Bunker Hill Monument
The Bunker Hill Monument was erected to commemorate the Battle of Bunker Hill, among the first major battles between British and Patriot forces in the American Revolutionary War, fought there June 17, 1775. The 221-foot granite obelisk was erected between 1825 and 1843 in Charlestown, with granite from nearby Quincy conveyed to the site via the purpose-built Granite Railway, followed by a trip by barge. There are 294 steps to the top. An exhibit lodge built adjacent to the monument in the late 19th century houses a statue of fallen hero Dr. Joseph Warren. Bunker Hill is one of the sites along the Freedom Trail and is part of Boston National Historical Park; the monument underwent a $3.7 million renovation, completed in 2007, that included repairs, handicap accessibility improvements, new lighting. The Bunker Hill Museum across the street was dedicated in June of that year and includes many exhibits about the battle. No admission charge applies to the monument; the monument was one of the first in the United States.
An earlier memorial at the site had been erected in memory of fallen Bunker Hill hero Dr. Joseph Warren, a Mason, in 1794 by King Solomon's Lodge of Masons, was an 18-foot wooden column topped with a gilt urn. In front of the obelisk is a statue of Col. William Prescott, a native of Groton, another hero of Bunker Hill. According to popular stories, he coined the famous Revolutionary War phrase, "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes" during the battle. However, various writers attribute it to Israel Putnam, John Stark, Prescott or Gridley, while a few question whether it was said at all; the monument is not on Bunker Hill, but instead on Breed's Hill, where most of the fighting in the misnamed Battle of Bunker Hill took place. The Monument Association, which had purchased the battlefield site, was forced to sell off all but the hill's summit in order to complete the monument. Breed's Hill is a glacial drumlin located in the Charlestown section of Massachusetts, it is located in the southern portion of the Charlestown Peninsula, a oval, but now more triangular, peninsula, connected to Cambridge in colonial times by a short, narrow isthmus known as the Charlestown Neck.
It is best known as the location where in 1775, early in the American Revolutionary War, most of the fighting in the Battle of Bunker Hill took place. In the 19th and early 20th centuries the peninsula's shape and connections to other landforms were altered, with the waters of the Charles River between Cambridge and Charlestown filled in. Much of the hill is now occupied by residential construction, but the summit area is the location of the Bunker Hill Monument and other memorials commemorating the battle; the hill is about 62 feet high, is topped by Monument Square, site of the Bunker Hill Monument. The hill slopes steeply to the east and west. In addition to its historic sites and tourist-oriented facilities, the hill is the site of a great deal of residential property, as well as supporting municipal and retail infrastructure, it is about 700 yards from Bunker Hill. The Americans, having caught word of a British plan to fortify the Charlestown peninsula, decided to get to the peninsula first, fortify it, present sufficient threat to cause the British to leave Boston.
On June 16, 1775, under the leadership of General Putnam and Colonel Prescott, the Americans stole out onto the Charlestown Peninsula with instructions to establish defensive positions on Bunker Hill. A redoubt, a small and temporary defensive fortification, was constructed on nearby Breed's Hill due to its closer proximity to Boston compared to Bunker Hill; the next morning, June 17, the British were astonished to see the rebel fortifications upon the hill and set out to reclaim the peninsula. The resulting conflict was called the Battle of Bunker Hill because, where Prescott intended—and was ordered—to build the fortifications; some people considered Breed's Hill a part of Bunker Hill, while others called it Charlestown Hill. British soldiers under Howe sent 2,400 men to attack Breed's Hill. A force of 1,500 colonists held off three British attacks retreated when the colonists ran out of gunpowder. 450 colonists were wounded, compared to 1,150 British casualties. In 1825, the Bunker Hill Monument Association began construction of the Bunker Hill Monument, acquiring 15 acres of land for the purpose.
William Ticknor, a well-known Boston lawyer and antiquarian, first suggested the memorial. An interested group of men met for breakfast at the home of Colonel Thomas Handasyd Perkins, including William Tudor, Daniel Webster, Professor George Ticknor, Doctor John C. Warren, William Sullivan, George Blake. On May 10, 1823, the first public meeting was called; each member subscribed five dollars, on June 7, 1823, the Bunker Hill Monument Association was established and the work of raising money was begun. Famed nineteenth-century philanthropist Amos Lawrence contributed $10,000 to the monument's erection. In the spring of 1825 the directors had purchased about 15 acres on the slope of Breed's Hill, but had not yet chosen a design; the first design committee consisted of Webster, noted engineer Loammi Baldwin, Jr. George Ticknor, Gilbert Stuart, Washington Allston. One hundred dollars was offered for the best design. Choice was soon narrowed to a column and an obelisk and a new committee was appointed to procure designs and estimate expenses for each.
At the next meeting the majority voted. The directors laid the cornerstone on June 17, 1825; the Marquis de Lafaye
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Boston Dispensary or Boston Medical Dispensary provided for "medical relief of the poor" in Boston, from the late 18th century through the mid-20th century. In the 1960s it merged with New England Medical Center, now known as Tufts Medical Center. Founders included Jonathan Amory, John Andrews, William Brown, John Codman, Samuel Dunn, Stephen Gorham, John Coffin Jones, John Parker, Samuel Parker, William Shattuck, William Smith, Samuel Stillman, Samuel West. Early benefactors included Benjamin Dearborn; the charity incorporated in 1801. By 1807, "the Boston Medical Dispensary, instituted in October, 1796, has afforded the means of relief to many necessitous persons, among others, whose feelings would have been hurt by an application for assistance from the alms house; this institution is supported by subscriptions. The town is divided into three districts. Fundraising events took place at the Federal Street Theatre in 1821, Doggett's Repository of Arts in 1823. Through its history, there were many physicians who received their training at the Boston Dispensary including Oliver Wendell Holmes, James Jackson, Asa Bullard, Gamaliel Bradford, Pliny Hayes, Edward Warren, Henry Bowditch, Benjamin D. Appleton, Daniel Slade, E. Whitley Blake, Buckminster Brown.
In addition to organizing the charitable provision of medical service throughout the city, the dispensary maintained a central clinic at no.76 Cornhill, no.138 Washington Street, no.25 Bennett Street, at the corner of Ash Street. A newly constructed clinic replaced the old building on the Bennett Street site in 1883. "In the 1960s, the Boston Dispensary merged with the Floating Hospital for Children and the Pratt Diagnostic Clinic/Tufts Medical Center Hospital. It formed alliances with Tufts University School of Medicine which serves as the principal teaching affiliate for the Medical Center." Tufts Medical Center, successor to the Boston Medical Dispensary Boston Dispensary. Annual report. 1860. William R. Lawrence. A history of the Boston Dispensary. Boston: Printed by J. Wilson. "New building of the Boston Dispensary". Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 109. Nov 29, 1883. Robert Willard Greenleaf. An historical report of the Boston Dispensary for one hundred and one years. "The Boston Dispensary, 1796–1962".
New England Journal of Medicine. 266: 29–31. Doi:10.1056/nejm196201042660108. PMID 13888480
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
The Bostonian Society
The Bostonian Society is a non-profit organization, founded in 1881 for the purpose of preventing the Old State House from being "moved brick by brick" from Boston, Massachusetts to Chicago, Illinois. Determined to save the historic building, the site of the Boston Massacre and the place for the proclamation of the Declaration of Independence in Massachusetts, a group of citizens banded together formed "Boston's first successful historic preservation movement". Now stewardship of the Old State House—"one of the most important public buildings in U. S. history" and the oldest surviving public building in Boston—is the society's primary purpose. Today the 18th century building stands above the underground State Street MBTA Station in a busy area of Boston situated between Downtown Crossing and South Station. According to the Society's website, The Bostonian Society is dedicated to studying, preserving Boston’s uniquely important history, embodied in materials and structures such as the Old State House, in sharing an understanding of the revolutionary ideas born here.
The city of Boston still owns the structure, it is within the Boston National Historical Park and a major site on the Freedom Trail, but day-to-day management of the site is in the hands of the Bostonian Society, which maintains a museum in the building and a research library across the street. Materials in the collection date back to 1630s Massachusetts Bay Colony and include 7,500 books, 350 maps, 30,000 photographs, other primary source materials. Exhibits at the museum focus on the American Revolution and the American Revolutionary War, the neighborhoods of Boston, similar local themes; some of the artifacts on display on the walls and in glass cases are antique rifles and other weapons, old nautical instruments from the Age of Sail, images from 18th century London newspapers expressing how Britons viewed the war, an original Paul Revere political cartoon, passed down through the family of Josiah Quincy I until it was donated it to the Bostonian Society in the 1880s. There is a model showing what Boston looked like during Colonial America.
According to the Greater Boston Convention & Visitors Bureau, "The Bostonian Society is the first stop for anyone interested in the city's history" and "the Society brings Boston history to life". The Bostonian Society has various programs and educational resources for children and adults and has been called "a comprehensive historical and educational resource". For several years, The Society oversaw a historic marker program across the city of Boston and ran a teacher training program called "Teaching Boston History Workshops", bringing together leading experts on various subjects, community-based organizations and museum educators, the Society's "unequalled collections of primary sources"; the Society oversees the annual Boston Massacre reenactment which occurs every year in March and has other historic programs with costumed interpreters. The Society makes the Old State House available for various events from private events; the Bostonian Society operates three gift shops: One inside the Old State House, a shop in Faneuil Hall and, close by, a shop at Quincy Market.
Boston Marine Museum, acquired in 1947 Proceedings of the Bostonian Society, Annual Meeting, 1880s-, ISSN 0190-3586 Bostonian Society, Publications Catalogue of the Collections of the Bostonian Society: in the Old State House, Boston, 18953rd ed. 1902 Official site Digital Public Library of America. Items related to the Bostonian Society, various dates
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne
Old Colony Railroad
The Old Colony Railroad was a major railroad system covering southeastern Massachusetts and parts of Rhode Island. It operated from 1845 to 1893. Old Colony trains ran from Boston to points such as Plymouth, Fall River, New Bedford, Providence, Fitchburg and Cape Cod. For many years the Old Colony Railroad Company operated steamboat and ferry lines, including those of the Fall River Line with express train service from Boston to its wharf in Fall River where passengers boarded luxury liners to New York City; the company briefly operated a railroad line on Martha's Vineyard, as well as the freight-only Union Freight Railroad in Boston. The OC was named after the nickname for the Plymouth Colony. From 1845 to 1893, the OC network grew extensively through a series of mergers and acquisitions with other established railroads, until it was itself acquired by the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad under lease agreement on March 1, 1893 for its entire 617-mile network. After this date, all trains and stations became known as the "Old Colony Division" of the huge "New Haven" system.
During this period, the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad enjoyed a virtual monopoly on all passenger and freight rail service in southern New England. Passenger service on the New Haven Railroad's Old Colony Division ended in 1959, except for the main line between Boston and Providence, which continues to be used for passenger service by Amtrak and the MBTA. Since 1997, other former OC lines have been reopened to passenger service, including the MBTA's Old Colony Lines with service from Boston to Plymouth and Middleborough/Lakeville. In 2007, MBTA passenger service was restored on the Greenbush Line between Braintree and Greenbush Station in Scituate; the MBTA has plans to restore passenger service to Fall River and New Bedford as part of the South Coast Rail project. Other parts of the former OC system continue to be used for freight service by CSX Transportation and other short line railroads, including the Massachusetts Coastal Railroad which operates on Cape Cod and in southeastern Massachusetts.
Parts of the former OC on Cape Cod are still used to operate the Cape Cod Central Railroad tourist train from Hyannis to Buzzards Bay during the summer and fall months. Another tourist railroad, the Old Colony and Newport Scenic Railway operates on part of the former OC from Newport, Rhode Island on Aquidneck Island. Several abandoned portions of the OC have been converted into multi-use rail trails; these include the East Bay Bike Path in Rhode Island, as well as others in Lowell and Fairhaven, Massachusetts and the Cape Cod Rail Trail on Cape Cod. By the early 1840s, the city of Boston had six major rail lines connecting it with other places including Lowell, Maine and Salem to the north, Worcester to the west and Providence, Rhode Island to the southwest; the southeastern part of Massachusetts had yet to be served by a rail link to Boston. On March 16, 1844 the Old Colony Railroad Corporation was formed to provide a rail connection between Boston and Plymouth, Massachusetts. Construction of the line began in South Boston in June 1844 and the 36.8-mile line opened to Plymouth on November 10, 1845.
The extension from South Boston to the newly completed Kneeland Street in Boston opened on June 19, 1847. Kneeland Street Station served as the headquarters for the OC until the 1893 consolidation. There had been an Old Colony Railroad formed in 1838 for a line between Taunton and New Bedford, but the name was changed to the New Bedford and Taunton Railroad in 1839 before service began in 1840; this line would become part of OC in 1879. John Sever of Kingston, Massachusetts served as the first president of the Old Colony Railroad Corporation from 1844-1845. Nathan Carruth served as the second president of the corporation from 1845 to 1848. Carruth was a successful businessman and enthusiastic supporter of the expansion of railroads in Massachusetts and elsewhere in New England. With the opening of the Old Colony line through Dorchester in 1845, Carruth became involved in the development of the area, he built an estate on the east side of Dorchester Avenue called Beechmont/Beaumont which would become one of the first railroad suburbs in America.
All OC locomotives were named until 1884, when they were just numbered. Among the early engines were the Mayflower, Governor Carver, Governor Bradford and Miles Standish; the new railroad company built the Samoset Hotel near the end of its line in Plymouth. In 1847, the OC completed a short 6.2-mile connector line from its main line at Whitman to the Fall River Railroad line at Bridgewater Junction. On April 1, 1849, OC signed a lease of the South Shore Railroad for a period of five years. By 1851, traffic on the line had increased enough to warrant the opening of a second track running between Boston and South Braintree; the OC and Fall River Railroad merged with a joint stock vote on June 20, 1854, forming the Old Colony and Fall River Railroad Company, which provided a two-pronged line from Boston to Plymouth and Boston to Fall River, splitting at South Braintree. Alexander Holmes from Kingston served as company president during this period, from 1854 to 1866; the Fall River Railroad had been formed on August 1845 with consolidation of three companies.
The Fall River Railroad was led by Richard Borden, a prominent mill owner in Fall River who wanted a direct route from his city to Boston, which did not require use of the Boston and Providence Railroad lines. The line from South Braintree to Myricks in the town of Berkley opened on December 16, 1846 as an extension of the Fall Riv