Hernani is a town and municipality located in the province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. The town sits on the left bank of the Urumea river, it is located at a distance of 9.2 km from San Sebastian. The municipality of Hernani occupies an area of 40 square kilometres and is bordered by San Sebastián, Arano, Errenteria, Lasarte-Oria and Urnieta. From the town centre, at the foot of Mount Santa Barbara, it is possible to see a large area of the valley of Urumea, its festivities, held between 23 and 27 June in honour of John the Baptist. The title character of Victor Hugo's play Hernani is named after the town. During the Middle Ages, the territory that would form the province of Gipuzkoa was divided in valleys and Hernani was one of them; the valley of Hernani extended through all the space surrounding the lower courses of the rivers Urumea and Oria. The valley of Hernani is first attested in a document whereby the Castilian count Fernán González of Castile grants vows in favour of the Monasteries of San Millan de la Cogolla, dating from the year 938 but believed to be a fake document from the thirteenth century.
Dated from the late twelfth century, the donation document of the Monastery of San Sebastián to the Monastery of Leyre in Navarre by the king Sancho VI of Navarre states that the monastery of San Sebastián was in the borders of Hernani. When this Navarrese king founded the town of San Sebastián around 1180, the territory of the valley of Hernani was included within the jurisdiction of the new coastal town, it is not known when Hernani turned into a town, with its charter being lost in a fire along with other files. Some assume that the foundation of the town occurred during the reign of the king Alfonso X of Castile in the second half of the 13th century, when this king established a network of strategic towns dotting the route reaching the coast of Gipuzkoa, with Hernani as one of its strategic localities. Others delay the foundation of the town until the late 14th century in 1379, as a document of the 15th century cites an agreement between the councils of Hernani and San Sebastián for the use of the mountains of the valley of Urumea that took place in 1379, which attests to the existence by that time of the town Hernani.
The town of Hernani extended its jurisdiction only to part of the old valley. It lost all the coastal and lower valley of Urumea now included in the San Sebastián strip, the western area in the valley of the Oria, which became the town of Usurbil in 1371, its western limit continued to be the Oria river, while on the east the mountains separated it from Oiartzun. The old town of Hernani sits on a 42 metres high rise towering over the left bank of the river Urumea and in turn located at the foot of Mount Santa Barbara; the old town was oval in shape, surrounded by walls with several entrances, of which only one is surviving to date. It was made up of two streets, the High Street, Kale Nagusia, Kardaberaz Street, intersected at the same time by a perpendicular lane; the first municipal ordinances go back to 1542, since copies of the 1512 ordinances disappeared during an invasion of the French army. The town has been subject to invasions and destruction numerous times throughout its history: the medieval factional wars, French invasions in the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.
In 1986, Lasarte, a historical district of Hernani located in the valley of Oria, detached from the town following its rapid urban and demographic development. The town lies on a traditionally Basque-speaking area, with the municipality showing a Basque-Spanish bilingual landscape. Hernani is the biggest and most important of the towns with strong tradition in the artisan production of Basque cider. Together with Astigarraga and Usúrbil it is one of the areas where most of the Guipuzcoan cider houses are concentrated. There are many of these establishments in the city. During cider season the locality welcomes numerous visitors who come from Gipuzkoa and neighbouring provinces to the cider houses; the bars of the old town of Hernani have a special animation during the weekends this time thanks to these visitors. The town festivities are held at the end of June, it is traditional that on the days 24, 25 and 26 June, coinciding with the celebrations, the mentioned Maskuri-danza or Azeri-danza is held, a traditional dance, now known by the latter name because in the 1980s, a character with a mask made of a fox who accompanied him was added.
The neighbourhoods of Hernani celebrate their own festivals: Elizatxo Santa Cruz, Ereñozu San Antonio, Santa Barbara San Ignacio, El Puerto, the martyrdom of John the Baptist and Zikuñaga the Virgin of Zikuñaga. The town of Hernani walled, is cataloged as Monumental Ensemble. Inside the medieval layout of the streets and some buildings of interest it is preserved. Religious monuments Parochial Church of San Juan Bautista. Convent of San Agustin. Igoin-Akola Dolmen. Cromlechs. Civil monuments Town Hall. Fort of Santa Barbara. Tower-house of the Gentiles. Laundry and public source of Leoka. Gateway to the village in the canton of Zapa. In the town of Hernani is the Chillida-Leku museum devoted to the work of sculptor Eduardo Chillida, natural of San Sebastian. From the 1960s, there was a g
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, which can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Steelhead that live out their lives in fresh water are called rainbow trout. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.
Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.
These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.
However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live m
A tidal bore simply given as bore in context, is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current. Bores occur in few locations worldwide in areas with a large tidal range and where incoming tides are funneled into a shallow, narrowing river or lake via a broad bay; the funnel-like shape not only increases the tidal range, but it can decrease the duration of the flood tide, down to a point where the flood appears as a sudden increase in the water level. A tidal bore takes place during the flood tide and never during the ebb tide. A tidal bore may take on various forms, ranging from a single breaking wavefront with a roller – somewhat like a hydraulic jump – to undular bores, comprising a smooth wavefront followed by a train of secondary waves known as whelps. Large bores can be unsafe for shipping but present opportunities for river surfing. Two key features of a tidal bore are the intense turbulence and turbulent mixing generated during the bore propagation, as well as its rumbling noise.
The visual observations of tidal bores highlight the turbulent nature of the surging waters. The tidal bore induces a strong turbulent mixing in the estuarine zone, the effects may be felt along considerable distances; the velocity observations indicate a rapid deceleration of the flow associated with the passage of the bore as well as large velocity fluctuations. A tidal bore creates a powerful roar that combines the sounds caused by the turbulence in the bore front and whelps, entrained air bubbles in the bore roller, sediment erosion beneath the bore front and of the banks, scouring of shoals and bars, impacts on obstacles; the bore rumble is heard far away. The low-frequency sound is a characteristic feature of the advancing roller in which the air bubbles entrapped in the large-scale eddies are acoustically active and play the dominant role in the rumble-sound generation; the word bore derives through Old English from the Old Norse word bára, meaning "wave" or "swell." The tidal bores may be dangerous.
Many bores have had a sinister reputation: the River Seine, the Petitcodiac River, the Colorado River, to name a few. In China, despite warning signs erected along the banks of the Qiantang River, a number of fatalities occur each year by people who take too much risk with the bore; the tidal bores affect the shipping and navigation in the estuarine zone, for example, in Papua New Guinea and India. On the other hand, tidal bore-affected estuaries are rich feeding zones and breeding grounds of several forms of wildlife; the estuarine zones are the spawning and breeding grounds of several native fish species, while the aeration induced by the tidal bore contributes to the abundant growth of many species of fish and shrimps. The tidal bores provide opportunity for recreational inland surfing. Scientific studies have been carried out at the River Dee in Wales in the United Kingdom, the Garonne and Sélune in France, the Daly River in Australia; the force of the tidal bore flow poses a challenge to scientific measurements, as evidenced by a number of field work incidents in the River Dee, Rio Mearim, Daly River, Sélune River.
Rivers and bays that have been known to exhibit bores include those listed below. Ganges–Brahmaputra and Bangladesh Indus River, Pakistan Sittaung River, Burma Qiantang River, which has the world's largest bore, up to 9 m high, traveling at up to 40 km/h Batang Lupar or Lupar River, near Sri Aman, Malaysia; the tidal bore is locally known as benak. Batang Sadong or Sadong River, Malaysia. Bono, Kampar River, at Meranti Bay, Indonesia; the phenomenon is feared by the locals to sink ships. It is reported to break up to 130 km inland, but up to 40 km with 6 m height. Ready to develop as internationally tourist destinations Styx River, Queensland Daly River, Northern Territory River Shannon, up the Shannon Estuary to Limerick, Ireland: 21 September 2013 River Dee and England River Mersey; the second highest tidal bore after the Severn bore, up to 1.7 meters high. The bore tends to form around the Manchester Ship Canal; the Severn bore on the River Severn and England, up to 2 meters high The Trent Aegir on the River Trent, England, up to 1.5 meters high.
Other tributaries of the Humber Estuary. River Parrett River Welland The Arnside Bore on the River Kent River Great Ouse River Ouse, Yorkshire. Like the Trent bore, this is known as "the Aegir". River Eden River Esk River Nith River Lune, Lancashire River Ribble, Lancashire River Yealm, Devon River Leven, Cumbria Durme, Flanders The phenomenon is named un mascaret in French, but some other local names are preferred. Seine had a significant bore until the 1960s, locally named la barre. Since it has been eliminated by dredging and river training. Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel including Couesnon, Sélune, Sée Arguenon Baie de la Frênaye Vire Sienne Vilaine, locally named le mascarin Dordogne Garonne Fly River Turama River The Turnagain arm of Cook Inlet, Alaska. Up to 2 meters and 20 km/h; the Colorado River had a tidal bore up to 6 feet, that extended 47 miles up river. The Savannah River up to 10 miles inland. Small tidal bores, only a few inches in height, have been observed advancing up tidal bayous on the Mississippi Gulf Coast.
Most rivers draining into the upper Bay of Fundy be
Phoxinus is a genus of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes. The type species is Phoxinus phoxinus; the other species in this genus are commonly known as minnows. The name "minnow" was what early English fisherman used to describe "small and insignificant"; the genus Phoxinus is found throughout Eurasia, includes 21 known species. Members of the North American genus Chrosomus were believed to form part of this genus. There are 21 recognized species in this genus: Phoxinus apollonicus Bianco & De Bonis, 2015 Phoxinus bigerri Kottelat, 2007 Phoxinus brachyurus L. S. Berg, 1912 Phoxinus colchicus L. S. Berg, 1910 Phoxinus grumi L. S. Berg, 1907 Phoxinus issykkulensis L. S. Berg, 1912 Phoxinus jouyi Phoxinus karsticus Bianco & De Bonis, 2015 Phoxinus keumkang Phoxinus ketmaieri Bianco & De Bonis, 2015 Phoxinus kumgangensis L. T. Kim, 1980 Phoxinus likai Bianco & De Bonis, 2015 Phoxinus oxyrhynchus Phoxinus phoxinus Phoxinus semotilus Phoxinus septimaniae Kottelat, 2007 Phoxinus steindachneri Sauvage, 1883 Phoxinus strandjae Drensky, 1926 Phoxinus strymonicus Kottelat, 2007 Phoxinus tchangi X. Y.
Chen, 1988 Phoxinus ujmonensis Kaschenko, 1899
The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p
Cypriniformes is an order of ray-finned fish, including the carps, minnows and relatives. This order contains 11-12 families, over 400 genera, more than 4,250 species, with new species being described every few months or so, new genera being recognized frequently, they are most diverse in southeastern Asia, are absent from Australia and South America. Their closest living relatives are the Gymnotiformes and the Siluriformes. Like other orders of the Ostariophysi, fishes of cypriniformes possess a Weberian apparatus, they differ from most of their relatives in having only a dorsal fin on their back. Further differences are the Cypriniformes' unique kinethmoid, a small median bone in the snout, the lack of teeth in the mouth. Instead, they have convergent structures called pharyngeal teeth in the throat. While other groups of fish, such as cichlids possess pharyngeal teeth, the cypriniformes' teeth grind against a chewing pad on the base of the skull, instead of an upper pharyngeal jaw; the most notable family placed here is Cyprinidae.
This is one of the largest families of fish, is distributed across Africa and North America. Most species are freshwater inhabitants, but a considerable number are found in brackish water, such as roach and bream. At least one species is found in the Pacific redfin, Tribolodon brandtii. Brackish water and marine cyprinids are invariably anadromous, swimming upstream into rivers to spawn. Sometimes separated as family Psilorhynchidae, they seem to be specially-adapted fishes of Cyprinidae. Balitoridae and Gyrinocheilidae are families of mountain stream fishes feeding on algae and small invertebrates, they are found only in subtropical Asia. While the former are a speciose group, the latter contain only a handful of species; the suckers are found in temperate North eastern Asia. These large fishes are similar to carps in ecology. Members of Cobitidae common across Eurasia and parts of North Africa. A mid-sized group like the suckers, they are rather similar to catfish in appearance and behaviour, feeding off the substrate and equipped with barbels to help them locate food at night or in murky conditions.
Fishes in the families Cobitidae, Balitoridae and Gyrinocheilidae are called loaches, although it seems that the last do not belong to the lineage of "true" loaches but are related to the suckers. These included all the forms now placed in the superorder Ostariophysi except the catfish, which were placed in the order Siluriformes. By this definition, the Cypriniformes were paraphyletic, so the orders Gonorhynchiformes and Gymnotiformes have been separated out to form their own monophyletic orders; the families of Cypriniformes are traditionally divided into two superfamilies. Superfamily Cyprinioidea contains the carps and minnows and the mountain carps as the family Psilorhynchidae. In 2012 Maurice Kottelat reviewed the superfamily Cobitoidei and under his revision it now consists of the following families: hillstream loaches, Botiidae, true loaches, Gastromyzontidae, sucking loaches, stone loaches, Serpenticobitidae and long-finned loaches. Catostomoidea is treated as a junior synonym of Cobitoidei.
But it seems that it could be split off the Catostomidae and Gyrinocheilidae in a distinct superfamily. While the Cyprinioidea seem more "primitive" than the loach-like forms, they were successful enough never to shift from the original ecological niche of the basal Ostariophysi. Yet, from the ecomorphologically conservative main lineage at least two major radiations branched off; these diversified from the lowlands into torrential river habitats, acquiring similar habitus and adaptations in the process. The mountain carps are apomorphic Cyprinidae close to true carps, or maybe to the danionins. While some details about the phylogenetic structures of this massively diverse family are known – e.g. that Cultrinae and Leuciscinae are rather close relatives and stand apart from Cyprininae – there is no good consensus yet on how the main lineages are interrelated. A systematic list, from the most ancient to the most modern lineages, can thus be given as: Superfamily Cyprinoidei Family Cyprinidae Bonaparte, 1840 and minnows incl.
Psilorhynchidae) Superfamily Cobitoidei Superfamily Catostomoidea Family Catostomidae Agassiz 1850 Superfamily Gyrinocheiloidea Family Gyrinocheilidae Gill 1905 Superfamily Cobitoidea Family Barbuccidae Kottelat 2012 Family Serpenticobitidae Kottelat 2012 Family Botiidae Berg 1940 Family Vaillantellidae Nalbant & Bănărescu 1977 Family Cobitidae Swainson 1838 Family Balitoridae Swainson 1839 Family Gastromyzontidae Fowler 1905 Family Ellopostomatidae Bohlen & Šlechtová 2009 Family Nemacheilidae Regan 1911 Phylogeny based on the work of the following works Cypriniformes include the most primitive of the Ostariophysi in the narrow sense. This is evidenced n