Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. In Croatian and Bosnian, only the Latin alphabet is used. Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous "Slavonic-Serbian" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels, introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet instead, adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles; as a result of this joint effort and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, Dž counting as single letters. Vuk's Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period.
Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Due to the shared cultural area, Gaj's Latin alphabet saw a gradual adoption in Serbia since, both scripts are used to write modern standard Serbian and Bosnian. In Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, has the official status, it is an official script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov and Venko Markovski. Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the Bosnian language "officially accept both alphabets", the Latin script is always used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Cyrillic is in everyday use in Republika Srpska; the Serbian language in Croatia is recognized as a minority language, the use of Cyrillic in bilingual signs has sparked protests and vandalism. Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity.
In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only though, according to a 2014 survey, 47% of the Serbian population write in the Latin alphabet whereas 36% write in Cyrillic. The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, along with the equivalent forms in the Serbian Latin alphabet and the International Phonetic Alphabet value for each letter: According to tradition, Glagolitic was invented by the Byzantine Christian missionaries and brothers Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, amid the Christianization of the Slavs. Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyril's disciples at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s; the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek.
There was no distinction between lowercase letters. The literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Sava's Nomocanon, Dušan's Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, others; the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution to Vienna. There he met a linguist with interest in slavistics. Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform its orthography, he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić reformed the Serbian literary language and standardised the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet by following strict phonemic principles on the Johann Christoph Adelung' model and Jan Hus' Czech alphabet. Karadžić's reforms of the Serbian literary language modernised it and distanced it from Serbian and Russian Church Slavonic, instead bringing it closer to common folk speech to the dialect of Eastern Herzegovina which he spoke.
Karadžić was, together with Đuro Daničić, the main Serbian signatory to the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850 which, encouraged by Austrian authorities, laid the foundation for the Serbian language, various forms of which are used by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro and Herzegovina and Croatia today. Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian, published in 1868, he wrote several books. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used: Ю, Я, Ы and Ѳ. In his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ; the alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death. From the Old Slavic script Vuk retained these 24 letters: He added one Latin letter: And 5 new ones: He removed: Orders issued on the 3 and 13 October 1914 banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, limiting it for use in religious instruction. A decree was passed on January 3, 1915, that banned Serbian Cyrillic from public use. An imperial order in October 25, 1915, banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, except "within the scope of Serb Orthodox Church
Chile con queso
Chile con queso, sometimes described as queso, is an appetizer or side dish of melted cheese, or more a pasteurised processed cheese food product such as Velveeta, chili pepper served in Tex-Mex restaurants as a dip for tortilla chips. Chile con queso is a part of Tex-Mex and Southwestern cuisine, originating in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua as a version of Queso chihuahua and Queso flameado. Chile con queso is predominantly found on the menus of Tex-Mex restaurants in the southwest and western United States. Chile con queso is a smooth, creamy sauce, used for dipping, made from a blend of melted cheeses and chili peppers. Many restaurants serve chile con queso with such added ingredients as pico de gallo, black beans and ground beef or pork. Chile con queso is a warm dish, heated to a desired temperature. Chile con queso can be eaten with tortillas, tortilla chips, or pita chips which are thicker than regular tortilla chips, it can be used as a condiment on fajitas, enchiladas, quesadillas or any other Tex-Mex dish.
While Tex-Mex restaurants offer chips and salsa free of charge, queso is offered for an additional charge. It can be made with various cheeses, it is white or yellow in color. Although chile con queso is called "queso", it should not be confused with "cheese dip,", cheese without the peppers. Queso at Wikibook Cookbooks
Frito pie is a dish popular in the Southern and Southwestern United States, whose basic ingredients are chili and corn chips. Additions can include salsa, refried beans, sour cream, rice, or jalapeños. There are many variations and alternative names used by region. Frito pie can be prepared in a casserole dish, but an alternate preparation can be in a single-serve Fritos-type corn chip bag with various ingredients as toppings. In Mexico, a similar type of dish is chilaquiles; the exact origin of the frito pie is not clear. It is believed that it was created somewhere in Mexico and was popular at fiestas before it took off in other countries like the United States; the oldest known recipe using Fritos brand corn chips with chili was published in Texas in 1949. The recipe may have been invented by Daisy Doolin, the founder's mother and the first person to use Fritos as an ingredient in cooking, or Mary Livingston, his executive secretary; the Frito-Lay company attributes the recipe to Nell Morris, who joined Frito-Lay in the 1950s and helped develop an official cookbook which included the Frito pie.
Doolin and his Frito Corporation were early investors in Disneyland, which opened Casa de Fritos restaurant in Disneyland in 1955. "Frito Chili Pie" appears on the 1950s menu. Another story claims that true Frito pie originated only in the 1960s with Teresa Hernández, who worked at the F. W. Woolworth's lunch counter in Santa Fe, New Mexico, her Frito pie used homemade red chili con carne with cheddar cheese and onions, was served in the bag –, thicker in the 1960s. Frito pie is a simple dish: At its most basic, it is just a pile of Fritos with beef chili poured on top, it is served right inside the chip bag, split down the middle. Frito Pies are sometimes referred to by the name walking taco or Frito boat, can be made in a small, single-serving bag of corn chips, with chili, taco meat, pork rinds and many other varied ingredients, poured over the top; the combination can be finished with grated cheese, jalapeños, sour cream, known as a Frito boat or walking taco in the Midwestern United States.
In the Ohio Valley region, this preparation is called taco-in-a-bag.. In many parts of Southern California, they are known as "pepper bellies". Frito pies are popular at sports venues, bingos, open houses, state fairs and street vendors; the term Tostiloco comes from Tijuana, is found in California. Another term is Doriloco, after Doritos. In Mexico, a version of the dish is known as tostilocos, it includes some different ingredients. Haystacks Taco salad Tamale pie Tostilocos Petro's Chili & Chips, a Knoxville, Tennessee based fast food chain serving a frito pie variant first served at the 1982 World's Fair. Texas Cooking Article Cook the Book: Frito Pie Shilcutt, Katharine. "The Frito Pie Is Not from Texas: Commence Pearl-Clutching... Now." Houston Press. Thursday October 13, 2011
Arizona cheese crisp
An Arizona cheese crisp is an open-faced, flour tortilla covered in shredded cheese. It is put on a metal pizza pan, brushed with butter or margarine and put under a broiler until it gets crisp, it is similar to a quesadilla, but distinct in that a cheese crisp is not folded over, that it is baked until the tortilla becomes crisp. Common cheeses to use include in various combinations are Monterey jack, or Cheddar. Cheese crisps sometimes are topped with cilantro, or peppers; the cheese crisp is said to have been made famous by El Charro Café in Tucson, Arizona Cheese crisps are ubiquitous in Arizona, but found outside the state other than places popular with Arizona tourists such as Puerto Peñasco and San Diego. Frico
Serbian cuisine is the traditional cuisine of Serbia, sharing characteristics with the rest of the Balkan nations. Serbian food is characterized by a mixture of Byzantine–Greek, Turkish–Oriental and cuisine of Austro–Hungarian Empire, as well as medieval Slavic influences. Serbian law bans production and import of genetically modified food, which has caused a long-running dispute with the World Trade Organization, preventing the country from becoming a member of the organization; the national dishes include pljeskavica, ćevapi, Karađorđeva šnicla. The national drink is the plum brandy homemade rakija. With Serbia being located on the crossroads between East and West, its cuisine has gathered elements from different cooking styles across the Middle East and Europe to develop its own hearty gastronomy with an intricate balance of rich meats, cheese, fresh pastries and desserts, it has much in common with the cuisines of neighboring Balkan countries, as well as, to a smaller extent, the cuisines of countries as far north as Germany and as far east as Iran and Pakistan.
Its flavours are mild and natural. Seasonings are light. Eating seasonal food is important, many dishes are associated with a specific time of the year. Most people in Serbia will have three meals a day, breakfast and dinner, lunch being the largest. However, only lunch and dinner existed, with breakfast being introduced in the second half of the 19th century. A number of foods which are bought in the West are made at home in Serbia; these include rakija, jam, various pickled foods, notably sauerkraut, ajvar or sausages. The reasons for this range from economical to cultural. Food preparation is a strong part of the Serbian family tradition. William, archbishop of Tyre, who visited Constantinople in 1179, described the Serbs: "They are rich in herds and flocks and unusually well supplied with milk, butter, meat and wax"; the first published cookbook in Serbia is The Big Serbian Cookbook, written by Katarina Popović-Midzina in 1877. The best known Serbian cookbook is Pata's Cookbook, written by Spasenija Pata Marković in 1907.
An old Serbian legend says that during the time of the 14th-century Serbian Empire, under the rule of Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, meals in the Serbian palace were eaten with golden spoons and forks. Historians say that mediaeval Serbian cuisine consisted of milk, dairy produce and vegetables. Not a lot of bread was eaten, but when it was, the rich ate bread made from wheat and the poor ate bread made from oats and rye; the only meat consumed was game, with cattle kept for agricultural use. Breakfast in Serbia is an early but hearty meal, rich in calories and carbohydrates, meant to provide one with enough energy to start the day well. Bread is eaten, served with butter, yogurt, sour cream or cheese, accompanied by bacon, salami, eggs or kajmak. Many people would stop by a bakery in the morning to enjoy fresh pastries, such as pogačice, paštete, kiflice, buhtle, pletenice, štapići, zemičke, mekike and uštipci. Other common breakfast dishes include burek, kačamak and cicvara, proja and čalabrca. Before breakfast most people have a cup of coffee, or espresso.
With the breakfast itself either a tea, milk coffee, or chocolate milk is served. Meze is an assortment of small dishes and appetizers, unlike the Middle Eastern meze, it does not include cooked dishes, is therefore more similar to Italian antipasto. A Serbian meze includes slices of cured meats and sausages, olives, fresh vegetables and uršija. Meze is served either to accompany as a starter before a soup on bigger meals. Soups are eaten as an entrée at every lunch, they are considered to be important for good health. There are two types of soups in Serbian cuisine: thin soups called supa, thicker soups with roux or eggs called čorba; the most common ones are simple pottages made of poultry with added noodles. Lamb and fish soups are considered delicacies; the main course is most a meat dish. Besides roštilj, popular, braising and roasting in an oven are the most common cooking methods. Grilling is popular in Serbia. Grilled meats are the primary main course dishes offered in restaurants, they are served as mixed grill on large oval plates.
They are also eaten as fast food. The city of Leskovac is famous for its barbecue. Bread is the staple of Serbian meals and it is treated ritually. A traditional Serbian welcoming is to offer the guest with salt. Many people believe. Although pasta, rice and similar side dishes did enter the everyday cuisine over time, many Serbs still eat bread with meals. In most bakeries and shops, white wheat bread loafs are sold. In modern times, black bread and various graham bread variations regain popularity. In many rural households, bread is still baked in ovens in bigger loafs. In Serbia, salads are eaten as a side dish with the main course; the simplest of salads are made of sliced lettuce, sauerkraut, to
A calzone is an Italian oven-baked folded pizza that originated in Naples in the 18th century. A typical calzone is made from salted bread dough, baked in an oven and is stuffed with salami, ham or vegetables, mozzarella and Parmesan or pecorino cheese, as well as an egg. Different regional variations on a calzone can include other ingredients that are associated with pizza toppings. Sandwich-sized calzones are sold at Italian lunch counters or by street vendors, because they are easy to eat while standing up or walking. Fried versions of the calzone are filled with tomato and mozzarella: these are made in Apulia and are called panzerotti; the Sicilian cuddiruni or cudduruni pizza is distantly related to the calzone. This is a dish stuffed with onions, olives and mortadella. In the United States, calzones are made from pizza dough and stuffed with meats and vegetables. Traditional calzone dough, consisting of flour, olive oil and salt, is kneaded and rolled into medium-sized disks; each is filled with cheeses such as ricotta, Parmesan and other traditional vegetables or meats.
The dough is folded in half over the filling and sealed with an egg mixture in a half-moon shape, or is sometimes shaped into a ball by pinching and sealing all the edges at the top. It is either baked or fried. In some areas, just before serving, they are topped with marinara or other traditional sauce, or with a mixture of garlic, olive oil and parsley. Similar dishes are scacciata and stromboli. In Italy, as of the 1960s, calzones were popularly believed to be the most efficient type of pizza for home delivery; this popular credence had some scientific ground as the folded nature of the calzone results in a lower surface-to-volume ratio than a traditional pizza resulting in better heat retention during the journey from the pizzeria to the buyer's home. This results in a calzone being delivered warmer than all other things being equal. List of Italian dishes Panzerotti Pepperoni roll Anna. Le ricette regionali italiane. Milano: Solares
Bryndzové Halušky is one of the national dishes in Slovakia. This hearty meal consists of halušky and bryndza, optionally sprinkled with cooked bits of smoked pork fat/bacon.Žinčica is traditionally drunk with this meal. There is an annual Bryndzové Halušky festival in Turecká. Strapačky