The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character. Quotation marks have a variety of forms in different languages and in different media, the double quotation mark is older than the single. By the middle sixteenth century, printers had developed a form of this notation. In most other languages, including English, the marginal marks dropped out of use in the last years of the eighteenth century, the usage of a pair of marks, closing and opening, at the level of lower case letters was generalized. By the nineteenth century, the design and usage began to be specific within each region, in Western Europe the usage became to use the quotation marks in pairs but “pointing” outside. In Britain those marks were elevated to the height of the top of capital letters. In France, by the end of the century those marks were modified to a more angular shape. Some authors claim that the reason for this was a one, in order to get a character that was clearly distinguishable from the apostrophes, the commas. Other authors claim that the reason for this was an aesthetical one, nevertheless, while other languages do not insert a space between the quotation marks and the word, the French usage does insert them, even if it is a narrow space. The curved quotation marks usage was exported to some non-Latin scripts, the angular quotation marks usage was exported to some non-Latin scripts, like Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic and Ethiopic. The Far East angle brackets quotation marks are also a development of the angular quotation marks. In Central Europe, however, the practice was to use the marks in pairs. The German tradition preferred the curved quotation marks, the first one at the level of the commas, alternatively, these marks still “pointed” inside but could be angular and in-line with lower case letters. Some neighboring regions adopted the German tradition but some adopted the second mark as “pointing” to the right. In Sweden, both marks “pointed” to the right but both were at the top level, neither at the bottom, in Eastern Europe there was a hesitation between the French tradition and the German tradition. The single quotation mark emerged around 1800 as a means of indicating a level of quotation. One could expect that the logic would be the corresponding single mark everywhere, British English tends to reverse the usage — single quotation marks are primary, and double quotation marks are secondary —this distinction, however, dating back to around the 1960s. In some languages using the quotation marks, the usage of single ones became obsolete, being replaced by double curved ones
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. is a science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. First published in 1968, the novel is set in a post-apocalyptic San Francisco, most animal species are endangered or extinct from extreme radiation poisoning, so that owning an animal is now a sign of status and empathy, an attitude encouraged towards animals. The book served as the basis for the 1982 film Blade Runner. In connection with Deckards mission, the novel explores the issue of what it is to be human, unlike humans, the androids are claimed to possess no sense of empathy. Poor people can only afford realistic-looking electric animals, including Deckard, the story also contains passing mention to Penfield mood organs, which fill the role that mind-altering drugs take in other Dick stories. The mood organ can induce any desired mood in the nearby, such as an optimistic business-like attitude or the desire to watch television. A slightly ironic passage in the chapter has Deckard and his wife, Iran. She announces that she has scheduled six hours of existential despair for later in order to deal with their loneliness in an apartment building. The mission involves hunting down a group of six Nexus-6 androids that violently went rogue, Deckard visits Rosen headquarters in Seattle to confirm the validity of a question-and-answer empathy test, a method for identifying any androids posing as humans. Deckard is greeted by Rachael Rosen, who fails his test. Rachael attempts to bribe Deckard into silence, but he verifies that she is indeed a Nexus-6 android used by Rosen to try to discredit the test, Deckard soon meets a Soviet police contact, who turns out to be one of the disguised Nexus-6 renegades. Deckard retires the android, then flies off to retire his next target, Luba Luft and this android, however, has him arrested by a police officer he has never met and detained at a police department he has never known. At this strange police station, Deckards worldview is shaken when an official named Garland accuses Deckard of being an android, phil Resch, the stations bounty hunter, finally gets testing equipment to determine if his coworkers as well as Deckard are androids or humans. Finally, Garland reveals that the station is a sham, completely staffed by androids. Resch shoots Garland in the head and escapes with Deckard, together, they find and arrest the android opera singer, although Resch and Deckard are now collaborating, each still worries that the other, or himself, might be an android. Deckard administers the empathy test to himself and Resch, which confirms that Resch is a particularly ruthless human being, and that Deckard is also human, the lonely Isidore attempts to befriend her. Roy and Irmgard Baty, the two rogue androids, visit the building, and they all together plan how to survive. Meanwhile, Deckard with his reward money buys Iran an authentic Nubian goat, Deckard calls back upon Rachael Rosen, since her own insider knowledge as an android will aid his investigation
C (programming language)
C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at Bell Labs, and used to re-implement the Unix operating system. C has been standardized by the American National Standards Institute since 1989, C is an imperative procedural language. Therefore, C was useful for applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language. Despite its low-level capabilities, the language was designed to encourage cross-platform programming, a standards-compliant and portably written C program can be compiled for a very wide variety of computer platforms and operating systems with few changes to its source code. The language has become available on a wide range of platforms. In C, all code is contained within subroutines, which are called functions. Function parameters are passed by value. Pass-by-reference is simulated in C by explicitly passing pointer values, C program source text is free-format, using the semicolon as a statement terminator and curly braces for grouping blocks of statements. The C language also exhibits the characteristics, There is a small, fixed number of keywords, including a full set of flow of control primitives, for, if/else, while, switch. User-defined names are not distinguished from keywords by any kind of sigil, There are a large number of arithmetical and logical operators, such as +, +=, ++, &, ~, etc. More than one assignment may be performed in a single statement, function return values can be ignored when not needed. Typing is static, but weakly enforced, all data has a type, C has no define keyword, instead, a statement beginning with the name of a type is taken as a declaration. There is no function keyword, instead, a function is indicated by the parentheses of an argument list, user-defined and compound types are possible. Heterogeneous aggregate data types allow related data elements to be accessed and assigned as a unit, array indexing is a secondary notation, defined in terms of pointer arithmetic. Unlike structs, arrays are not first-class objects, they cannot be assigned or compared using single built-in operators, There is no array keyword, in use or definition, instead, square brackets indicate arrays syntactically, for example month. Enumerated types are possible with the enum keyword and they are not tagged, and are freely interconvertible with integers. Strings are not a data type, but are conventionally implemented as null-terminated arrays of characters. Low-level access to memory is possible by converting machine addresses to typed pointers
C++ is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation and it was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained and large systems, with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ is a language, with implementations of it available on many platforms and provided by various organizations, including the Free Software Foundation, LLVM, Microsoft, Intel. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization, with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2014 as ISO/IEC14882,2014. The C++ programming language was standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC14882,1998. The current C++14 standard supersedes these and C++11, with new features, the C++17 standard is due in 2017, with the draft largely implemented by some compilers already, and C++20 is the next planned standard thereafter. Many other programming languages have influenced by C++, including C#, D, Java. In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on C with Classes, the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrups experience in programming for his Ph. D. thesis. When Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing, remembering his Ph. D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast, portable, as well as C and Simulas influences, other languages also influenced C++, including ALGOL68, Ada, CLU and ML. Initially, Stroustrups C with Classes added features to the C compiler, Cpre, including classes, derived classes, strong typing, inlining, furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for C++, Cfront. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, the first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year. In 1989, C++2.0 was released, followed by the second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991. New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static functions, const member functions. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published and this work became the basis for the future standard. Later feature additions included templates, exceptions, namespaces, new casts, after a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions are planned for 2017 and 2020. According to Stroustrup, the name signifies the nature of the changes from C. This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December 1983, when Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit