SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder or bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and vertebrates that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination. In the human the bladder is a hollow muscular, distensible organ, that sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the exits via the urethra; the typical human bladder will hold between 300 and 500 mL before the urge to empty occurs, but can hold more. In humans, the bladder is a hollow muscular organ situated at the base of the pelvis. Urine collects in the bladder, fed from the two ureters. Urine leaves the bladder via the urethra, a single muscular tube ending in an opening – the urinary meatus, where it exits the body. Anatomists divide the bladder into:. A broad fundus a body an apex a neckThe apex is directed forward toward the upper part of the pubic symphysis, from there the median umbilical ligament continues upward on the back of the anterior abdominal wall to the umbilicus; the peritoneum is carried by it from the apex on to the abdominal wall to form the middle umbilical fold.

The neck of the bladder is the area at the base of the trigone that surrounds the internal urethral orifice that leads to the urethra. In males the neck of the urinary bladder is adjacent to the prostate gland; the three openings, two ureteric orifices, the internal urethral orifice mark the triangular area called the trigone of the bladder. These openings have mucosal flaps in front of them that act as valves in preventing the backflow of urine into the ureters, known as vesicoureteral reflux. Between the two ureteric openings is a raised area of tissue called the interureteric crest; this makes the upper boundary of the trigone. The trigone is a smooth-muscle area, it is an area of smooth tissue for the easy flow of urine into and from this part of the bladder - in contrast to the irregular surface formed by the rugae. In men, the prostate gland lies outside the opening for the urethra; the middle lobe of the prostate causes an elevation in the mucous membrane behind the internal urethral orifice called the uvula of urinary bladder.

The uvula can enlarge. The bladder is situated below the peritoneal cavity near the pelvic floor and behind the pubic symphysis. In men, it lies in front of the rectum, separated by the recto-vesical pouch, is supported by fibres of the levator ani and of the prostate gland. In women, it lies in front of the uterus, separated by the vesico-uterine pouch, is supported by the elevator ani and the upper part of the vagina; the wall of the urinary bladder is 3–5 mm thick. When well distended, the wall is less than 3 mm; the inner walls have a series of ridges, thick mucosal folds known as rugae that allow for the expansion of the bladder. The Latin phrase for "urinary bladder" is vesica urinaria, the term vesical or prefix vesico - appear in connection with associated structures such as vesical veins; the modern Latin word for "bladder" – cystis – appears in associated terms such as cystitis. The outside of the bladder is protected by a serous membrane; the bladder wall itself is smooth muscle. The inner side of the bladder is lined with a mucous membrane consisting of a surface glycocalyx that protects the cells beneath it from urine, the urothelium, a basement membrane, the lamina propria.

The mucosal lining offers a urothelial barrier against the passing of infections. The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers arranged in spiral and circular bundles. Stretch receptors in the bladder signal the parasympathetic nervous system to stimulate the muscarinic receptors in the detrusor to contract the muscle when the bladder is extended; this encourages the bladder to expel urine through the urethra. The main receptor activated is the M3 receptor, although M2 receptors are involved and whilst outnumbering the M3 receptors they are not so responsive; the main relaxant pathway is via the adenylyl cyclase cAMP pathway, activated via the β3 adrenergic receptors. The β2 adrenergic receptors are present in the detrusor and outnumber β3 receptors, but they do not have as important an effect in relaxing the detrusor smooth muscle; the detrusor muscle is unusually able to change its length. It can contract for a long time whilst voiding, it stays relaxed whilst the bladder is filling.

The urothelium and lamina propria line the inside of the detrusor muscle, can release regulators to influence general contractility of the detrusor muscle, maintain normal bladder tone, mediate bladder diseases such as overactive bladder. The bladder is drained by the vesical veins; the superior vesical artery supplies blood to the upper part of the bladder. The lower part of the bladder is supplied by the inferior vesical artery in males and by the vaginal artery in females, both of which are branches of the internal iliac arteries. In females, the uterine arteries provides additional blood supply. Venous drainage begins in a network of small vessels on the lateral and posterior surfaces of the bladder, which coalesce and pass backwards along the lateral ligaments of the bladder into the internal iliac veins; the lymph drained from the bladder begins in a series of networks throughout the mucosal and serosal layers. These form three sets of vessels: one set near the trigone draining the bottom of the bladder.

The majority of t

Monroe Township High School

Monroe Township High School is a comprehensive four-year public high school located in Monroe Township, in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, serving students in ninth through twelfth grades part of the Monroe Township School District. The school serves students from Monroe Township and 300 from Jamesburg Borough who attend Monroe Township High School as part of a sending/receiving relationship with the Jamesburg Public Schools, in place since 1980; the school's mascot is a falcon and the school colors are purple and Vegas gold. The motto is "Excellence is Our Expectation"; as of the 2017-18 school year, the school had an enrollment of 2,307 students and 173.7 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 13.3:1. There were 54 eligible for reduced-cost lunch; the school's original building, designed to serve 1,100 students, was constructed at a cost of $4.7 million. Groundbreaking for the new facility was held in July 1971 after a bond issue to cover the costs of the building was approved by voters in May 1971, students started using the building in January 1974.

The New Jersey Board of Education voted in May 1979 to shutdown Jamesburg High School, which with an enrollment of 182 students was the smallest in the state. Starting with the 1979-80 school year, Jamesburg began sending students to Monroe Township High School; the Marasco Center for the Performing Arts was added to that building in the 1990s, more classrooms were added in the early 2000s. Because of Monroe Township's increasing population, a new high school was built and was finished in time for the 2011-2012 school year, despite discovery of an old farmstead on the site; the previous high school building is now used by the township's middle school, what was called "Applegarth Middle School" is now an elementary school building. In recent years, the population of Monroe Township grew, leading to a proposal for relocation of the high school onto what was part of the soccer fields of Thompson Park, across the road from the previous high school building. Opponents of the site of the proposed high school claim that historical records show that the new location is the 18th century site of Bethel Indian Town.

An archaeological study found European artifacts in portions of the 35 acres of the proposed site, with only about eight or so Native American artifacts among them. The new Monroe Township High School building was completed in 2011 on the Thompson Park property. Monroe Township High School is a growing school with 2100 students and 200 staff members; the high school offers state–of-the art technology, including a one-to-one iPad initiative intended to provide all students with the opportunity to integrate technology into every facet of their educational experience. Monroe Township High School was named Top 10 Transformative Schools. MTHS focuses on technology as a learning mechanism; the school was the 82nd-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 339 schools statewide in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2014 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", using a new ranking methodology. The school had been ranked 124th in the state of 328 schools in 2012, after being ranked 118th in 2010 out of 322 schools listed.

The magazine ranked the school 113th in 2008 out of 316 schools. The school was ranked 106th in the magazine's September 2006 issue, which surveyed 316 schools across the state. Schooldigger.com ranked the school 178th out of 381 public high schools statewide in its 2011 rankings which were based on the combined percentage of students classified as proficient or above proficient on the mathematics and language arts literacy components of the High School Proficiency Assessment. The school has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools and by the New Jersey Department of Education. In order to graduate from Monroe Township High School, a student must obtain a minimum of 130 credits in grades 9-12. In addition, the successful completion of certain subjects is required as follows: Language Arts - 4 years Physical Education and Health - 4 years United States History - 2 years World History - 1 year Fine, Performing Arts - 2 years Mathematics - 4 years Science - 3 years World Language - 2 years Career Education Technology - 1 year Economics / Personal Finance - 1 year Extracurricular activitiesExtracurricular activities provide an opportunity for MTHS students to explore their interests and help the community.

Most "clubs" meet after school. Some clubs meet at night. Note: This information is taken from the Monroe Township High School Website. Marching FalconsThe MTHS Marching Band competes in independent and USBands competitions held within New Jersey and New York; the marching band was under the direction of Alfred Hadinger. Now it is under the direction of Megan Alexander; some of the instructors have a musical past of competing in the Drum Corps International circuit or Drum Corps Associates circuit. Some of the members have branched out and joined a drum corps. Since 2003, they have competed as an A Class marching band varying in sizes of around a group 5, 4, 3 or 2 band. After minor successes in the past, the Marching Falcons won first place in Group 2A at the 2013 USBands A Class National Championships in Allentown Pennsylvania and the 2013 USBands A Class st

Bruce Sterling (Love of Life)

Bruce Sterling was a fictional character in the now-cancelled American Soap Opera, Love of Life. He was played by actor Ron Tomme from 1959 to the show's demise in 1980. Bruce was the second husband of heroine Vanessa Dale, he was a teacher at Winfield Academy, a private boys' school in the fictional upstate New York community of Rosehill. Bruce met Van through a mutual friend of theirs named Tom Craythorne, a New York City lawyer, who had befriended Van after she helped him foil a paternity suit that her malevolent sister, foisted on him, they had married. A widower with two children, Bruce felt. Alan, his son, took to Van immediately, but Henry's wife and Bruce's headstrong daughter, didn't like the new situation. Vivian thought it heartless that Bruce marry so soon after the death of Gaye. However, the war against Vanessa was on the front of snobby Vivian. Bruce had his share of trials with Barbara, she and a date went joyriding and injured Dr. Tony Vento, a handsome doctor that she wanted to marry.

Barbara told Van all about it, Van, out of concern, told Bruce about it. Barbara was annoyed with Van and hated her since. Barbara did marry Dr. Vento, but he found her immature. Not he divorced her. Henry offered Bruce a job at his paper company, accepted it, feeling burned out from teaching at Winfield Academy. There was the beginning of marital problems for the Sterlings. Bruce had an affair with his secretary, a woman named Ginny Crandall, the wife of a teacher at Winfield Academy, that caused Van to move out of the house and in with her stepson in his apartment, he saved a girl named Sandy Porter from a rapist named Glenn Hamilton. He had an affair with Dr. Jennifer Stark. A swindler named Guy Latimer tried to bilk Henry out a patent, Bruce put an end to that scheme. However, he wasn't through with the Latimers. Guy's maverick son, had married Barbara, against everyone's best interests; the two produced Hank Latimer, named after his great-grandfather, Henry. Rick, found her to be a immature girl, divorced her, taking Hank with him.

Barbara left Rosehill, never to return. Bruce has worn many hats in Rosehill over the years. Besides his teaching career at Winfield Academy and his job at the Carlson Paper Company, he was a professor at Rosehill University, he was a private investigator, but despite all his work and the amount of service to his community over the years, not to mention his affairs, his one true love was his wife, Vanessa. The Sterlings still live in Rosehill and have retired happily. Ron Tomme originated the role of Bruce, he wooed Vanessa, right up to the wedding day. When Van walked down the aisle, the next day, she was played by Audrey Peters, who stayed with the role until the show's end in 1980. Since Audrey had taken over right after Bonnie Bartlett quit the show, had no idea who the characters she was interacting with were, or knew their names, she called everyone at the reception, "dear"