Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. It forms salts known as urates and acid urates, such as ammonium acid urate. Uric acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, it is a normal component of urine. High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions, including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones. Uric acid was first isolated from kidney stones in 1776 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. In 1882, the Ukrainian chemist Ivan Horbaczewski first synthesized uric acid by melting urea with glycine. Uric acid displays lactam–lactim tautomerism. Although the lactim form is expected to possess some degree of aromaticity, uric acid crystallizes in the lactam form, with computational chemistry indicating that tautomer to be the most stable. Uric acid is a diprotic acid with pKa1 = 5.4 and pKa2 = 10.3, thus at physiological pH, it predominately exists as the monoionic urate ion.
In general, the water solubility of uric acid and its alkali metal and alkaline earth salts is rather low. All these salts exhibit greater solubility in hot water than cold, allowing for easy recrystallization; this low solubility is significant for the etiology of gout. The solubility of the acid and its salts in ethanol is low or negligible. In ethanol/water mixtures, the solubilities are somewhere between the end values for pure ethanol and pure water; the figures given indicate what mass of water is required to dissolve a unit mass of compound indicated. The lower the number the more soluble the substance in the said solvent. Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme which catalyzes the formation of uric acid from xanthine and hypoxanthine, which in turn are produced from other purines. Xanthine oxidase is a large enzyme whose active site consists of the metal molybdenum bound to sulfur and oxygen. Within cells, xanthine oxidase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxireductase, purified from bovine milk and spleen extracts.
Uric acid is released in hypoxic conditions. Primates. In humans and higher primates, uric acid is the final oxidation product of purine metabolism and is excreted in urine, whereas in most other mammals, the enzyme uricase further oxidizes uric acid to allantoin; the loss of uricase in higher primates parallels the similar loss of the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid, leading to the suggestion that urate may substitute for ascorbate in such species. Both uric acid and ascorbic acid are strong reducing potent antioxidants. In humans, over half the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma comes from hydrogen urate ion. Humans; the normal concentration range of uric acid in human blood is 25 to 80 mg/L for men and 15 to 60 mg/L for women. An individual can have serum values as high as 96 mg/L and not have gout. In humans, about 70% of daily uric acid disposal occurs via the kidneys, in 5–25% of humans, impaired renal excretion leads to hyperuricemia. Normal excretion of uric acid in the urine is 250 to 750 mg per day.
Dogs. The Dalmatian dog has a genetic defect in uric acid uptake by the liver and kidneys, resulting in decreased conversion to allantoin, so this breed excretes uric acid, not allantoin, in the urine. Birds and reptiles. In birds and reptiles, in some desert dwelling mammals, uric acid is the end-product of purine metabolism, but it is excreted in feces as a dry mass; this involves a complex metabolic pathway, energetically costly in comparison to processing of other nitrogenous wastes such as urea or ammonia, but has the advantages of reducing water loss and preventing dehydration. Invertebrates. Platynereis dumerilii, a marine polychaete worm, uses uric acid as a sexual pheromone; the female of the species releases uric acid into the water during mating, to induce males to release sperm. A proportion of people have mutations in the proteins responsible for the excretion of uric acid by the kidneys. Variants within a number of genes have so far been identified: SLC2A9. SLC2A9 is known to fructose.
In human blood plasma, the reference range of uric acid is 3.4–7.2 mg per 100 ml for men, 2.4–6.1 mg per 100 ml for women. Uric acid concentrations in blood plasma above and below the normal range are known as hyperuricemia and hypouricemia. Uric acid concentrations in urine above and below normal are known as hyperuricosuria and hypouricosuria. Uric acid levels in saliva may be associated with blood uric acid levels. Hyperuricemia, which induces gout, has various potential origins: Diet may be a factor. High intake of dietary purine, high-fructose corn syrup, table sugar can increase levels of uric acid. Serum uric acid can be elevated by reduced excretion via the kidneys. Fasting or rapid weight loss can temporarily elevate uric acid levels. Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, can increase blood uric acid levels by interfering with renal clearance. Tumor lysis syndrome, a metabolic complication of certain cancers or chemotherapy, due to nucleobase and potassium release into the plasma.
Excess blood uric acid can induce gout, a painful condition resulting from needle-like crystals of uric acid precipitat
Sybil Smith is an American former collegiate swimmer. She is the first African-American female swimmer to be named a first-team Division I All-American, the only All-American in Boston University women's swimming history, her daughter Sloane Stephens is a Grand Slam champion tennis player. Smith grew up in Fresno, where she attended San Joaquin Memorial High School, she has a brother named Tony, a professional golfer. Her father Noel Smith emigrated to the United States from Trinidad and became a doctor after earning a scholarship to attend Howard University. Smith is the mother of tennis player Sloane Stephens, she separated from Sloane's father, professional American football player John Stephens, in 1994 after he was arrested multiple times. She married Sheldon Farrell in 1997 and had another child, Shawn Farrell, who played baseball and football at Notre Dame High School outside of Los Angeles. Smith is regarded as the best swimmer in Boston University history. In her senior year, she placed sixth at the NCAA Championships in the 100 yard backstroke event.
With a finish in the top eight, she was named a first-team All-American and became the first African-American female swimmer in Division I to achieve this feat. To date, she is still the only All-American female swimmer in school history, her finishing time at the event was a school record. Smith holds the school record in the 100 yard butterfly event, as well as seven records in total. Smith won the Mildred Barnes award for the university's outstanding woman athlete in 1987 and 1988, becoming the first person to receive this honor twice, she was inducted into the Boston University Athletic Hall of Fame in 1993. After finishing college, Smith attended graduate school at Harvard University where she studied to become a psychologist. While she was there, she was the assistant coach of their swim team, she competed at the 1988 US Olympic Trials in three events. Her best result was 21st place in the 50 meter freestyle, her two other events were the 100 meter freestyle and the 100 meter backstroke
Mary Morgan was a young servant in Presteigne, Wales, convicted and hanged for killing her newborn child. While Morgan was from Glasbury, her story has been associated with Presteigne since her execution in 1805, she was employed as an undercook at Maesllwch Castle, the seat of Walter Wilkins Esq, the Member of Parliament for the county of Radnorshire. Morgan was working in the kitchens in the early hours of a Sunday in September 1804 when she became unwell, she went to her room in the servant's quarters of the castle. Early that evening the cook went to her room and accused Morgan of having given birth to a baby, which at first she denied. According to the evidence given by the cook, Morgan "owned that she had delivered herself of a child, in the underbed cut open, amongst the feathers with the head nearly divided from the body, the damaged intestinal system removed and placed underneath the child." The inquest on the baby was held at Glasbury two days and the Coroner's Jury found that: Mary Morgan, late of the Parish of Glazebury, a single woman on the 23rd day of September being big with child, afterward alone and secretly from her body did bring forth alive a female child, which by the laws and customs of this Kingdom was a bastard.
Mary Morgan... moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil afterwards on the same day, wilfully and of her malice aforethought did make an assault with a certain penknife made of iron and steel of the value of sixpence... and gave the child one mortal wound of the length of three inches and the depth of one inch. The child died. Morgan was too ill to travel to Presteigne, until 6 October; the trial began in April 1805 before Mr Justice Hardinge, concluding on 11 April, when the jury found her guilty of murdering her child. On 13 April Morgan was hanged, was buried in what was unconsecrated ground near the church that same afternoon, her public execution attracted large crowds, who watched as she was taken by cart from the gaol to the execution at Gallows Lane. She was subsequently commemorated by two gravestones in the churchyard at Presteigne. For some time after the execution, it was claimed the father of the murdered child was Walter Wilkins the Younger, the son of the Member of Parliament and High Sheriff for the county and the "young squire" of Maesllwch Castle.
Wilkins was a member of the grand jury. Although this theory is broadly discredited today, it has been key in cementing the popular characterisation of Mary Morgan as the helpless victim of an unscrupulous aristocrat; the father is now agreed to have been one of her fellow servants at the castle. Since her execution, there has been a concerted effort to redeem Morgan's reputation, her case became a causes célèbre for feminists who have presented her trial as a miscarriage of justice and suggested the Judge and jury were misogynistic, although it has never been disputed that the murder happened and there is no reason to believe the verdict or punishment could have been different. Citations Bibliography Lionel Fanthorpe, P. A. Fanthorpe, The World's Most Mysterious Murders, Dundurn Press Ltd. 2003 ISBN 1-55002-439-6. Chapter 10. Roy Plamer, "The Folklore of Radnorshire" Logaston Press, 2001, ISBN 978-1-873827-17-8 Pages 151-54
The Vypin Lighthouse or Cochin Lighthouse is situated at Puthuvype in Kochi, Kerala. Though the current lighthouse started functioning only by 15 November 1979, the Cochin Lighthouse has a long history; the lighthouse, functioning in Fort Kochi from 1839 was shifted to Puthuvype in 1979. It is the tallest lighthouse in Kerala; the tower is made of double layered concrete. The light beam has the range of 28 nautical miles. An oil lamp light started functioning at Fort Kochi in 1839. In 1902, a new light and reflecting mechanism was introduced. Modifications were made in 1914. In the 1920s, a new 10-meter tall tower was erected. In 1936, a 25-meter tall steel tower was installed with a gaslight. In 1966, a mechanism called. Plans to construct a taller and brighter light and a radio beacon were drawn up. Since there was a paucity of land, the new light was transferred to Puthuvype in the Vypin Island and the radio beacon was shifted to Azhikode. List of lighthouses in India Vypin Lighthouse in Lighthouse Digest's Lighthouse Explorer Database Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships
In Greek mythology, Prothous may refer to: Prothous, son of Tenthredon and either Eurymache or Cleobule the daughter of Eurytus, commander of the Magnetes who dwelt around mount Pelion and the river Peneus, was one of the Greek leaders in the Trojan War. According to one version, together with Meges and a number of others, died as a result of a shipwreck near Cape Caphereus of Euboea. Prothous, son of the Aetolian Agrius, killed by Diomedes. Prothous, son of Lycaon of Arcadia. Prothous, son of Thestius and brother of Althaea, he was one of the Calydonian Boar Hunters. Prothous, one of the suitors of Penelope, from Same. Prothous of Argos, a warrior in the army of the Seven Against Thebes, he cast lots to assign places in the chariot race at the funeral games of Opheltes. Prothous, a defender of Thebes against the Seven, killed by Tydeus. Conon, Fifty Narrations, surviving as one-paragraph summaries in the Bibliotheca of Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople translated from the Greek by Brady Kiesling.
Online version at the Topos Text Project. Dictys Cretensis, from The Trojan War; the Chronicles of Dictys of Crete and Dares the Phrygian translated by Richard McIlwaine Frazer, Jr.. Indiana University Press. 1966. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, Ph. D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer, Homeri Opera in five volumes. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1920. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Pausanias, Description of Greece with an English Translation by W. H. S. Jones, Litt. D. and H. A. Ormerod, M. A. in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio. 3 vols. Leipzig, Teubner. 1903. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library.
Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Publius Papinius Statius, The Thebaid translated by John Henry Mozley. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Publius Papinius Statius, The Thebaid. Vol I-II. John Henry Mozley. London: William Heinemann. P. Putnam's Sons. 1928. Latin text available at the Perseus Digital Library
Sotir Ferrara was the Bishop of the Eparchy of Piana degli Albanesi, a diocese of the Italo-Albanian Catholic Church in Sicily, Italy. Born in Piana degli Albanesi on 5 December 1937. After studying in preparation for the priesthood on 19 November 1960, he was ordained priest. On 15 October 1988 he was elected by the Pope John Paul II to the bishopric of Eparchy of Piana degli Albanesi, he received episcopal consecration on 15 January 1989 by Archbishop Miroslav Stefan Marusyn. He retired in April 2013 upon reaching the age limit of 75. Bishop Ferrara died on 25 November 2017, at the age of 80. OSBM Archbishop Andreas Alexander Szeptycki, OSBM Archbishop Ivan Bucko Archbishop Miroslav Stefan Marusyn Bishop Sotir Ferrara Eparchy's Bishop page