the Rosary confraternity has been duly erected, a plenary indulgence toties quoties is granted upon certain conditions to all who visit therein the Rosary chapel or statue of Our Lady; this has been called the "Portiuncula" of the Rosary. Pius X in 1913 changed the date to 7 October, as part of his effort to restore celebration of the liturgy of the Sundays. In 1960 under Pope John XXIII it is listed under the title "Feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Rosary". Our Lady of the Rosary is the patron saint of several places around the world.
The diocese of Malaga and the Spanish cities of Melilla and Trujillo celebrate Our Lady of Victories as their patroness. Furthermore, María del Rosario is a common female Spanish name. Rosario can be used as a male first name in Italian; the cathedral for the Diocese of Toledo in Toledo, Ohio is named after Our Lady Of the Rosary. The cathedral of Our Lady of the Rosary is located in Minnesota; the cathedral church of the Diocese of San Bernardino, California, is named in honor of Our Lady of the Rosary. The church of Our Lady of the Rosary on State Street in New York City began in 1883 as the Mission of Our Lady of the Rosary for the protection of Irish immigrant girls. A new Sanctuary was erected in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina in honor of Our Lady of the Rosary of San Nicolás and apparitions and locations were approved "worthy of belief" by the local ordinary in May 2006. Our Lady of the Rosary church is in Jashpur, India, it is the secon
María Teresa Castillo
María Teresa Castillo was a Venezuelan journalist, political activist, human rights activist, cultural entrepreneur. She was the founder of the Caracas Athenaeum, a leading cultural institution which promotes the arts of Caracas, she served as the president of Caracas Athenaeum from 1958 until her death in 2012. Castillo, a proponent of human rights played a major role in the formation of Amnesty International's Venezuelan chapter in 1978. María Teresa Castillo was born on October 15, 1908, in a hacienda, called "Bagre," in Cúa, Miranda State, Venezuela, she graduated from the School of Social Communications at the Central University of Venezuela. In 1934, Castillo emigrated to New York, United States, where he worked in a factory as a seamstress. After she tried to stay in this country but their efforts are futile because she was syndicated as a revolutionary. In 1989, she was elected to the Venezuelan Chamber of Deputies, the former lower house of the national legislature; as deputy, Castillo served as the first President of the Chamber's Permanent Commission on Culture.
She was a member of the Chamber's Committee on Regional Development during her tenure. María Teresa Castillo died in Caracas on June 22, 2012, at the age of 103. Castillo married Venezuelan journalist, Miguel Otero Silva, in 1946, they had two children, Miguel Henrique Otero, the current editor of El Nacional newspaper, Mariana. In Salou, Catalan province of Tarragona there is a street named after Maria Castillo; the street called Carrer de Maria Castillo. Politics of Venezuela María Teresa Castillo. Interview with María Teresa Castillo. Interview with Maria Teresa Castillo by César Cortez in www.docuven.org.ve
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded in the twelfth or thirteenth century. The most significant orders of friars are the Dominicans, Franciscans and Carmelites. Friars are different from monks in that they are called to live the evangelical counsels in service to society, rather than through cloistered asceticism and devotion. Whereas monks live in a self-sufficient community, friars work among laypeople and are supported by donations or other charitable support. A monk or nun makes their commits to a particular community in a particular place. Friars commit to a community spread across a wider geographical area known as a province, so they will move around, spending time in different houses of the community within their province; the English term Friar is derived from the Norman French word frere, from the Latin frater, used in the Latin New Testament to refer to members of the Christian community. "Fray" is sometimes used in Spain and former Spanish colonies such as the Philippines or the American Southwest as a title, such as in Fray Juan de Torquemada.
In the Roman Catholic Church, there are two classes of orders known as friars, or mendicant orders: the four "great orders" and the so-called "lesser orders". The four great orders were mentioned by the Second Council of Lyons: The Carmelites, founded c. 1155. They are known as the "White Light Friars" because of the white halo which covers their brown skin, they received papal approval from Honorius III in 1226 and by Innocent IV in 1247. The Carmelites were founded as a purely contemplative order, but became mendicants in 1245. There are two types of Carmelites, those of the Ancient Observance and those of the Discalced Carmelites, founded by St. Teresa of Avila in the 16th century; the Franciscans, founded in 1209. They are known as the "Friars Minor"; the Franciscans were founded by St. Francis of Assisi and received oral papal approval by Innocent III in 1209 and formal papal confirmation by Honorius III in 1223. Today the Friars Minor is composed of three branches: the Order of Friars Minor, Order of Friars Minor Capuchin and the Order of Friars Minor Conventual wearing grey or black habits.
The Dominicans, founded c. 1216. They are known as the "Friar Preachers", or the "Black Friars", from the black mantle worn over their white habit; the Dominicans were founded by St. Dominic and received papal approval from Honorius III in 1216 as the "Ordo Praedicatorum" under the Rule of St. Augustine, they became a mendicant order in 1221. The Augustinians, founded in 1244 and enlarged in 1256, they are known as the "Hermits of St. Augustine", or the "Austin Friars", their rule is based on the writings of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinians were assembled from various groups of hermits as a mendicant order by Pope Innocent IV in 1244. Additional groups were added by Alexander IV in 1256; some of the lesser orders are: the Trinitarians, established in 1198 the Mercedarians, established in 1218 the Servites, established in 1240 the Minims, established in 1474 the Third Order Regular of St. Francis, a branch of the Third Order of St. Francis, part of the Franciscan Order established in 1447 the Discalced Carmelites, established in 1568 the Order of Augustinian Recollects, established in 1598 through the Chapter of Toledo the Discalced Trinitarians, established in 1599 the Order of Penance, established in 1781 Orders of friars exist in other Christian traditions, including the Order of Lutheran Franciscans, the Order of Ecumenical Franciscans and the Order of Lesser Sisters and Brothers.
In the Anglican Communion there are a number of mendicant groups such as the Anglican Friars Preachers, the Society of Saint Francis and the Order of St Francis. Several high schools, as well as Providence College, use friars as their school mascot; the Major League Baseball team San Diego Padres have the Swinging Friar. The University of Michigan's oldest a cappella group is a male octet known as The Friars; the University of Pennsylvania has a senior honor society known as Friars. In the order of the Knights of Malta, the short form Fra is used when addressing members who have taken vows. Bhikkhu Brother Dervish Priesthood Sadhu
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono
Charallave is a city in the state of Miranda and part of Miranda's Valles del Tuy region. It is the capital of Cristóbal Rojas Municipality; the name derives from the local Charavares indigenous people found at the time. The city is connected to Caracas' public transport system via two train stations, Charallave Norte and Charallave Sur