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Hello. My name is Daniel and I'm from Romania. I am an administrator at the Romanian Wikipedia and Wikiquote.
|Search user languages|
Hello. My name is Daniel and I'm from Romania. I am an administrator at the Romanian Wikipedia and Wikiquote.
1. Romanian language – Romanian is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It has official status in Romania and the Republic of Moldova and it is one of the official languages of the European Union and the Latin Union. Romanian is a part of the Balkan-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin separated from the Western Romance during the 5th–8th centuries. To distinguish it within that group in comparative linguistics it is called Daco-Romanian as opposed to its closest relatives, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian. Eastern Romance languages, like the branches of Romance languages, descend from Vulgar Latin. These vestiges of military usage are unique to Romanian in its language family. s. o, sat village, șes plain, a supune, tindă veranda, țară homeland a. s. o. This linguistic evidence challenges the Roeslerian theory, the vestiges from sermo castrensis particularize the Romanian language in the neolatin area, together with its isolated history. e. With Rom. māgurā and Alb. magulë etc, the Roman Empire withdrew from Dacia in 271–272 AD, leaving it to the Goths. The history of Eastern Romance between the 3rd century and the development of Proto-Romanian by the 10th century, when the area came under the influence of the Byzantine Empire, is unknown. It is a matter of debate whether Proto-Romanian developed among Romanized people who were left behind in Dacia by the Roman withdrawal or among Latin-speakers in the Balkans south of the Danube, during the Middle Ages, Romanian became influenced by the Slavic languages and to some degree by Greek. Romanian remains unattested throughout the Middle Ages, and only enters the record in the early 16th century. The use of the denomination Romanian for our language and use of the demonym Romanians for speakers of this language predates the foundation of the modern Romanian state. In 1534, Tranquillo Andronico notes, Valachi nunc se Romanos vocant, francesco della Valle writes in 1532 that Romanians are calling themselves Romans in their own language, and he subsequently quotes the expression, Știi Românește. After travelling through Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania Ferrante Capecci accounts in 1575 that the population of these regions call themselves românești. Pierre Lescalopier writes in 1574 that those who live in Moldavia, Wallachia, the Transylvanian Saxon Johann Lebel writes in 1542 that Vlachi se numeau între ei Romuini and the Polish chronicler Stanislaw Orzechowski notes in 1554 that în limba lor walachii se numesc romini. In Palia de la Orăștie stands written «, că văzum cum toate limbile au și înfluresc întru cuvintele slăvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limbă nu avem. și le-au dăruit voo fraților români. », nevertheless, the oldest extant document written in Romanian remains Neacșus letter and was written using Cyrillic letters. There are no records of any documents written in Romanian from before 1521
2. French language – French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages, French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues doïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to Frances past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, a French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French. French is a language in 29 countries, most of which are members of la francophonie. As of 2015, 40% of the population is in Europe, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 15% in North Africa and the Middle East, 8% in the Americas. French is the fourth-most widely spoken mother tongue in the European Union, 1/5 of Europeans who do not have French as a mother tongue speak French as a second language. As a result of French and Belgian colonialism from the 17th and 18th century onward, French was introduced to new territories in the Americas, Africa, most second-language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 77 to 110 million native speakers, approximately 274 million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates 700 million by 2050, in 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language for business, after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese. Under the Constitution of France, French has been the language of the Republic since 1992. France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases, French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland called Romandie, of which Geneva is the largest city. French is the language of about 23% of the Swiss population. French is also a language of Luxembourg, Monaco, and Aosta Valley, while French dialects remain spoken by minorities on the Channel Islands. A plurality of the worlds French-speaking population lives in Africa and this number does not include the people living in non-Francophone African countries who have learned French as a foreign language. Due to the rise of French in Africa, the total French-speaking population worldwide is expected to reach 700 million people in 2050, French is the fastest growing language on the continent. French is mostly a language in Africa, but it has become a first language in some urban areas, such as the region of Abidjan, Ivory Coast and in Libreville. There is not a single African French, but multiple forms that diverged through contact with various indigenous African languages, sub-Saharan Africa is the region where the French language is most likely to expand, because of the expansion of education and rapid population growth
3. Romanian Wikipedia – The Romanian Wikipedia is the Romanian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Started in July 2003, as of 6 April 2017 this edition has about 375,532 articles and is the 25th largest Wikipedia edition, in December 2004, users on the Romanian Wikipedia started to talk about founding a local chapter of Wikimedia, Asociaţia Wikimedia România. The first articles in the Romanian Wikipedia were written in July 2003, the user interface, initially in English, started being translated into Romanian by Bogdan Stăncescu as soon as he was given sysop rights. The same user subsequently contacted several Romanian universities that were available on the internet, as well as the Romanian Academy and his efforts were soon remarked by the Romanian media, who invited him on several occasions to introduce the project to the public. By the end of 2003, the Romanian Wikipedia had exceeded 3,000 articles, the 10, 000th article was written on 13 December 2004, and the 50, 000th on 5 January 2007. In April 2004, the Romanian Wikipedia supported the launch of the Aromanian Wikipedia, in June 2004, the Romanian Wikipedia encountered problems concerning its division and the creation of a separate Moldovan Wikipedia. A Moldovan language version of Wikipedia exists as it was created together with a larger number of other Wikipedias. At its beginnings, it worked as a portal redirecting to the Romanian Wikipedia, starting from December 2006 it is frozen and editing is no longer permitted. This question is raised from time to time, although users on Wikipedia voted on its closure. The Romanian Wikipedia reached the 100,000 article milestone on 11 January 2008, as of April 2015, it has 300,000 articles and 330,000 registered users, of which 21 are administrators. The logo of the Romanian Wikipedia was slightly different from the logos of other Wikipedias, the letter И in the logo was replaced with the Romanian letter Ă, further adapting this Wikipedia to the local readership. Articles can contain small spelling variations, mostly regarding the use of the letters â and î, both used for the close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/. According to the 1993 spelling rules promoted by the Romanian Academy, /ɨ/ is transcribed as either î, when used as the first or last letter of words, or â, when it occurs in the middle of the word. Still, between 1953 and 1993, the Romanian language only used î - after 1964 an exception was made for derivations of the words România, român, the Academy rules are mandatory in government organisations and in state schools in Romania. Moldova adopted the Latin alphabet for the Romanian language before the reform in 1993. In practice, either usage is acceptable in both countries, and indeed there are publishing houses and printed magazines that use either or both of the two rules, vojvodina uses the new Romanian spelling. Other spelling differences include sunt/sînt or niciun/nici un, concerning the addressing policy, Romanian Wikipedia uses the polite forms of the personal pronouns and verbs. A policy on this was discussed in early 2006, and consensus was reached for the use of dumneavoastră instead of tu on its pages, Romanian Wikipedia Romanian Wikipedia mobile version Aromanian Wikipedia Aromanian Wikipedia mobile version
5. Cascading Style Sheets – Cascading Style Sheets is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language. It can also display the web page differently depending on the size or viewing device. Readers can also specify a different style sheet, such as a CSS file stored on their own computer, to override the one the author specified. Changes to the design of a document can be applied quickly and easily, by editing a few lines in the CSS file they use. The CSS specification describes a priority scheme to determine which style rules apply if more than one rule matches against a particular element, in this so-called cascade, priorities are calculated and assigned to rules, so that the results are predictable. The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium, Internet media type text/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC2318. The W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents, CSS has a simple syntax and uses a number of English keywords to specify the names of various style properties. A style sheet consists of a list of rules, each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors, and a declaration block. In CSS, selectors declare which part of the markup a style applies to by matching tags, Selectors may apply to, all elements of a specific type, e. g. Classes and IDs are case-sensitive, start with letters, and can include alphanumeric characters and underscores. A class may apply to any number of instances of any elements, an ID may only be applied to a single element. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information that is not contained in the document tree. One example of a widely used pseudo-class is, hover, which identifies content only when the points to the visible element. It is appended to a selector as in a, hover or #elementid, a pseudo-class classifies document elements, such as, link or, visited, whereas a pseudo-element makes a selection that may consist of partial elements, such as, first-line or, first-letter. Selectors may be combined in ways to achieve great specificity and flexibility. Multiple selectors may be joined in a spaced list to specify elements by location, element type, id, class, the order of the selectors is important. For example, div. myClass applies to all elements of class myClass that are inside div elements, the following table provides a summary of selector syntax indicating usage and the version of CSS that introduced it. A declaration block consists of a list of declarations in braces, each declaration itself consists of a property, a colon, and a value. If there are multiple declarations in a block, a semi-colon must be inserted to separate each declaration, properties are specified in the CSS standard
6. C++ – C++ is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation and it was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained and large systems, with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ is a language, with implementations of it available on many platforms and provided by various organizations, including the Free Software Foundation, LLVM, Microsoft, Intel. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization, with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2014 as ISO/IEC14882,2014. The C++ programming language was standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC14882,1998. The current C++14 standard supersedes these and C++11, with new features, the C++17 standard is due in 2017, with the draft largely implemented by some compilers already, and C++20 is the next planned standard thereafter. Many other programming languages have influenced by C++, including C#, D, Java. In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on C with Classes, the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrups experience in programming for his Ph. D. thesis. When Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing, remembering his Ph. D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast, portable, as well as C and Simulas influences, other languages also influenced C++, including ALGOL68, Ada, CLU and ML. Initially, Stroustrups C with Classes added features to the C compiler, Cpre, including classes, derived classes, strong typing, inlining, furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for C++, Cfront. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, the first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year. In 1989, C++2.0 was released, followed by the second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991. New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static functions, const member functions. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published and this work became the basis for the future standard. Later feature additions included templates, exceptions, namespaces, new casts, after a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions are planned for 2017 and 2020. According to Stroustrup, the name signifies the nature of the changes from C. This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December 1983, when Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit
7. SQL – Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of a data definition language, data manipulation language, and data control language. The scope of SQL includes data insert, query, update and delete, schema creation and modification, although SQL is often described as, and to a great extent is, a declarative language, it also includes procedural elements. SQL was one of the first commercial languages for Edgar F. Codds relational model, as described in his influential 1970 paper, despite not entirely adhering to the relational model as described by Codd, it became the most widely used database language. SQL became a standard of the American National Standards Institute in 1986, since then, the standard has been revised to include a larger set of features. Despite the existence of such standards, most SQL code is not completely portable among different database systems without adjustments, SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce in the early 1970s. The acronym SEQUEL was later changed to SQL because SEQUEL was a trademark of the UK-based Hawker Siddeley aircraft company, in June 1979, Relational Software, Inc. introduced the first commercially available implementation of SQL, Oracle V2 for VAX computers. SQL deviates in several ways from its foundation, the relational model. In that model, a table is a set of tuples, while in SQL, tables and query results are lists of rows, the same row may occur multiple times, and the order of rows can be employed in queries. Critics argue that SQL should be replaced with a language that strictly returns to the foundation, for example. The SQL language is subdivided into several elements, including, Clauses. Queries, which retrieve the data based on specific criteria and this is an important element of SQL. Statements, which may have a persistent effect on schemata and data, or may control transactions, program flow, connections, sessions, SQL statements also include the semicolon statement terminator. Though not required on every platform, it is defined as a part of the SQL grammar. Insignificant whitespace is ignored in SQL statements and queries, making it easier to format SQL code for readability. Other operators have at times been suggested or implemented, such as the skyline operator, SQL has the case/when/then/else/end expression, which was introduced in SQL-92. In its most general form, which is called a case in the SQL standard, it works like else if in other programming languages. If the source does not specify an ELSE expression, SQL defaults to ELSE NULL, an abbreviated syntax—called simple case in the SQL standard—mirrors switch statements, This syntax uses implicit equality comparisons, with the usual caveats for comparing with NULL. For the Oracle-SQL dialect, the latter can be shortened to an equivalent DECODE construct, The last value is the default, if none is specified, however, unlike the standards simple case, Oracles DECODE considers two NULLs equal with each other
8. PHP – PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Development Team, PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP, Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code may be embedded into HTML or HTML5 code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in the web server or as a Common Gateway Interface executable. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, PHP code may also be executed with a command-line interface and can be used to implement standalone graphical applications. The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License, PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge. The PHP language evolved without a formal specification or standard until 2014. Since 2014 work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification, PHP development began in 1995 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote several Common Gateway Interface programs in C, which he used to maintain his personal homepage. He extended them to work with web forms and to communicate with databases, PHP/FI could help to build simple, dynamic web applications. This release already had the functionality that PHP has as of 2013. This included Perl-like variables, form handling, and the ability to embed HTML, the syntax resembled that of Perl but was simpler, more limited and less consistent. A development team began to form and, after months of work and beta testing, the fact that PHP lacked an original overall design but instead developed organically has led to inconsistent naming of functions and inconsistent ordering of their parameters. Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP3, changing the name to the recursive acronym PHP. Afterwards, public testing of PHP3 began, and the launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans then started a new rewrite of PHPs core and they also founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan, Israel. On May 22,2000, PHP4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released, as of August 2008 this branch reached version 4.4.9. PHP4 is no longer under development nor will any security updates be released, on July 13,2004, PHP5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II. PHP5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects extension, in 2008 PHP5 became the only stable version under development