|Search user languages|
Hello. My name is Daniel and I'm from Romania. I am an administrator at the Romanian Wikipedia and Wikiquote.
|Search user languages|
Hello. My name is Daniel and I'm from Romania. I am an administrator at the Romanian Wikipedia and Wikiquote.
1. Romanian Wikipedia – The Romanian Wikipedia is the Romanian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Started in July 2003, as of 6 April 2017 this edition has about 375,532 articles and is the 25th largest Wikipedia edition, in December 2004, users on the Romanian Wikipedia started to talk about founding a local chapter of Wikimedia, Asociaţia Wikimedia România. The first articles in the Romanian Wikipedia were written in July 2003, the user interface, initially in English, started being translated into Romanian by Bogdan Stăncescu as soon as he was given sysop rights. The same user subsequently contacted several Romanian universities that were available on the internet, as well as the Romanian Academy and his efforts were soon remarked by the Romanian media, who invited him on several occasions to introduce the project to the public. By the end of 2003, the Romanian Wikipedia had exceeded 3,000 articles, the 10, 000th article was written on 13 December 2004, and the 50, 000th on 5 January 2007. In April 2004, the Romanian Wikipedia supported the launch of the Aromanian Wikipedia, in June 2004, the Romanian Wikipedia encountered problems concerning its division and the creation of a separate Moldovan Wikipedia. A Moldovan language version of Wikipedia exists as it was created together with a larger number of other Wikipedias. At its beginnings, it worked as a portal redirecting to the Romanian Wikipedia, starting from December 2006 it is frozen and editing is no longer permitted. This question is raised from time to time, although users on Wikipedia voted on its closure. The Romanian Wikipedia reached the 100,000 article milestone on 11 January 2008, as of April 2015, it has 300,000 articles and 330,000 registered users, of which 21 are administrators. The logo of the Romanian Wikipedia was slightly different from the logos of other Wikipedias, the letter И in the logo was replaced with the Romanian letter Ă, further adapting this Wikipedia to the local readership. Articles can contain small spelling variations, mostly regarding the use of the letters â and î, both used for the close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/. According to the 1993 spelling rules promoted by the Romanian Academy, /ɨ/ is transcribed as either î, when used as the first or last letter of words, or â, when it occurs in the middle of the word. Still, between 1953 and 1993, the Romanian language only used î - after 1964 an exception was made for derivations of the words România, român, the Academy rules are mandatory in government organisations and in state schools in Romania. Moldova adopted the Latin alphabet for the Romanian language before the reform in 1993. In practice, either usage is acceptable in both countries, and indeed there are publishing houses and printed magazines that use either or both of the two rules, vojvodina uses the new Romanian spelling. Other spelling differences include sunt/sînt or niciun/nici un, concerning the addressing policy, Romanian Wikipedia uses the polite forms of the personal pronouns and verbs. A policy on this was discussed in early 2006, and consensus was reached for the use of dumneavoastră instead of tu on its pages, Romanian Wikipedia Romanian Wikipedia mobile version Aromanian Wikipedia Aromanian Wikipedia mobile version
3. Cascading Style Sheets – Cascading Style Sheets is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language. It can also display the web page differently depending on the size or viewing device. Readers can also specify a different style sheet, such as a CSS file stored on their own computer, to override the one the author specified. Changes to the design of a document can be applied quickly and easily, by editing a few lines in the CSS file they use. The CSS specification describes a priority scheme to determine which style rules apply if more than one rule matches against a particular element, in this so-called cascade, priorities are calculated and assigned to rules, so that the results are predictable. The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium, Internet media type text/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC2318. The W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents, CSS has a simple syntax and uses a number of English keywords to specify the names of various style properties. A style sheet consists of a list of rules, each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors, and a declaration block. In CSS, selectors declare which part of the markup a style applies to by matching tags, Selectors may apply to, all elements of a specific type, e. g. Classes and IDs are case-sensitive, start with letters, and can include alphanumeric characters and underscores. A class may apply to any number of instances of any elements, an ID may only be applied to a single element. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information that is not contained in the document tree. One example of a widely used pseudo-class is, hover, which identifies content only when the points to the visible element. It is appended to a selector as in a, hover or #elementid, a pseudo-class classifies document elements, such as, link or, visited, whereas a pseudo-element makes a selection that may consist of partial elements, such as, first-line or, first-letter. Selectors may be combined in ways to achieve great specificity and flexibility. Multiple selectors may be joined in a spaced list to specify elements by location, element type, id, class, the order of the selectors is important. For example, div. myClass applies to all elements of class myClass that are inside div elements, the following table provides a summary of selector syntax indicating usage and the version of CSS that introduced it. A declaration block consists of a list of declarations in braces, each declaration itself consists of a property, a colon, and a value. If there are multiple declarations in a block, a semi-colon must be inserted to separate each declaration, properties are specified in the CSS standard
4. C++ – C++ is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation and it was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained and large systems, with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ is a language, with implementations of it available on many platforms and provided by various organizations, including the Free Software Foundation, LLVM, Microsoft, Intel. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization, with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2014 as ISO/IEC14882,2014. The C++ programming language was standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC14882,1998. The current C++14 standard supersedes these and C++11, with new features, the C++17 standard is due in 2017, with the draft largely implemented by some compilers already, and C++20 is the next planned standard thereafter. Many other programming languages have influenced by C++, including C#, D, Java. In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on C with Classes, the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrups experience in programming for his Ph. D. thesis. When Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing, remembering his Ph. D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast, portable, as well as C and Simulas influences, other languages also influenced C++, including ALGOL68, Ada, CLU and ML. Initially, Stroustrups C with Classes added features to the C compiler, Cpre, including classes, derived classes, strong typing, inlining, furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for C++, Cfront. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, the first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year. In 1989, C++2.0 was released, followed by the second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991. New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static functions, const member functions. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published and this work became the basis for the future standard. Later feature additions included templates, exceptions, namespaces, new casts, after a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions are planned for 2017 and 2020. According to Stroustrup, the name signifies the nature of the changes from C. This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December 1983, when Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit
5. PHP – PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Development Team, PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP, Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code may be embedded into HTML or HTML5 code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in the web server or as a Common Gateway Interface executable. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, PHP code may also be executed with a command-line interface and can be used to implement standalone graphical applications. The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License, PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge. The PHP language evolved without a formal specification or standard until 2014. Since 2014 work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification, PHP development began in 1995 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote several Common Gateway Interface programs in C, which he used to maintain his personal homepage. He extended them to work with web forms and to communicate with databases, PHP/FI could help to build simple, dynamic web applications. This release already had the functionality that PHP has as of 2013. This included Perl-like variables, form handling, and the ability to embed HTML, the syntax resembled that of Perl but was simpler, more limited and less consistent. A development team began to form and, after months of work and beta testing, the fact that PHP lacked an original overall design but instead developed organically has led to inconsistent naming of functions and inconsistent ordering of their parameters. Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP3, changing the name to the recursive acronym PHP. Afterwards, public testing of PHP3 began, and the launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans then started a new rewrite of PHPs core and they also founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan, Israel. On May 22,2000, PHP4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released, as of August 2008 this branch reached version 4.4.9. PHP4 is no longer under development nor will any security updates be released, on July 13,2004, PHP5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II. PHP5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects extension, in 2008 PHP5 became the only stable version under development
6. LaTeX – LaTeX is a document preparation system. When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the text found in WYSIWYG word processors like Microsoft Word or LibreOffice Writer. The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the structure of a document, to stylise text throughout a document. A TeX distribution such as TeX Live or MikTeX is used to produce a file suitable for printing or digital distribution. Within the typesetting system, its name is stylised as LaTeX and it also has a prominent role in the preparation and publication of books and articles that contain complex multilingual materials, such as Tamil, Sanskrit and Greek. LaTeX uses the TeX typesetting program for formatting its output, LaTeX can be used as a standalone document preparation system or as an intermediate format. In the latter role, for example, it is used as part of a pipeline for translating DocBook. LaTeX is intended to provide a language that accesses the power of TeX in an easier way for writers. In short, TeX handles the layout side, while LaTeX handles the content side for document processing, LaTeX comprises a collection of TeX macros and a program to process LaTeX documents. LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport at SRI International, LaTeX is free software and is distributed under the LaTeX Project Public License. It therefore encourages the separation of layout from content while still allowing manual typesetting adjustments where needed and this concept is similar to the mechanism by which many word processors allow styles to be defined globally for an entire document or the use of Cascading Style Sheets to style HTML. The LaTeX system is a language that also handles typesetting and rendering. LaTeX can be extended by using the underlying macro language to develop custom formats. Such macros are often collected into packages, which are available to address special formatting such as complicated mathematical content or graphics. Indeed, in the example below, the environment is provided by the amsmath package. In order to create a document in LaTeX, you first write a file, say document. tex, then you give your document. tex file as input to the TeX program, and TeX writes out a file suitable for viewing onscreen or printing. This write-format-preview cycle is one of the ways in which working with LaTeX differs from what-you-see-is-what-you-get word-processing. It is similar to the code-compile-execute cycle familiar to computer programmers, today, many LaTeX-aware editing programs make this cycle a simple matter of pressing a single key, while showing the output preview on the screen beside the input window