Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is water, contains proteins, mineral ions, carbon dioxide, blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood; the blood cells are red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells; these contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and increasing its solubility in blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma. Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated.
Some animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks, use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, instead of hemoglobin. Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen. Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based on white blood cells. White blood cells help to resist parasites. Platelets are important in the clotting of blood. Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system. Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled.
Medical terms related to blood begin with hemo- or hemato- from the Greek word αἷμα for "blood". In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen. Blood performs many important functions within the body, including: Supply of oxygen to tissues Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid Immunological functions, including circulation of white blood cells, detection of foreign material by antibodies Coagulation, the response to a broken blood vessel, the conversion of blood from a liquid to a semisolid gel to stop bleeding Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signaling of tissue damage Regulation of core body temperature Hydraulic functions Blood accounts for 7% of the human body weight, with an average density around 1060 kg/m3 close to pure water's density of 1000 kg/m3.
The average adult has a blood volume of 5 litres, composed of plasma and several kinds of cells. These blood cells consist of erythrocytes and thrombocytes. By volume, the red blood cells constitute about 45% of whole blood, the plasma about 54.3%, white cells about 0.7%. Whole blood exhibits non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. If all human hemoglobin were free in the plasma rather than being contained in RBCs, the circulatory fluid would be too viscous for the cardiovascular system to function effectively. One microliter of blood contains: 4.7 to 6.1 million, 4.2 to 5.4 million erythrocytes: Red blood cells contain the blood's hemoglobin and distribute oxygen. Mature red blood cells lack a nucleus and organelles in mammals; the red blood cells are marked by glycoproteins that define the different blood types. The proportion of blood occupied by red blood cells is referred to as the hematocrit, is about 45%; the combined surface area of all red blood cells of the human body would be 2,000 times as great as the body's exterior surface.
4,000–11,000 leukocytes: White blood cells are part of the body's immune system. The cancer of leukocytes is called leukemia. 200,000 -- 500,000 thrombocytes: Also called platelets. Fibrin from the coagulation cascade creates a mesh over the platelet plug. About 55% of blood is blood plasma, a fluid, the blood's liquid medium, which by itself is straw-yellow in color; the blood plasma volume totals of 2.7–3.0 liters in an average human. It is an aqueous solution containing 92% water, 8% blood plasma proteins, trace amounts of other materials. Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid. Other important components include: Serum albumin Blood-clotting factors Immunoglobulins lipoprotein particles Various
The Medical Renaissance, from 1400 to 1700 CE, is the period of progress in European medical knowledge, a renewed interest in the ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Such medical discoveries during the Medical Renaissance are credited with paving the way for modern medicine; the Medical Renaissance began. Medical researchers continued their Renaissance-evoked practices into the late 1600s. Florence, Italy was credited by most historians for being an influential hub for medical research and communications of proven advancements in the field of medicine. Progress made during the Medical Renaissance depended on several factors. Printed books based on movable type, adopted in Europe from the middle of the 15th century, allowed the diffusion of medical ideas and anatomical diagrams. Linacre, Erasmus and Sylvius are among the list of the first scholars most credited for the starting of the Medical Renaissance. Following after is Andreas Vesalius's publication of De humani corporis fabrica in 1543.
Better knowledge of the original writings of Galen in particular, developed into the learned medicine tradition through the more open attitudes of Renaissance humanism. Church control of the teachings of the medical profession and universities diminished, dissection was more possible; the development of autopsy allowed society to use it for forensic and health purposes. In the early 1300s, Italian cities established a group of doctors to assist in investigating the cause of death in murder trials. In 1302, the death of Azzolino degli Onesti was investigated because it was suspected that he was poisoned. From the surgeon’s examination, they concluded that the cause of death was from a large amount of blood that gathered around the chilic vein and the veins of the liver. Doctors began doing autopsies on their private patients during the fifteenth century. In 1486, the Florentine patrician, Bartolomea Rinieri, was autopsied at her request so that her daughter could be treated for what caused her death.
The surgeons discovered a diseased womb. High-class members of society could request their own postmortem because they had the financial means. Craniotomies were used by surgeons to find the cause of death; this practice dates back to the thirteenth century. The Medicis, a powerful family in Florence during the Renaissance, had skulls that revealed craniotomies and autopsies had been performed; the procedure was done on illegitimate members of the family and children. Every skeleton of the Medici family shows signs of a practice only done for the elite; the surgeons of the era were categorized as a class system. They were acknowledged as master surgeons, “surgeons of the long robe,” or the lower class of barber surgeons, “surgeons of the short robe”. Leonardo da Vinci made many contributions in the fields of technology, his research centered around his desire to learn more about how the human brain processes visual and sensory information and how that connects to the soul. Though his artwork was observed before, some of his original research was not made public until the 20th century.
Some of da Vinci's research involved studying vision. He believed that visual information entered the body through the eye continued by sending nerve impulses through the optic nerve, reaching the soul. Da Vinci subscribed to the ancient notion, he did research on the role of the spinal cord in humans by studying frogs. He noted; this led him to believe that the spine is the basis for the sense of touch, cause of movement, the origin of nerves. As a result of his studies on the spinal cord, he came to the conclusion that all peripheral nerves begin from the spinal cord. Da Vinci did some research on the sense of smell, he is credited with being the first to define the olfactory nerve as one of the cranial nerves. Leonardo da Vinci made his anatomical sketches based on dissecting 30 cadavers, his sketches were detailed and included organs, muscles of superior extremity, the hand, the skull. Leonardo was well known for his three-dimensional drawings, his anatomical drawings were not found until 380 years after his death.
Paré was anatomist and an inventor of surgical instruments. He was a military surgeon during the French campaigns in Italy of 1533–36, it was here that, having run out of boiling oil, Paré turned to an ancient Roman remedy: turpentine, egg yolk and oil of roses. He found that it relieved pain and sealed the wound effectively. Paré introduced the ligatures of arteries; as antiseptics had not yet been invented this method led to an increased fatality rate and was abandoned by medical professionals of the time. Additionally, Paré designed artificial limbs. Vesalius was a Flemish-born anatomist whose dissections of the human body helped to rectify the misconceptions made in Ancient Times by Galen, able only to study animals such as dogs and monkeys, he wrote many books on anatomy from his observations. This book contained many different anatomic sketches that he made upon examining and dissecting cadavers; these sketches were a combination of Gothic art. Vesalius identified the anatomical errors in Galen's findings and c
Constantine the African
Constantine the African was a physician who lived in the 11th century. The first part of his life was spent in the rest in Italy, he first arrived in Italy in the coastal town of Salerno, home of the Schola Medica Salernitana, where his work attracted attention from the local Lombard and Norman rulers. Constantine became a Benedictine monk, living the last decades of his life at the abbey of Monte Cassino, it was in Italy where Constantine compiled his vast opus composed of translations from Arabic sources. He translated into Latin books of the great masters of Arabic medicine: Razes, Ibn Imran, Ibn Suleiman, Ibn al-Jazzar, they were used as textbooks from the Middle Ages to the seventeenth century. The 12th-century monk Peter the Deacon is the first historian to write a biography of Constantine, he noted that Constantine was a Saracen, the medieval Franco-Italian term for a Muslim from North Africa. According to Peter, Constantine traveled through Babylon and Ethiopia, where he became versed in science, before coming to Monte Cassino as a refugee from peers in Carthage jealous of his knowledge.
Still historians such as Salvatore de Renzi and Charles Daremberg, curator of the National Library in Paris, Leclerc, author of History of Arab Medicine, relied on this account. The German Moritz Steinscheider wrote a book dedicated to Constantine, printed in Berlin in 1865. German medical historian Karl Sudhoff created his Berber-Islamic thesis after discovering new and important documents touching on Constantine's life and religion in the village of La Trinità della Cava, which he published in the journal Archeion in 1922. According to Karl Sudhoff, Constantine emigrated first to Italy as a merchant in Sicily, moving to Salerno, where he was called Constantine Siculus. Speaking no Italian, a North African doctor named Abbas of Curiat, from an island lying off the town of Mahdia in North Africa became his interpreter. Suffering from an illness, he took refuge with the king's brother Gusulf, where he noted that Abbas did not ask for the usual bottle of urine, the doctor who came to examine him was inexperienced.
After asking in vain to see any good Italian books on medicine, he concluded that medicine in Italy was limited to simple practical knowledge. Having an extensive general knowledge, Constantine discovered a mission in life. After recovering, Constantine returned to Carthage in North Africa, practiced medicine for three years, collecting many books of medicine returned to southern Italy with his treasure. En route to Salerno he passed by the coast of Lucania by boat, where north of the Gulf of Polycastro a storm damaged some manuscripts, including the first three parts of the books of Ali Ibn Abbas Al Majoussi, which were lost. Arriving in Salerno with what remained of the books, Constantine converted to Christianity moved to Cassino, where he worked as an interpreter; the Sudhof story ends with this event. These are the parts borrowed and translated word-for-word from the study of Karl Sudhoff, a scientist who had a thorough knowledge of history and was renowned for reliable research. Although a trader, Constantine was learned, not surprising because education in the great mosque of the Zaytuna in Tunis and the homes of scientists was open to all.
Trade between North Africa and Italy was flourishing, did not cease during difficult times. North Africa had offices in various locations of Christian Sicily and southern Italy itself, including Bari, Taranto and Gaglione. North Africa exported olive oil, leather and derivatives, imported wheat in famine years, Islam did not prohibit trade with Christian countries, it was not surprising that Constantine was converted to Christianity, as it was common if the conversion was forced, the case for prisoners, including Hassan El Ouazzan, who converted to Christianity and called himself Leo Africanus. Constantine arrived at Cassino, bringing with him the manuscripts of medicine that he took from Tunis, they include works of the Kairouanese El Baghdadi: The Kairouanese books The book of melancholy of Ishaq Ibn Imran. The book of the pulse and food regime of Ibn Ishaq Suleiman; the book "Zad Al Mussāfir" of Ahmed Ibn Al Jazzar. The Baghdadi books The book "Al Hawi" of Abu Bakr Al Razi The book "Al Kamil “ of Ali Ibn Al Abbas Al Majoussi, at least in part.
Constantine translated the first ten books but his translation of the second ten books do not survive. Constantine's works are most available in two sixteenth-century printed editions, the 1515 Lyons edition and the 1536 Basel edition; the Basel edition is missing some of Constantine's prefatory material, but Mark Jordan notes that, while both Basel and Lyons editions are problematic, have undergone some humanistic retouching, the Basel edition may be more reliable. Modern scholars of the history of medicine, have tended to refer to the Lyons edition. A recent and scholarly edition of the De Coitu is Constantini Liber de coitu = El tratado de andrología de Constantino el Africano, with accompanying Spanish translation; the Isagoge of Johannitius, which Constantine may have translated (the attribution i
The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American and Haitian revolutions; this was an age of violent slave trading, global human trafficking. The reactions against monarchical and aristocratic power helped fuel the revolutionary responses against it throughout the century. In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution; the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War, causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.
18th century music included the classical period. The 18th century marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state; the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the French and Indian War in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution and Indian wars. Napoleon Bonaparte, formed the Franco-Indian alliance with Indian ruler Tipu Sultan and his father emperor Hyder Ali and learnt more about Quran and Islam from them.
Tipu Sultan embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore Empire as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century. Under his reign, Mysore overtook the wealthy Bengal Subah as India's dominant economic power, with productive agriculture and textile manufacturing. Mysore's average income was five times higher than subsistence level at the time. Along his father, he used their French-trained army in alliance and won important victories against the British Empire in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784; the defeat of the British resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society and the environment. Western historians have defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work.
For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 or later. 1700–1721: Great Northern War between the Russian and Swedish Empires. 1701: Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I. 1701–1714: The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe. 1702–1715: Camisard Rebellion in France. 1703: Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great. 1703–1711: The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy. 1704: End of Japan's Genroku period. 1704: First Javanese War of Succession. 1706–1713: The War of the Spanish Succession: French troops defeated at the battles of Ramillies and Turin. 1707: The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments, thus establishing the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1708: The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies and English Company Trading to the East Indies merge to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies. 1708–1709: Famine kills one-third of East Prussia's population. 1709: The Great Frost of 1709 marks the coldest winter in 500 years. 1710: The world's first copyright legislation, Britain's Statute of Anne, takes effect. 1710–1711: Ottoman Empire fights Russia in the Russo-Turkish War. 1711–1715: Tuscarora War between British and German settlers and the Tuscarora people of North Carolina. 1715: The first Jacobite rising breaks out. 1716: Establishment of the Sikh Confederacy along the present-day India-Pakistan border. 1718: The city of New Orleans is founded by the French in North America. 1718–1730: Tulip period of the Ottoman Empire. 1719: Second Javanese War of Succession. 1720: The South Sea Bubble. 1720–1721: The Great Plague of Marseille. 1721: The Treaty of Nystad is signed, ending the Great Northern War.
1722–1723: Russo-Persian War. 1722–1725: Controversy over William Wood's halfpence leads to the Drapier's Letters and
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe is used, there is no agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses. Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe include the rise of Rome, the adoption of Greek culture during the Roman Republic, the adoption of Christianity by Roman Emperors, the division of the Latin West and Greek East, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the reign of Charlemagne, the Viking invasions, the East–West Schism, the Black Death, the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Protestant Reformation as well as the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church, the Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the two world wars, the Cold War, the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the expansion of the European Union. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture; as the Roman domain expanded, a cultural and linguistic division appeared between the Greek-speaking eastern provinces, which had formed the urbanized Hellenistic civilization, the western territories, which in contrast adopted the Latin language.
This cultural and linguistic division was reinforced by the political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire controlled the two divergent regions between the 3rd and the 5th centuries; the division between these two was enhanced during Late antiquity and the Middle Ages by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire known as the Greek or Byzantine Empire and thrived for another 1000 years; the rise of the Carolingian Empire in the west, in particular the Great Schism between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, enhanced the cultural and religious distinctiveness between Eastern and Western Europe. After the conquest of the Byzantine Empire, center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, by the Muslim Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, the gradual fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire, the division between Roman Catholic and Protestant became more important in Europe than that with Eastern Orthodoxy.
In East Asia, Western Europe was known as taixi in China and taisei in Japan, which translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty; the Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci was one of the first writers in China to use the Far West as an Asian counterpart to the European concept of the Far East. In Ricci's writings, Ricci referred to himself as "Matteo of the Far West"; the term was still in use in the late early 20th centuries. Christianity is still the largest religion in Western Europe, according to a 2018 study by the Pew Research Center, 71.0% of the Western European population identified themselves as Christians. The East–West Schism, which has lasted since the 11th century, divided Christianity in Europe, the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. With certain simplifications, Western Europe is thus Catholic or Protestant and uses the Latin alphabet. Eastern Europe uses the Greek alphabet or Cyrillic script.
According to this definition, Western Europe is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, including countries which are considered part of Central Europe now: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden and United Kingdom. Eastern Europe, meanwhile is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, including Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine for instance; the schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches. This division dominated Europe for centuries, in opposition to the rather short-lived Cold War division of four decades. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however problematic.
During the four decades of the Cold War, the definition of East and West was rather simplified by the existence of the Eastern Bloc. Historians and social scientists view the Cold War definition of Western and Eastern Europe as outdated or relegating. During the final stages of World War II, the future of Europe was decided between the Allies in the 1945 Yalta Conference, between the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, the U. S. President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Premier of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the Western Bloc, influenced by the United States, the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain; this term had been used during World War II by German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels and Count Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk in the last days of the war.
Theophilus Protospatharius was the author of several extant Greek medical works of uncertain status, either from Philaretus or Philotheus. Nothing is known of the time when he lived, he is called "Protospatharius", which seems to have been a military title given to the colonel of the bodyguards of the emperor of Constantinople. It is conjectured. All this is, quite uncertain, he appears to have embraced in some degree the Peripatetic philosophy. Five works are attributed to him: Περὶ τῆς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου Κατασκευῆς, De Corporis Humani Fabrica; the longest of his works, is an anatomical and physiological treatise in five books. It contains little original matter, as it is entirely abridged from Galen's great work, "De Usu Partium Corporis Humani," from which however Theophilus now and differs, which he sometimes appears to have misunderstood. In the fifth book he has inserted large extracts from Hippocrates' "De Genitura," and "De Natura Pueri." He recommends in several places the dissection of animals, but he does not appear to have examined a human body: in one passage he advises the student to dissect an ape, or else a bear, or, if neither of these animals can be procured, to take whatever he can get, "but by all means," he adds, "let him dissect something."
A treatise Περὶ Οὔρων, De Urinis, which, in like manner, contains little or nothing, original, but is a good compendium of what was known on the subject by the ancients, was esteemed in the Middle Ages, serving as a source of Gilles de Corbeil's poem De Urinis. A short treatise Περὶ Διαχωρημάτων, De Excrementis Alvinis A Commentary on the "Aphorisms" of Hippocrates, sometimes attributed to a person named Philotheus: Philothei medici praestantissimi commentaria in aphorismos Hippocratis nunc primum e graeco in latinum sermonem conversa, first Latin translation by Luigi Corado, from Mantoua, 1581: Google digitization. A short treatise Περὶ Σφυγμῶν, De Pulsibus, it appears to be quite different from the work on the same subject by Philaretus, sometimes attributed to Theophilus. The source for a poem of Gilles de Corbeil; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman. It is better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy in the Western Mediterranean. Though Greek and Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, the lingua franca if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies.
All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian, of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy, of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins and the historian Josephus Flavius, of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek. Based on the above definition, it can be confidently asserted that the "cores" of the Greco-Roman world were Italy, Cyprus, the Iberian Peninsula, Asia Minor, Greater Syria and Africa north of the Sahara. Occupying the periphery of this world were "Roman Germany", Macedonia, Thrace and Pannonia. Included was Dacia, Mauretania, Arabia Petraea, the Tauric Chersonesus; the Greco-Roman world had empire to its east, the Persians. With which there was constant interaction (Xenophon, The Anabasis, or, the March Up Country, the Greco-Persian wars, the famous battles of Marathon and Salamis, the Greek tragedy "The Persians" by Aeschylus, Alexander the Great's defeat of the Persian emperor Darius III and conquest of the Persian empire, or, the Roman generals' difficulties with the Persian armies, such as Pompey the Great, of Marcus Licinius Crassus, defeated in the field by a Persian force, was beheaded by them..
In the schools of art and rhetoric, the foundations of education were transmitted throughout the lands of Greek and Roman rule. Within its educated class spanning all of the "Greco-Roman" eras, the testimony of literary borrowings and influences is overwhelming proof of a mantle of mutual knowledge. For example, several hundred papyrus volumes found in a Roman villa at Herculaneum are in Greek. From the lives of Cicero and Julius Caesar, it is known that Romans frequented the schools in Greece; the installation, both in Greek and Latin, of Augustus's monumental eulogy, the Res Gestae, is a proof of official recognition for the dual vehicles of the common culture. The familiarity of figures from Roman legend and history in the "Parallel Lives" composed by Plutarch is one example of the extent to which "universal history" was synonymous with the accomplishments of famous Latins and Hellenes. Most educated Romans were bilingual in Greek and Latin. "Greco-Roman" architecture is the architecture of the Roman world that followed the principles and style established in ancient Greece.
The most representative building of that era was the temple. Other prominent structures that represented the style included government buildings, like the Roman Senate, cultural structures, like the Colosseum; the three primary styles of column design used in temples in classical Greece were Doric and Corinthian. Some examples of Doric architecture are the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, while the Erechtheum, located right next to the Parthenon is Ionic; the Romans made it possible for individuals from subject peoples to acquire Roman citizenship and would sometimes confer citizenship on whole communities. By AD 211, with Caracalla's edict known as the Constitutio Antoniniana, all free inhabitants of the Empire became citizens; as a result after the Fall of Rome, the people of the empire that remained continued to call themselves Romans though Greek became the main language of the Empire. Rhomaioi is what they continued to call themselves through the Ottoman era and into modern times.
Classical Antiquity Classical mythology Legacy of the Roman Empir