Howard G. "Ward" Cunningham is an American computer programmer who developed the first wiki. A pioneer in both design patterns and extreme programming, he started programming the software WikiWikiWeb in 1994 and installed it on the website of the software consultancy he started with his wife Karen, Cunningham & Cunningham, on March 25, 1995, as an add-on to the Portland Pattern Repository, he has authored a book about wikis, titled The Wiki Way, invented Framework for Integrated Tests. He was a keynote speaker at the first three instances of the WikiSym conference series on wiki research and practice as well as a keynote speaker at the Wikimedia Developer Summit 2017. Cunningham was born in Michigan City and grew up in Highland, staying there through high school, he received his Bachelor's degree in interdisciplinary engineering and his master's degree in computer science from Purdue University, graduating in 1978. He is a founder of Inc.. He has served as Director of R&D at Wyatt Software and as Principal Engineer in the Tektronix Computer Research Laboratory.
He is founder of The Hillside Group and has served as program chair of the Pattern Languages of Programming conference which it sponsors. Cunningham was part of the Smalltalk community. From December 2003 until October 2005, he worked for Microsoft Corporation in the "Patterns & Practices" group. From October 2005 to May 2007, he held the position of Director of Committer Community Development at the Eclipse Foundation. In May 2009, Cunningham joined AboutUs as its chief technology officer. On March 24, 2011 The Oregonian reported that Cunningham had departed AboutUs to join Venice Beach-based CitizenGlobal, a startup working on crowd-sourced video content, as their chief technology officer and the Co-Creation Czar, he remains "an adviser" with AboutUs. Cunningham is now a programmer at New Relic. Cunningham is well known for a few disseminated ideas which he originated and developed; the most famous among these are the wiki and many ideas in the field of software design patterns, made popular by the Gang of Four.
He owns the company Cunningham & Cunningham Inc. a consultancy that has specialized in object-oriented programming. He created the site WikiWikiWeb, the first internet wiki; when asked in a 2006 interview with internetnews.com whether he considered patenting the wiki concept, he explained that he thought the idea "just sounded like something that no one would want to pay money for."Cunningham is interested in tracking the number and location of wiki page edits as a sociological experiment and may consider the degradation of a wiki page as part of its process to stability. "There are those who take. You can tell by reading what they write."In 2011, Cunningham created Smallest Federated Wiki, a tool for wiki federation, which applies aspects of software development such as forking to wiki pages. Ward Cunningham has contributed to the practice of object-oriented programming, in particular the use of pattern languages and the class-responsibility-collaboration cards, he contributes to the extreme programming software development methodology.
Much of this work was done collaboratively on the first wiki site. Ward is credited with the idea: "The best way to get the right answer on the Internet is not to ask a question, it's to post the wrong answer." This refers to the observation that people are quicker to correct a wrong answer than to answer a question. According to Steven McGeady, Cunningham advised him in the early 1980s, "The best way to get the right answer on the Internet is not to ask a question, it's to post the wrong answer." McGeady dubbed this Cunningham's law. Although referring to interactions on Usenet, the law has been used to describe how other online communities work, such as Wikipedia. Cunningham himself denies ownership of the law, calling it a "misquote that disproves itself by propagating through the internet" Cunningham lives in Beaverton, Oregon, he holds an Amateur Radio Extra Class license issued by the Federal Communications Commission, his call sign is Kilo Nine Oscar X-ray, K9OX. Cunningham is Nike's first Code for a Better World Fellow.
Leuf, Bo. The Wiki Way. Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 978-0201714999. Camel case Christopher Alexander – Cunningham cites Alexander's work as directly influencing his own. Framework for integrated test PatternShare Software design pattern WikiWikiWeb, including his WikiHomePage 2012 Dr. Dobb's Interview EclipseCon 2006 interview with Ward Cunningham The Microsoft patterns & practices group home page The Simplest Thing That Could Possibly Work "The Web's wizard of working together" – profile in The Oregonian, December 19, 2005
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor is a general-purpose programming language designed for web development. It was created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. PHP stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code may be executed with a command line interface, embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems, web frameworks. PHP code is processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in a web server or as a Common Gateway Interface executable; the web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP can be used for many programming tasks outside of the web context, such as standalone graphical applications and robotic drone control; the standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been ported and can be deployed on most web servers on every operating system and platform, free of charge.
The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, with the original implementation acting as the de facto standard which other implementations aimed to follow. Since 2014, work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification. PHP development began in 1994 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote several Common Gateway Interface programs in C, which he used to maintain his personal homepage, he extended them to work with web forms and to communicate with databases, called this implementation "Personal Home Page/Forms Interpreter" or PHP/FI. PHP/FI could be used to build dynamic web applications. To accelerate bug reporting and improve the code, Lerdorf announced the release of PHP/FI as "Personal Home Page Tools version 1.0" on the Usenet discussion group comp.infosystems.www.authoring.cgi on June 8, 1995. This release had the basic functionality that PHP has today; this included Perl-like variables, form handling, the ability to embed HTML. The syntax was simpler, more limited and less consistent.
Early PHP was not intended to be a new programming language, grew organically, with Lerdorf noting in retrospect: "I don't know how to stop it, there was never any intent to write a programming language I have no idea how to write a programming language, I just kept adding the next logical step on the way." A development team began to form and, after months of work and beta testing released PHP/FI 2 in November 1997. The fact that PHP was not designed, but instead was developed organically has led to inconsistent naming of functions and inconsistent ordering of their parameters. In some cases, the function names were chosen to match the lower-level libraries which PHP was "wrapping", while in some early versions of PHP the length of the function names was used internally as a hash function, so names were chosen to improve the distribution of hash values. Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP 3, changing the language's name to the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.
Afterwards, public testing of PHP 3 began, the official launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans started a new rewrite of PHP's core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999, they founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan, Israel. On May 22, 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released. As of August 2008 this branch reached version 4.4.9. PHP 4 will any security updates be released. On July 14, 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II. PHP 5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects extension, numerous performance enhancements. In 2008, PHP 5 became the only stable version under development. Late static binding had been missing from PHP and was added in version 5.3. Many high-profile open-source projects ceased to support PHP 4 in new code as of February 5, 2008, because of the GoPHP5 initiative, provided by a consortium of PHP developers promoting the transition from PHP 4 to PHP 5. Over time, PHP interpreters became available on most existing 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems, either by building them from the PHP source code, or by using pre-built binaries.
For PHP versions 5.3 and 5.4, the only available Microsoft Windows binary distributions were 32-bit x86 builds, requiring Windows 32-bit compatibility mode while using Internet Information Services on a 64-bit Windows platform. PHP version 5.5 made. Official security support for PHP 5.6 ended on 31 December 2018, but Debian 8.0 Jessie will extend support until June 2020. PHP received mixed reviews due to lacking native Unicode support at the core language level. In 2005, a project headed by Andrei Zmievski was initiated to bring native Unicode support throughout PHP, by embedding the International Components for Unicode library, representing text strings as UTF-16 internally. Since this would cause major changes both to the internals of the language and to user code, it was planned to release this as version 6.0 of the language, along with other major features in development. However, a shortage of developers who understood the necessary changes, performance problems arising from conversion to and from UTF-16, used in a web context, led to delays in the project.
As a result, a PHP 5.3 release was created in 2009, with many non-Unicode f
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki engine. It was developed for use on Wikipedia in 2002, given the name "MediaWiki" in 2003, it remains in use on Wikipedia and all other Wikimedia sites, including Wiktionary, Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata. MediaWiki was developed by Magnus Manske and improved by Lee Daniel Crocker, its development has since been coordinated by the Wikimedia Foundation. MediaWiki stores all text content into a database; the software is optimized to efficiently handle large projects, which can have terabytes of content and hundreds of thousands of hits per second. Because Wikipedia is one of the world's largest websites, achieving scalability through multiple layers of caching and database replication has been a major concern for developers. Another major aspect of MediaWiki is its internationalization; the software has more than 900 configuration settings and more than 1,900 extensions available for enabling various features to be added or changed. Besides its use on Wikimedia sites, MediaWiki has been used as a knowledge management and content management system on many thousands of websites and private, including the websites Fandom and wikiHow, major internal installations like Intellipedia and Diplopedia.
MediaWiki is free and open source software and is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 or any version. Its documentation, located at mediawiki.org, is released under the Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license and in the public domain. The manuals and other content at MediaWiki.org are Creative Commons-licensed, while the set of help pages intended to be copied into fresh wiki installations and/or distributed with MediaWiki software is public domain. This was done to eliminate legal issues arising from the help pages being imported into wikis with licenses that are incompatible with the Creative Commons license. MediaWiki development has favored the use of open-source media formats. MediaWiki has an active volunteer community for maintenance. Users who have made meaningful contributions to the project by submitting patches are upon request, granted access to commit revisions to the project's Git/Gerrit repository. There are paid programmers who develop projects for the Wikimedia Foundation.
MediaWiki developers participate in the Google Summer of Code by facilitating the assignment of mentors to students wishing to work on MediaWiki core and extension projects. As of November 2012, there were about two hundred developers who had committed changes to the MediaWiki core or extensions within the past year. Major MediaWiki releases are generated every six months by taking snapshots of the development branch, kept continuously in a runnable state. MediaWiki has a public bug tracker, phabricator.wikimedia.org, which runs Phabricator. The site is used for feature and enhancement requests; when Wikipedia was first launched in January 2001, it ran on the existing wiki software UseModWiki, written in Perl and stores all wiki pages in text files. This software soon proved limiting, both in its performance. In mid-2001, Magnus Manske, a developer and student at the University of Cologne, a Wikipedia editor, began working on new software that would replace UseModWiki for use by Wikipedia; this software stored all its information in a MySQL database.
It launched on the English Wikipedia in January 2002, was deployed on all the Wikipedia language sites of that time. This software was referred to as "the PHP script" and as "phase II", with the name "phase I" retroactively given to the use of UseModWiki. Increasing usage soon caused load problems again, soon afterward, another rewrite of the software began, done by Lee Daniel Crocker, first known as "phase III"; this new software was written in PHP with a MySQL backend, kept the basic interface of the phase II software, but was meant to be more scalable. It went live on Wikipedia in July 2002; the Wikimedia Foundation was announced on June 20, 2003, in July, Wikipedia contributor Daniel Mayer suggested the name "MediaWiki" for the software, as a play on "Wikimedia". The name was phased in beginning in August 2003; the name has caused confusion due to its similarity to the "Wikimedia" name. The product logo was created by Erik Möller using a flower photograph taken by Florence Nibart-Devouard, was submitted to the logo contest for a new Wikipedia logo, held in mid-2003.
The logo came in third place, was chosen to represent MediaWiki instead of Wikipedia, with the second place logo used for the Wikimedia Foundation. The double square brackets symbolize the syntax MediaWiki uses for creating hyperlinks to other wiki pages, the sunflower represents the diversity of content on Wikipedia, the constant growth and the wildness. Brion Vibber, the Chief Technical Officer of the Wikimedia Foundation, took up the role of release manager and most active developer. Major milestones in MediaWiki's development have included the categorization system, added in 2004; the first version of MediaWiki, 1.1, was released in Decemb
Andrew Lih is an American new media researcher and writer, as well as an authority on both Wikipedia and internet censorship in the People's Republic of China. In 2013 he was appointed an associate professor of journalism at American University in Washington, D. C. Lih worked as a software engineer for AT&T Bell Labs from 1990 to 1993, he founded the new-media startup Mediabridge Infosystems in 1994. He obtained a Masters degree in Computer Science from Columbia University in 1994. From 1995 to 2000 he served as an adjunct professor of journalism at Columbia, director of technology for their Center for New Media. In 2000 he formed Columbia's Interactive Design Lab, a collaboration with the university's School of the Arts to explore interactive design for both fiction and non-fiction, including advertising, news and films. Soon afterward, Lih served as an assistant professor and the Director of Technology at the Journalism and Media Studies Centre of the University of Hong Kong, he moved to Beijing, where he lived until 2009.
In 2013 he became an associate professor at American University's School of Communication in Washington, D. C. Lih is a veteran Wikipedia contributor and administrator on the English Wikipedia under the username Fuzheado. In 2009, he published the book The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia. Lih has been interviewed by Salon.com, The New York Times Freakonomics blog, NPR Talk of the Nation as an expert on Wikipedia. Lih has stated that editing Wikipedia with smartphones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors, he says that for several years running the number of Wikipedia editors has been falling and that there is serious disagreement among existing contributors how to resolve this. Lih fears. Lih, Andrew; the Wikipedia Revolution. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0371-4. OCLC 232977686. List of Wikipedia people Official website Appearances on C-SPAN
As a result, TiddlyWiki is used in a wide variety of adaptations and uses beyond that of a personal wiki. One example is for interactive graph mind-maps with the plugin TiddlyMap. There is an active and growing community of TiddlyWiki enthusiasts at https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/tiddlywiki Some of these folk are active at https://twitter.com/TiddlyWiki TiddlyWiki may be saved as a single html file containing both the data and the application, or the data can be saved on a per tiddler basis in text files. A TiddlyWiki opened from a file URI may save changes made back to the original file using one of the following techniques: the Microsoft ActiveX FileSystemObject for Internet Explorer TiddlySaver Java applet to extend Safari, Chrome/Chromium, other browsers. Requires the Java runtime. Two techniques were developed for the Firefox browser: Mozilla File I/O under the control of the UniversalXPConnect per-file preferences; that functionality was removed from Firefox. The TiddlyFox add-on for Firefox uses the Firefox SDK's simple-storage API.
The add-on stopped working with Firefox around version 57 in 2017 which does not support the API. The first version of TiddlyWiki was released by Jeremy Ruston in September 2004. BT Group bought Osmosoft in 2007 appointing Ruston as BT's "Head of Open Source Innovation". TiddlyWiki was selected as one of the Top 100 Tools for 2007 and 2008 by the Centre for Learning & Performance Technologies. In November 2011, Jeremy Ruston announced his departure from Osmosoft and commitment to continue development on TiddlyWiki. In December 2013 TiddlyWiki5 was released, it is a total rebuild of the original TiddlyWiki, based on HTML5 and with many significant improvements from lessons learnt over the years with the original TiddlyWiki. The original TiddlyWiki has come to be called TiddlyWiki Classic. TiddlyWiki is distributed under the terms of the BSD license; the copyright of TiddlyWiki is held in trust by a non-profit organization. Single page application Personal wiki List of wiki software Comparison of wiki software Comparison of notetaking software Official website
Camel case is the practice of writing phrases such that each word or abbreviation in the middle of the phrase begins with a capital letter, with no intervening spaces or punctuation. Common examples include "iPhone" and "eBay", it is sometimes used in online usernames such as "johnSmith", to make multi-word domain names more legible, for example in advertisements. Camel case is used for variable names in computer programming; some programming styles prefer camel case with the first letter capitalised, others not. For clarity, this article calls the two alternatives lower camel case; some people and organizations, notably Microsoft, use the term camel case only for lower camel case. Pascal case means only upper camel case. Camel case is distinct from Title Case, which capitalises all words but retains the spaces between them, from Tall Man lettering, which uses capitals to emphasize the differences between similar-looking words such as "predniSONE" and "predniSOLONE". Camel case is distinct from snake case, which uses underscores interspersed with lowercase letters.
The combination of "upper camel case" and "snake case" is known as "Darwin case". Darwin case uses underscores between words with initial uppercase letters, as in "Sample_Type"; the original name of the practice, used in media studies and the Oxford English Dictionary, was "medial capitals". Other synonyms include: The earliest known occurrence of the term "InterCaps" on Usenet is in an April 1990 post to the group alt.folklore.computers by Avi Rappoport. The earliest use of the name "CamelCase" occurs in a post by Newton Love. Love has since said, "With the advent of programming languages having these sorts of constructs, the humpiness of the style made me call it HumpyCase at first, before I settled on CamelCase. I had been calling it CamelCase for years.... The citation above was just the first time I had used the name on USENET." The use of medial capitals as a convention in the regular spelling of everyday texts is rare, but is used in some languages as a solution to particular problems which arise when two words or segments are combined.
In Italian, pronouns can be suffixed to verbs, because the honorific form of second-person pronouns is capitalized, this can produce a sentence like non ho trovato il tempo di risponderLe. In German, the medial capital letter I, called Binnen-I, is sometimes used in a word like StudentInnen to indicate that both Studenten and Studentinnen are intended simultaneously. However, mid-word capitalisation does not conform to German orthography. In Irish, camelcase is used when an inflectional prefix is attached to a proper noun, for example i nGaillimh, from Gaillimh. In recent Scots Gaelic orthography, a hyphen has been inserted: an t-Albannach; this convention is used by several written Bantu languages and several indigenous languages of Mexico. In Dutch, when capitalizing the digraph ij, both the letter I and the letter J are capitalized, for example in the countryname IJsland. In English, medial capitals are only found in Scottish or Irish "Mac-" or "Mc-" names, where for example MacDonald, McDonald, Macdonald are common spelling variants of the same name, in Anglo-Norman "Fitz-" names, where for example both FitzGerald and Fitzgerald are found.
In their English style guide The King's English, first published in 1906, H. W. and F. G. Fowler suggested that medial capitals could be used in triple compound words where hyphens would cause ambiguity—the examples they give are KingMark-like and Anglo-SouthAmerican. However, they described the system as "too hopelessly contrary to use at present." In the scholarly transliteration of languages written in other scripts, medial capitals are used in similar situations. For example, in transliterated Hebrew, ha'Ivri means "the Hebrew person" or "the Jew" and b'Yerushalayim means "in Jerusalem". In Tibetan proper names like rLobsang, the "r" stands for a prefix glyph in the original script that functions as tone marker rather than a normal letter. Another example is tsIurku, a Latin transcription of the Chechen term for the capping stone of the characteristic Medieval defensive towers of Chechenia and Ingushetia. Medial capitals are traditionally used in abbreviations to reflect the capitalization that the words would have when written out in full, for example in the academic titles PhD or BSc.
In German, the names of statutes are abbreviated using embedded capitals, e.g. StGB for Criminal Code, PatG for Patent Act, BVerfG for Federal Constitutional Court, or the common GmbH for Company with Limited Liability. In this context, there can be three or more "CamelCase" capitals, e.g. in TzBfG for Teilzeit- und Befristungsgesetz. In French, camel case acronyms such as OuLiPo were favored for a tim