User:ABWarrick

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This “meta-article” shows the chronology of computer hardware and software as a series of tables:

  • Each table has four columns of data.
  • The columns to show the year in which information technology and commercial developments occurred.
  • The table rows are timelines of the following aspects of information technology.
  1. Computer Systems or hardware innovations[1]
  2. Microprocessors[2]
  3. High Level Languages[3][4]
  4. Operating Systems[5]
  5. Networking hardware, software and applications[6]
  6. Computer Graphics hardware, algorithms and applications[7][8]
  7. Spreadsheets
  8. Word Processing
  9. Computer Aided Design[9]
  10. Business Events, normally bankruptcy or selling to another company at a price substantially lower than the company's peak value. Company founding years are shown in the most appropriate category

One of “Moore’s Law's” implications is that computer power per dollar, as measured by Instructions per Second or Floating Point Operations per second, increased considerably over the four years covered in each table. "Moore's Law" is not really a law, it is observation first noted in 1965 by Gordon Moore. Moore published a paper with a graph showing that the number of transistors per integrated circuits had been doubling every year (later modified to every two years).[10][11][12] Similar improvements are to be found in hard disk capacity, network capacity, and pixel density. In addition to improvements in computer processors, academic and commercial research in computer science developed better technology in:

  1. Structured and Object Oriented programming[13]
  2. Data structures[14]
  3. Analysis of Algorithms[15]
  4. Formal languages[16] and compiler construction[17]
  5. Computer Graphics Algorithms[18]
  6. Sorting and Searching[19]
  7. Numerical Methods,[20] Optimization and Statistics[21]
  8. Artificial Intelligence[22] and Machine Learning[23]

Although there are earlier examples of military computers such as the Harvard Mark I and the Colossus computer at Bletchley Park, the table starts in 1951 with the beginnings of commercial computers and high level languages.

1951-1958[edit]

1951 1952 1953 1954
Hardware EDVAC
Whirlwind
IBM 701 Univac IBM 650
Computer Language ALGAE
Boehm unnamed coding system
Intermediate Programming Language
Klammerausdrücke
OMNIBAC Symbolic Assembler
Regional Assembly Language
Rochester assembler
Sort Merge Generator
Stanislaus
Superplan
Whirlwind assembler
Short Code
Autocode
COMPOOL
Information Processing
Language
ARITH-MATIC
Fortran
IPL I
Laning and Zierler system
Mark I Autocode
MATH-MATIC
MATRIX MATH
Operating System LEO I
Lyons Electronic Office
DYSEAC

The latter half of the 1950s saw the founding of a few important companies and development of a number of computer languages that form the basis of languages still in use more than five decades later. Academic and commercial computer users develop operating systems.

1955 1956 1957 1958
Hardware Sperry Rand
Founded
IBM 305 RAMAC Digital Equipment
Founded
Integrated Circuit
Computer Language BACAIC
FLOW-MATIC
Freiburger Code
IT
PACT I
PRINT
Sequentielle Formelübersetzung
COMTRAN LISP COMIT
COMTRAN
FACT
Fortran I
Operating System GM OS for
IBM 701
GM-NAA for
IBM 704
Atlas
Supervisor
U. Michigan for IBM 704,
709, and 7090

1959-1966[edit]

The early sixties are when computers began to use transistors rather than magnetic memory. Operating systems began to handle multiple users and processes through time sharing. AT&T developed the modem in 1960 to allow communications between computers.

1959 1960 1961 1962
Hardware IBM First Transistor Computer DEC PDP 1 Fairchild resistor-
transistor logic
NPN Transistor
Computer Language COBOL
JOVIAL
LISP
MAD – Michigan Algorithm Decoder
RPG
TRAC
ALGOL 60
COBOL 61
COMIT APL
Fortran IV
Simula
SNOBOL
Operating System SHARE Operating System IBSYS MIT Timeshare
IBM 7094
Computer Networks AT&T Develops
Modem

The mid 1960s experienced important contributions in hardware, languages and algorithms for drawing and hiding lines in 3D computer graphics. During this time the business of computers was described as "IBM and the seven dwarfs" before consolidation removed GE and RCA and changed the description to "IBM and the BUNCH" (Burroughs, Univac, NCR, Control Data and Honeywell);[24][25] this was when companies began to develop mini-computers.

1963 1964 1965 1966
Hardware Mouse
CMOS Patented
CDC 6600
IBM Data Cell Drive
DEC PDP 8
IBM 1130
ILLIAC IV
Computer Language ALGOL
CPL
JOSS I
SNOBOL3
BASIC
COWSEL
IBM RPG
IITRAN
Mark-IV
MIMIC
P′′
PL/I
Speakeasy-2
TRAC
Atlas Autocode
MAD/I
RPG II
TELCOMP
ALGOL W
APL
CORAL66
FORTRAN 66
ISWIM
JOSSII
Operating System AN/FSQ-32 KDF9 Timesharing Direct THE Multiprogramming
System
OS/360
Computer Networks SABRE Reservation
System
Computer Graphics Bresenham line
plotting algorithm
Loutrel hidden
line algorithm

1967-1974[edit]

The later years of the ‘60s saw innovations in mini computer systems, like the DEC PDP 11 and Data General Nova. Other innovations include the B and Pascal languages, the Unix operating systems, Arapnet and several computer graphics algorithms.

1967 1968 1969 1970
Hardware Fairchild built first MOS
Englebart applies for mouse patent.
Data General
Nova
Honeywell 316 DEC PDP 11
Microprocessor Garret AiResarch
MP944
Computer Language BCPL
InterLisp
MUMPS
Simula 67
SNOBOL4
XPL
ALGOL 68
DIBOL-8
Forth
LOGO
MAPPER
POP-1
REFAL
TTM
B
Edinburgh IMP
PL/I
PPL
SETL
TUTOR
BLISS
Forth
Pascal
POP-2
Operating System DEC
MS/8
IBM Airline
Control Program
Multics
Tenex
Unix
Computer Networks ARPANET
UCSB
UCLA
SRI
Utah
Computer Graphics Coons Surface Patch Evans and Sutherland Computervision Watkins Visible
Surface Algorithm
CAD/CAM M&S Computing

The early part of the ‘70s showed substantial progress in microprocessors, computer languages, and computer graphics.

1971 1972 1973 1974
Hardware 8" Floppy Disk Atari Founded
Cray Research Founded
Micral first
Microprocessor PC
Altair 8800
Data General Eclipse
Microprocessor Intel 4004 Fairchild PPS-25
Intel 8008
Rockwell PPS-4
Burroughs Mini-D
National IMP-16
NEC µCOM
General Instrument CP1600
Intel 4040, 8080
Mostek 5065
Motorola 6800
National IMP-4, IMP-8, ISP-8A/500, PACE
Texas Instruments TMS 1000
Toshiba TLCS-12
Computer Language CDL
KRL
Sue
C
INTERCAL
PL/M
Prolog
Smalltalk
SQL
COMAL
LIS
ML
Speakeasy-3
BASIC FOUR
CLU
GRASS
PROSE
Operating System DEC RSTS-11 Data General
RDOS
Soviet ALGOL 68 DEC DOS-11
Computer Networks Wozniak's
Blue Box
Bob Metcalfe develops
Ethernet
Computer Graphics Newell & Sancha visible
surface algorithm
Catmull & Straber
develop z-buffer
CAD/CAM MCS Founded ADAM Auto-Draft Tektronix 4014

1975-1982[edit]

The later years in the 70’s introduce personal computers using the MOS Tehnology 6502 and the Zilog Z80. Microprocessors continue to becoming less expensive and faster. Although the processors listed below differ considerably, they all can be considered Complex Instruction Set CPUs.

1975 1976 1977 1978
Hardware Olivetti P6060 Tandem Computer Apple ][
5.25" Floppy
DEC VAX 11
Microprocessor Fairchild F-8
Hewlett Packard BPC
Intersil 6100
MOS Technology 6502
RCA CDP 1801
Rockwell PPS-8
Signetics 2650
RCA CDP 1802
Signetics 8x300
Texas Instruments TMS9900
Zilog Z-80
Intel 8085 Intel 8086
Motorola 6801, 6809
Computer Language ABC
Altair BASIC
CS-4
Modula
Scheme
Mesa
Plus
Ratfor
S
SAM76
SAS
Smalltalk-76
Blue
Bourne Shell
Commodore BASIC
FP
Icon
IDL
Red
Standard MUMPS
Yellow
IDL
C shell
HAL/S
MATLAB
RPG III
SMALL
VisiCalc
SQL
Operating System CP/M Cambridge CAP 1BSD 2BSD
Apple DOS
Computer Networks Telenet Packet
Switching
Computer Graphics EDS Founded Antialiasing
Word Processor Electric Pencil AppleWriter
CAD/CAM Solid Modeling McDonnell Douglas
Purchases Unigraphics
Forerunner to CATIA Raster Display

The high level of innovation in the industry may have contributed to the numberous business failures or reversals in which businesses were sold for a small portion of their peak market capitalization; this trend began to show up in the early ‘80s and accelerated with the demise of most companies making IBM PC compatible “clones.” This period saw the introduction of the Reduced Instruction Set computer (RISC) that accelerated in future years.[26]

1979 1980 1981 1982
Hardware Atari 400 & 800 Seagate
Hard Disk
IBM PC Commodore 64
Microprocessor Intel 8088
Motorola 68000
Zilog Z8000
National Semi 16032
Intel 8087
DEC T-11
Harris 6120
IBM ROMP
Hewlett Packard FOCUS
Intel 80186, 80188,
80286
Berkeley RISC-I
Computer Language AWK
Icon
Modula-2
REXX
Vulcan dBase-II
Ada 80
C with classes
CBASIC
BBC BASIC
IBM BASICA
Draco
PostScript
Speakeasy-IV
Operating System Atari DOS 86 DOS MS-DOS 1
Acorn MOS
Commodore DOS
Computer Networks USENET TCP/IP
Computer Graphics Silicon Graphics
Founded
Word Processor Wordstar Wordperfect
for DG Mini
Bank Street
AppleWriter II

WordStar 3.0
WordPerfect for DOS

Spreadsheet VisiCalc Lotus 123
CAD/CAM IGES VersaCAD Dassault Systems Autodesk Founded

1983-1990[edit]

The Apple Lisa and Macintosh introduce the first personal computers based on a Graphical User Interface (GUI) which was previously developed by Xerox PARC for their Alto and Star systems.

1983 1984 1985 1986
Hardware Apple Lisa
3.5" Floppy
Apple Mac
Apple Lisa 2
PC Limited Tandem Nonstop VLX
Microprocessor Stanford MIPS
UC Berkeley RISC-II
Motorola 68020
National Semi 32032
NEC V20
DEC MicroVax II
Harris Novix
Intel 80386
MIPS R2000
NEC V60
Sun SPARC
Zilog Z80000
Computer Language ABAP
Ada 83
C++
GW-BASIC
Korn Shell
Objective-C
occam
True BASIC
Turbo Pascal
CLIPPER
Common Lisp
GOM – Good Old Mad
OPL
Redcode
RPL
Standard ML
Common LISP
Matlab
PARADOX
QuickBASIC
CorVision
Eiffel
GFA BASIC
Informix-4GL
LabVIEW
Miranda
Object Pascal
PROMAL
Operating System MS DOS 2
Lisa Office
Sun OS 1
MS DOS 3
MAC OS
Atari TOS
Amiga OS
Windows 1 AIX 1
Computer Networks ARPANET splits
off MILNET
Novell Netware
Research In Motion founded
NSFNET connects
5 Supercomputers
Computer Graphics ATI Founded Intel 82786
coprocessor
Word Processor Word 1 for DOS Word 1 for Mac WordPerfect 4.2
for DOS
Spreadsheet Excel for Mac
CAD/CAM Autodesk Releases
AutoCAD 1.2,1.3,1.4
AutoCAD 2 Bentley Systems
Parametric Technology
AutoLISP
Business Failure Leading Edge Osborne Computer Franklin Computer
Eagle Computer
Sperry
Burroughs
Sinclair Research

The latter years of the ‘80s continued developments in supercomputing, microprocessors, word processors and spreadsheets. Business failures and consolidation accelerated during this time period.

1987 1988 1989 1990
Hardware Thinking Machine CM2
Tera Computer Founded
Dell NeXT ETA10
Microprocessor Acorn ARM2
DEC CVAX 78034
Hitachi Gmicro/200
Motorola 68030
NEC V70
Intel 80386SX, i960
MIPS R3000
DEC VAX DC520 Rigel
Intel 80486, i860
IBM POWER1
Motorola 68040
Computer Language Ada ISO 8652
Clean
Erlang
HyperTalk
Mathematica
Oberon
occam 2
Perl
Self
Turbo Basic
A+
Hamilton C shell
Object REXX
Octave
RPG/400
SPARK
STOS BASIC
Tcl
Mathematica
Bash
LPC
Modula-3
PowerBASIC
Turbo Pascal OOP
VisSim
FL
AMOS BASIC
AMPL
EuLisp
Haskell
J
Object Oberon
Z Shell
Operating System MS DOS 4
Windows 2
OS/2
A/UX
EPCO Windows 3
Computer Networks Morris's Worm Beginning of
World Wide Web
HTML
Computer Graphics JPEG and GIF Pixar Tin Toy
wins Oscar
AutoDesk 3D Studio
Word Processor MS Works for DOS PC Mag Reviews
55 Packages
WordPerfect 5.1
Word for Windows
MS Office for Windows
Spreadsheet MS Excel for Windows Quattro Pro
CAD/CAM Deneba releases
Canvas X
AutoCAD 9
CATIA 3
AutoCAD 10
Parametric T-Flex Visionary Design Systems founded
AutoCAD 11
ACIS 1
Business Events Cromemco Beltron
Control Data
Celerity Computing
Ardent Computer
Apollo Computer
Tandon Corporation
Multiflow Computer
Mitsubishi Electronicss
Altos Computer Systems

1991-1998[edit]

Microprocessor performance continued to improve for both Reduced and Complex Instruction sets and it was not clear if one or the other would ultimately prevail in the market place; this period saw the demise of two supercomputer companies located in Cambridge, MA, USA that developed massively parallel machines: Thinking Machines and Kendall Square Research.

1991 1992 1993 1994
Hardware Apple Switches
to PowerPC
HP 95LX
Palmtop PC
Intel PPGA VESA Local Bus
Microprocessor DEC NVAX
IBM RSC
MIPS R4000
DEC Alpha 21064
Hewlett Packard PA-7100
Sun microSPARC I
IBM POWER2, PowerPC 601
Intel Pentium
DEC Alpha 21064A
Hewlett Packard PA-7100LC, PA-7200
IBM PowerPC 603, PowerPC 604
Motorola 68060
QED R4600
Computer Language GNU E
Oberon-2
Oz
Python
Q
Visual Basic
Python
Borland Pascal
Dylan
Ruby
Lua
AppleScript
Brainfuck
K
Lua
NewtonScript
R
Revolution Transcript
Self
ZPL
CLOS
ANS Forth
ANSI Common Lisp
Claire
Pike
RAPID
Operating System MS DOS 5
Linux
MS Windows 3.1x
386BSD
MS DOS 6
Newton OS
Solaris
AIX 4.0, 4.1
Computer Networks Mosaic web browser Netware 4 Netscape Navigator
Computer Graphics OpenGL Nvidia Founded
Word Processor MS Works Novell buys WordPerfect
CAD/CAM EDS buys
Unigraphics
CADAM & CATIA
begin unification
AutoCAD 12 Simple Vector
Format
Business Events Nixdorf
PC Brands
Alliant Computer Systems
Kaypro
Wang Laboratories
CompuAdd Commodore International
Kendall Square Research
Thinking Machines

The latter part of the ‘90s was a very active and competitive time for microprocessor and graphics processor development. Word processing and spreadsheet development slowed as these technologies matured and Microsoft dominated commercial products. IBM’s Deep Blue surprised many by beating the current world chess champion, Gary Kasparov.

1995 1996 1997 1998
Hardware IBM Deep Blue
Chess Computer
USB 1.0 Compaq buys Tandem
CD RW Drives
iMac
Microprocessor DEC Alpha 21164
HAL Computer SPARC64
Intel Pentium Pro
Sun UltraSPARC
AMD K5
DEC Alpha 21164A
HAL Computer SPARC64 II
Hewlett Packard PA-8000
IBM P2SC
MTI R10000
QED R5000
AMD K6
IBM PowerPC 620, PowerPC 750,
RS64, ES/390 G4
Intel Pentium II
Sun UltraSPARC IIs
DEC Alpha 21264
HAL Computer SPARC64 III
Hewlett Packard PA-8500
IBM POWER3, RS64-II
ES/390 G5
QED RM7000
SGI MIPS R12000
Computer Language Ada 95
Borland Delphi
ColdFusion
Java
JavaScript
LiveScript
PHP
Ruby
Curl
Lasso
NetRexx
OCaml
Perl Data Language
WebDNA
Component Pascal
E
ECMAScript
F-Script
ISLISP
Pico
REBOL
Squeak Smalltalk
Tea
Rebol
M2001
Open Source Erlang
Pikt
PureBasic
Standard C++
UnrealScript
Operating System Windows 95
Digital UNIX
Windows NT 4
Mac OS 7.6
Palm OS
Inferno Windows 98
Solaris 7 64-bit
Computer Networks Mosaic web browser
Inter@ctive_Pager
Netware 4 Netscape Navigator
Computer Graphics Pixar Goes Public
after Toy Story
3Dfx Voodoo ATI Rage Pro Voodoo Banshee
Word Processor Word 95 for Windows Corel buys WordPerfect
from Novell
CAD/CAM MicroStation Advanced
solid modeling
Canvas 5 ISO 13567
AutoCAD 14
Dassault Systems buys
Matra Datavision products
Business Events Convex Computer
Pyramid Technology
Zeos
Zenith Data Systems
NeXT
VTech
Amdahl Corporation
Northgate Computers
Digital Equipment
Encore Computer

1999-2006[edit]

The end of the nineties and the beginning of the 2000’s was a period that showed continual improvement in microprocessor, but developments in other areas seemed to be simply incremental. Nvidia and ATI became the only remaining contenders in graphic chips.

1999 2000 2001 2002
Hardware USB 2 Apple iPod
Microprocessor AMD Athlon
IBM RS64-III
Intel Pentium III
Motorola PowerPC 7400
AMD Athlon XP
Duron
Fujitsu SPARC64 IV
IBM RS64-IV
z900
Intel Pentium 4
IBM POWER4
Intel Itanium
Motorola PowerPC 7450
SGI MIPS R14000
Sun UltraSPARC III
Fujitsu SPARC64 V
Intel Itanium 2
Computer Language D
GameMaker Language
Harbour
XSLT
ActionScript
C#
Ferite
Join Java
Joy
XL
Visual Basic .net
AspectJ
GDScript
Processing
RPG IV
Gosu
Io
Operating System Mac OS X Server 1.0 Windows 2000
Apple V10.0 Cheetah
V10.1 Puma Windows XP 64
V10.2 Jaguar
Computer Networks Blackberry 850 Mosaic web browser Netware 4 Netscape Navigator
Computer Graphics S3 Savage 4 ATI Radeon DDR Nvidia Kyro II
GeForce 3
Word Processor Sun buys StarDivision
CAD/CAM Pro/Engineer 2000 AutoCAD 2000 EDS buys SDRC Unigraphics NX
Autodesk buys Revit
Business Events Acorn Computers
Fujitsu buys
Siemens IT business
Quantex Microsystems International Computers Ltd
Compaq

Innovations in spreadsheets and word processing slowed as the Microsoft’s Word and Open Office continued to dominate. Gmail and Facebook were launched during 2004. Consolidation quickens in the business of computer aided design.

2003 2004 2005 2006
Hardware Power Mac G5 iMac G5
Mac Mini Apple transition
to Intel
Microprocessor AMD Opteron
IBM PowerPC 970
Intel Pentium M
IBM POWER5
PowerPC BGL
AMD Athlon 64 X2
Opteron Athens
IBM PowerPC 970MP
Xenon
Intel Pentium D
Sun UltraSPARC IV
UltraSPARC T1
IBM Cell/B.E.
Intel Core 2
Core Duo
Itanium Montecito
Computer Language Factor
Falcon
Nemerle
Scala
Squirrel
Alma-0
Boo
FreeBASIC
Groovy
Little b
Subtext
F#
Seed7
Cobra
Links
OptimJ
Windows PowerShell
Operating System V10.3 Panther
Red Hat
Enterprise Linux
V10.4 Tiger
Ubuntu 5
Computer Networks 802.11g Gmail
Facebook launched
BlackBerry Pearl 8100
Computer Graphics Adobe buys
Macromedia
AMD buys ATI
Disney buys Pixar
Word Processor Writely Google buys Upstartle
CAD/CAM Dassault
integrates VBA
EDS PLM Solutions
goes private
UGS buys
Tecnomatix
SolidWorks 2007
Business Events Lenovo buys
IBM PC Business

2007-2014[edit]

The launch of the iPhone in 2007 and the iPad in 2010 set Apple computer on a new course where tight integration of hardware and software. Larry Ellison announces that Oracle will focus on integrating hardware and software, purchasing Sun Microsystems in 2010.[27]

2007 2008 2009 2010
Hardware iPhone 1
Mac Book Pro
USB 3.0
iPhone 3G
Apple Xservve Apple iPad
Microprocessor AMD Opteron Barcelona
Fujitsu SPARC64 VI
IBM POWER, PowerPC BGP
Sun UltraSPARC T2
Tilera TILE64
AMD Opteron Shanghai, Phenom
Fujitsu SPARC64 VII
IBM PowerXCell 8i
IBM z10
Intel Atom, Core i7
Tilera TILEPro64
AMD Opteron Istanbul, Phenom II AMD Opteron Magny-cours
Fujitsu SPARC64 VII+
IBM POWER7
z196
Intel Itanium Tukwila, Westmere
Xeon, Nehalem-EX
Sun SPARC T3
Computer Language Clojure
Fantom
Fortress
LOLCODE
Oberon-07
Vala
Genie
Pure
CoffeeScript
Go
Idris
Parasail
Chapel
RPG Open Access
Rust
Operating System Windows Vista
V10.5 Leopard
Android Beta
Android 1.0 Android 1.1
V10.6 Snow Leopard
Android 2.0
Computer Networks Wifi 802.11n
Computer Graphics "Assassin's Creed" "Up" Cloth
Simulation
"Avatar" wins
"Best Picture"
Word Processor Oracle buys
OpenOffice from Sun
Oracle releases OpenOffice
to Apache Software Foundation
CAD/CAM Siemens buys UGS
Business Events Gateway
Amstrad
MicronPC
Tulip Computerss
Maxdata
Evesham
Packard Bell
Solbourne Computer
Gericom
Soyo
Zepto Computers A/S
Silicon Graphics
Everex
Vigor Gaming
Pystar
Sun Microsystems

Microsoft’s Windows 8 operating system was designed to work on both personal computers and tablets, it was released to a “mixed reception.”

2011 2012 2013 2014
Hardware Iphone 4S iPhone 5
IBM zEnterprise System
iPhone 5c & 5s iPhone 6
Microprocessor AMD FX Bulldozer,
Interlagos,Llano
Fujitsu SPARC64 VIIIfx
Freescale PowerPC_e6500
Intel Sandy Bridge, Xeon E7
Oracle SPARC T4
Fujitsu SPARC64 IXfx
IBM POWER7+, zEC12
Intel Itanium Poulson
Fujitsu SPARC64 X
Intel Haswell
Oracle SPARC T5
IBM POWER8
Computer Language Dart Elixir
Julia
TypeScript
Hack
Swift
Operating System V10.7 Lion
Android 3.0
Android 4.0
Windows 8
V10.8 Mountain Lion
V10.9 Mavericks V10.10 Yosemite
Android 5.0
Computer Networks 802.11ac
Computer Graphics "Hugo" wins Oscar
Visual Effects
Word Processor
CAD/CAM
Business Events eMachines Research
Machines


References[edit]

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  2. ^ Malone, Michael S.(2012) The Microprocessor: A Biography
  3. ^ Aaby, Anthony (2004). Introduction to Programming Languages
  4. ^ Wexelblat, Richard L. History of Programming Languages
  5. ^ Stallings (2005). Operating Systems, Internals and Design Principles. Pearson
  6. ^ Kurose, James; Ross, Kieth (2005). Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach. Pearson.
  7. ^ Wayne Carlson (2003) A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation
  8. ^ Ferguson, R. Stuart. (2013) Practical Algorithms for 3D Computer Graphics
  9. ^ Narayan, K. Lalit (2008). Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing. Prentice Hall
  10. ^ Moore, Gordon E. (1965). "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits,"Electronics Magazine".
  11. ^ Brock, David C., ed. (2006). Understanding Moore's law : four decades of innovation. Chemical Heritage Press. ISBN 0941901416
  12. ^ "1965 – "Moore's Law" Predicts the Future of Integrated Circuits". Computer History Museum
  13. ^ Booch, Grady (1997). Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications. Addison-Wesley.
  14. ^ Peter Brass. (2008) Advanced Data Structures, Cambridge University Press
  15. ^ Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L. & Stein, Clifford. (2001) Introduction to Algorithms, MIT Press and McGraw-Hill.
  16. ^ Hopcroft, John E. and Jeffrey D. Ullman, (1979) Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation
  17. ^ Aho, Alfred V., Sethi, Ravi, and Ullman, Jeffrey D. (1988). Compilers — Principles, Techniques, and Tools. Addison-Wesley.
  18. ^ Shirley, Peter. (2009) Fundamentals of Computer Graphics - 3rd edition
  19. ^ Knuth, Donald. (1998) The Art of Computer Programming: Volume 3: Sorting and Searching
  20. ^ Press, William H., Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling, Brian P. Flannery. (2007) Numerical Recipes 3rd Edition: The Art of Scientific Computing
  21. ^ Baron, Michael. (2006) Probability and Statistics for Computer Scientists
  22. ^ Russell, Stuart. (2009) Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (3rd Edition)
  23. ^ Mitchell, Tom. (1997) Machine Learning.
  24. ^ Jones, Douglas (1997). "University of Iowa Department of Computer Science, 22C:18, Lecture 28, Summer 1997"
  25. ^ Hamm, Steve (2004-06-14). "Thomas J. Watson Jr.: Junior Achievement". Business Week
  26. ^ Patterson, D. A.; Ditzel, D. R. (October 1980). "The case for the reduced instruction set computer". SIGARCH Computer Architecture News
  27. ^ http://www.computerworld.com/article/2502595/database-administration/ellison-hardware-software-integration-key-apple-is-best-example.html