Abitain is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants Abitaonoises. Abitain is bordered on the eastern side by the Gave d'Oloron about 20 km southeast of Peyrehorade and 11 km southwest of Salies-de-Béarn. Access to the commune is by road D936 from Escos in the north, passing south down the eastern side of the commune through the village and continuing to Autevielle-Saint-Martin-Bideren in the south. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune's eastern border is the Gave d'Oloron, which joins the Gave de Pau at Peyrehorade which flows a further 10 km as the Gaves Réunis before joining the Adour river. A number of small streams flow in the commune including Le Crabé which flows into the Gave d'Oloron at the northern border of the commune and the Arrioutèque creek; the commune's name in Béarnais is Avitenh. Michel Grosclaude proposed the Gascon suffix - enh; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.
Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Bayonne: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or Census: Census of Béarn Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Regulations: Regulations of the States of Béarn Denombrement: Denombremont Terrier: Terrier of Abitain. Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of Bayonne The village of Abitain formed on the left bank of the Gave d'Oloron around its Lay Abbey, vassal of the Viscounts of Bearn, a building which still remains; the families of Belloc Claverie were the abbot patrons of the parish. The tomb of the last lay abbot of Abitain, who died in 1785, is in the church of Saint-Pierre. Paul Raymond, on page 2 of his 1863 dictionary, noted that in 1385 the town had 15 fires and depended on the bailiwick of Sauveterre.
In 1648 the barony of Lons became a marquisate, which included Abitain, Baleix, Juillacq, Le Leu, Samsons-Lion, Maspie, Oraàs, Peyrède, Viellepinte. The village had one at Séguabache - now a sawmill. In 1856, Ferdinand Carrère, heir to the last Lay Abbey demolished the old abbey castle to build Carrère castle in Escos. In February 1814, the town was occupied by the troops of General Morillo and by the English, facing the French entrenched in Oraàs. A famous ferry - where there was a tragic accident in 1845 - has long been in service between Moliède and Athos. List of Successive Mayors of Abitain The town is a member of seven inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Sauveterre-de-Béarn the Public agency for local management the inter-communal centre for social action of Sauveterre-de-Béarn. A sawmill is in operation; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. There are only the ruins of the Leu mill. Another mill, called Séguabache, is the current sawmill and is visible in the commune.
During the construction of the clock tower in 1926 what remained of the old lay abbey was destroyed. In the old abbey there was a special room where the Lord of the Manor could overlook the church choir and follow the Mass without being in the crowd; the abbey enclosure can still be seen. The Tombstone of the last lord of Abitain was discovered during the restoration of the church, it was marked on the wall of the church to preserve its memory. The Parish Church of Saint Pierre, of Romanesque origin, still has the arms of the Abitain abbots from the burial of the last abbot. There is a 16th-century window of Germanic origin. In the church is an altarpiece from the 17th century; the Cemetery contains the graves of priests and that of Father Joffre, Capuchin missionary in Canada who died at Abitain in 1909. There is the tomb of Colonel Count Pierre de Chevigne, Companion of the Liberation, one of the greats of béarnaise politics and a strong and faithful supporter of General de Gaulle; the coat of arms of Chevigne are engraved on his tomb with the motto "Quod decet".
He donated equipment to the communes of Abitain and Escos. Pierre de Chevigné, born in Toulon in 1909 and died in Biarritz in 2004 was a colonel and French politician, a Minister in the Fourth Republic and a companion of the Liberation, he was mayor of Abitain from 1935 to 1940 and from 1945 to 1965. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department
Anoye is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Anoyaises. Anoye is located 15 km west of Vic-en-Bigorre, it can be accessed by the D604 road coming north from the D7 just west of Baleix and continuing through the village and the commune north to Maspie-Lalonquere-Juillacq. The D224 road goes east from the village to Momy and the D207 road forms part of the western border of the commune; the commune is forested in the east and central west however there is a large area of farmland in a central north-south strip and in the west. The Léez river, a tributary of the Adour, flows from south to north in the east of the commune with a tributary forming the north-western border of the commune and another tributary forming part of the southern border. A further tributary flows east just south of the village into the Lees; the commune name in Bearnais is Anoja. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval states that the origin of the name is Latin and refers to a "marshland".
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Marca: Pierre de Marca, History of Béarn. Saint-Pé: Cartulary of the Abbey of Saint-Pé Fors de Béarn Malta: Titles of the Order of St John of Jerusalem Census: Census of Béarn Denombrement: Denombremont of Anoye Pau: Anoye: Titles of Anoye Brigitte Jobbé-Duval indicates that the village, a stop on the Way of Saint James of Compostela, was identified in the 11th century. There was a hospital at Anoye run by the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem under the responsibility of the Commander of Caubin. In 1385, according to the census demanded by Gaston Phoebus, the village of Anoye had 45 fires and depended on the Bailiwick of Lembeye. There was a market, three to four bakeries, seven shops.
In 1648 the Barony of Lons became a marquisate which included Abitain, Baleix, Juillacq, Le Leu, Lons, Oraàs, Peyrède, Viellepinte. Paul Raymond noted that Anoye was a former archpreisthood of the diocese of Lescar, a member of the Commandery of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Caubin, of Morlaàs. Anoye was the chief town of a district called the Clau of Anoye comprising Anoye, Maspie and Lion. List of Successive Mayors Anoye is a member of four inter-communal structures: The Community of communes of the Canton de Lembeye en Vic-Bilh. In 2009 the commune had 149 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Anoye is part of the urban area of Pau; the commune has many buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: The commune has several religious buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: A Presbytery The Parish Church of Saint-Orens, at a place called Astis until the 18th century.
The Parish Church of Notre Dame was a former chapel from the 12th, 13th, 14th centuries and was rebuilt in 1757, 1764, 1878. The church contains many items which are registered as historical objects: Furniture 7 Stained glass windows 3 Paintings 9 Statues A Cemetery Cross A TombstoneAnoye is a stage on the via Tolosane on the Way of St James. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Anoye on Lion1906 Noye on the 1750 Cassini Map Anoye on the INSEE website INSEE
Ainhoa is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ainhoars; the commune of Ainhoa is in the traditional Basque province of Labourd. Ainhoa is some 20 km due south of Bayonne and is directly on the Spanish border which forms the southern border of the commune; the commune is mountainous and forested in the south-east portion but with farmland in the northwest of the commune. There is one border crossing to Spain on the southern border at the village of Dantxana. Ainhoa and Sare, together with the two Spanish communes of Zugarramurdi and Urdazubi, form a cross-border territory, called Xareta. Straddling the border with Spain, it is a passage for the Way of St. James from Bayonne to Pamplona; the commune's border with Spain is in the Dancharia area and accesses the area of Dantxarinea d'Urdazubi. The commune is connected to Espelette in the north-east by Highway D20 which passes through the village and continues south to the Spanish border.
Highway D305 branches continues west to join Highway D4 before Cherchebruit. A network of small country roads covers all parts of the commune. Located in the watershed of the Adour, the Nivelle river runs along the southern border and forms the border between France and Spain. Numerous streams arise in the commune and flow down to the Nivelle including the Opalazioko erreka, the Lapitxuri and its tributaries, the Larreko erreka, the Erdiko erreka, the Farendeiko erreka, the Haitzagerriko erreka, the Barretako erreka. Paul Raymond mentions the Haïçaguerry, a tributary of the Nivelle, which descended to Gorospila on the Spanish border, which crossed the territory of Ainhoue; the commune name in basque is the same - Ainhoa. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval suggested that the name could come from the Basque aino which means "goat"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table.
Map: The Map of the Government-General of Guyenne and Gascony and the neighbouring region Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Lhande: Pierre Lhande, Basque-French DictionaryOrigins: Saint-Claire: Titles of the Abbey of Sainte-Claire of Bayonne Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne The ancient redoubt of Urrizti reflects the ancient past of the area. Paul Raymond noted on page 4 of his 1863 dictionary that the parish of Ainhoa was in the gift of the Abbot of Urdax; the Curacy of Ainhoa was created by the Priory of the Premonstratensian of Urdazubi in the 13th century. On 27 April 1238 the new king Theobald I of Navarre purchased the toll rights instituted by Viscount Juan Pérez de Baztan, Ainhoa being at the borders between the Duchy of Aquitaine since 1151, run by the Angevin Kings of England and the Navarrese kingdom; such tolls were charged to pilgrims and traders traveling to Santiago de Compostela on the Way of St. James in Galicia, Spain.
Military clashes between the "English run" Basques of Aquitaine and the Navarrese in 1249 led the Seigneur of Ainhoa, in 1250, to recognize the suzerainty of King Henry III of England. By 1265 Gonzalvo Juanis, Seigneur of Ainhoa known as Gonzalvo Ibáñez or Gonzalvo Yáñes, did not recognize either the English or the Navarrese; however he opened the way to conquest based on old historical claims. Garda Arnaut de Espelette, with loyalty to the "English run" Basques of the Duchy of Aquitaine, sent a letter, dated 29 July 1289 praying the Ainhoa people to adequately connive with him; the outcome of such frontier business was to set up an "undivided" land as had been done previously with the nearby Aldudes close to the Baztan valley. Documents from Estella dated September 1369, some 80 years proved that the people from Ainhoa paid taxes to both the King of Navarre and the "English" Seneschal of the Landes territory in return for their fiscal and personal privileges; when "English run" Bayonne surrendered to the French in 1451 it is not known if these "undivided status" villages on the English-Navarrese frontier were taken by the French as well.
In the Spanish Invasion of 1636 in the Labourd territories many villages, including Ainhoa, were razed. Because of the 1659 "Treaty of the Pyrénées" whereby the Spanish-born Queen regent of France Anne of Austria with the help of Cardinal Mazarin, the First Minister of France, set up an advantageous peace and obtained Maria Theresa of Spain as a wife for her son Louis XIV of France. Ainhoa was repopulated again. Disputes between the new settlers and the old residents concerning the use of communal lands for cattle grazing and fodder and the access by newcomers to town hall positions, church grants, etc. had to be settled by the autonomous Parliament of Bordeaux in the sense of paying for access to village privileges. Ainhoa was destroyed during the Thirty Years War and rebuilt; the only remains from before the destruction are the Machitorénéa House. In 1724, following the revolts in Saint-Jean-le-Vieux Mouguerre and Saint-Pierre-d'Irube, the people of Ainhoa revolted against the salt tax and against other new taxes.
This was a prelude to the uprisings in all of Labourd in 1726 against the said taxes. Bayonne and Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port followed in 1748; the Law of 4 March 1790 determined a new administrative landscape of France by creating departments and districts. This resulted in the creation of the department of Basses-Pyrénées and reuniting the Béarn, the
Aast is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants are known as Aastais; the local pronunciation is aas with a nasalised'a' and a silent't'. The village is composed of a dozen scattered houses. Aast is 20 km north of Lourdes. Access to the commune is by road D70 D311 north-east from Gardères, road D64 north-west from Ger, road D311 when coming south from Ponson-Dessus. Other country roads can be used to access the commune. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, Aast is traversed by the Carbouère stream, a tributary of the Louet river. Aast is the first French commune in alphabetical order. Aas, another commune in the Lower Pyrenees, came first until 1861, when it merged with the commune of Assouste to form the new commune of Eaux-Bonnes; the commune's Béarnais name is Aast. According to Dauzat and Rostaing Aast comes from the Basque ast; this seems unlikely given the physical setting. Michel Grosclaude suggests that the name of the town derives from an anthroponym composed of Aner + Aster.
Brigitte Jobbé-Duval recalls that in 1429, Aast appeared as Hast, which means lance, therefore advanced the theory that Aast could refer to a battle that occurred there. The following table details the origins of the commune name. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Census: Census of Montaner Reformation: Reformation of Béarn There was a Lay Abbey in Aast, abolished in 1791; the Lordship of Aast was owned by the Day family from 1674 until the French Revolution. In 1678, Jérome de Day, adviser to the king, bought the abbey and tithes with rights of patronage: he was to provide a priest and entitled to receive a portion of the tithe, to sit in the choir, to be first to receive the blessed bread, to be buried in the church. List of Successive Mayors of Aast Mayors from 1942 Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The 2006 classification by INSEE, indicating the median household incomes for each commune with more than 50 households ranked Aast at 5274, with an average annual income of €18,858.
The town has a number of old farmhouses: The Fray Farmhouse A Farmhouse at Bayet Houses and Farms The Church of Saint Martin dedicated to Saint Martin of Tours was built under Napoleon III during the administration of Mayor Bartholomew Lassus. Renovated by the artist Villarubias, there are many objects in the church registered as historical objects: A Processional Lantern A Thurible A Pail for holy water A Painting: Christ on the cross with the Virgin, Saint Madeleine and Saint Martin 2 Paintings: Saint Martin Bishop, the Charity of St. Martin Statue: Saint Joseph Altar Pulpit A Pulpit 2 Altars and Tabernacles The Main Altar 5 stained glass windows by Henri Gesta The Furniture in the Church Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Aast on Lion1906 Aast on the 1750 Cassini Map Aast on the INSEE website INSEE
Ainhice-Mongelos is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. It is located in the former province of Lower Navarre; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Monjolostars. The town is part of the country Basque province of Cize of Lower Navarre, it is located in the Pyrenees mountains some 40 km in a direct line southeast of Bayonne and about 15 km northeast of the Spanish border. The commune is farmland with scattered small forests. Access to Ainhice-Mongelos is via the Highway D933 which runs northeast from Saint-Jean-le-Vieux which runs from southwest to northeast along the eastern side of the commune through the village of Mongelos continues northeast, ending near Saint Palais. Just south of the commune at Lacarre, the Highway D422 branches from the D933 to the northwest and passes through the western side of the commune, ending at Lopeenia just to the west of the commune. No other highways enter the commune; the village of Anhice-Mongelos can be reached by a country road from the D933 at Mongelos or by any of the many country roads which cover the commune.
In the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is traversed by a tributary of the Nive, the Lakako erreka and, a tributary of the Laurhibar, the Arzubiko erreka and by tributaries of the latter, the Bassaguibeléko erreka and the Idiondoa brook. The Artikaitéko erreka which flows into Bidouze passes through the commune; the name of the commune in Basque is Ainhize-Monjolose. According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan the origin of the name Ainhice remains unknown. According to Brigitte Jobbé-Duval Mongelos is a Gascon name meaning Mont Jaloux; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Mérimée: Presentation of Ainhice-Mongelos on the Ministry of Culture database. Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Biscay: Martin Biscay Navarre: Regulations of the States of Navarre Camara: Titles of the Camara de Comptos Ohix: Contracts of Ohix Bayonne: Visitations of the Diocese of Bayonne The medieval village of Mongelos was established in 1240 as subject to the King of Navarre.
Subject to Ainhice, they were reunited on 16 August 1841. List of Successive Mayors of Anhice-Mongelos The commune belongs to seven inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri the AEP union of Ainhice the energy union of Pyrenees-Atlantiques the school union for RPI Ainhice-Gamarthe-Lacarre the inter-communal association for the development and management of the abattoir at Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port the joint association for the watershed of the Nive the union to support Basque culture. Economic activity is agricultural; the town is part of the zone of appellation of Ossau-iraty. Euskal Herriko Laborantza Ganbara or the "Chamber of Agriculture for the Basque Country" is an association under the law of 1901 founded on 15 January 2005 and is headquartered in Ainhice-Mongelos. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the dialect of Basque spoken in Ainhice-Mongelos is eastern low Navarrese. Several houses and farms are registered as historical monuments.
These are: Houses and Farms Barnetxea Farm Elizaldea Farm Etxeparea Farm Irazabalea Farm Church of the Assumption The town has a kindergarten. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department AINHIZE-MONJOLOSE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Ainhice-Mongelos on Lion1906 Ainhice on the 1750 Cassini Map Ainhice-Mongelos on the INSEE website INSEE
Angous is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Angousiens or Angousiennes Angous is located some 5 km south-west of Navarrenx and 12 km north-east of Mauléon-Licharre, it can be accessed by the D2 road which runs from Navarrenx and forms the south-eastern border of the commune before continuing to Moncayolle-Larrory-Mendibieu. Access to the village is by the D69 road; the commune consists of farmland with patches of forest. Located on the watershed of the Adour, the Serrot, a tributary of the Lausset, with many tributaries flows through the commune from south-west to north-east passing near the village; the Ruisseau de Lassere with many tributaries flows from the south-west towards the northeast to the east of the village and forms part of the eastern border. The commune name in Gascon is Angós which means "marshy terrain" according to Michel Grosclaude and Brigitte Jobbé-DuvalThe following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.
Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Cassini Database Origins: Census: Census of Béarn Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Notaries: Notaries of Navarrenx Angous: Titles of Angous. Paul Raymond noted on page 6 of the 1863 dictionary that the commune had a Lay Abbey, a vassal of the Viscount of Béarn. In 1385 there were 12 fires in Angous and it depended on the bailiwick of Navarrenx; the barony of Gabaston, a vassal of the Viscount of Béarn, was made up of Angous and Susmiou. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of six inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of the Canton of Navarrenx. In 2009 the commune had 106 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793.
From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The activity is directed towards agriculture; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. The Parish Church of Saint-André is registered as an historical monument. Church Gallery The sect Tabitha's place has a property of eleven hectares in the commune. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Angous on the Community of communes of the Canton of Navarrenx website Angous on Lion1906 Angous on the 1750 Cassini Map Angous on the INSEE website INSEE
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona