User:Razr Nation/sandbox/Santiago de Arroyo de Araya castle
|Santiago de Arroyo de Araya castle|
Aerial view of the Araya castle
|Controlled by||State government|
Santiago de Arroyo de Araya castle is a colonial castle built in the seventeenth century by the Spanish monarchy south of Araya, Venezuela, to protect the saltworks on the Paria peninsula and the pearl farm on the island of Cubagua from the constant raids by the Dutch and English. Commonly referred to as the Araya castle, its construction was finished c. 1625.
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Although the Araya salt were discovered by Pedro Alonso Nino and Cristobal Guerra in February 1500 (two years after the journey of Christopher Columbus in 1498 by the Venezuelan coast) to conduct expeditions of exploration and conquest in the coast of Paria to the Spanish crown,  and the optimal wealth of these salt salt is reviewed by Peter Martyr in 1515  and Fray Bartolome de las Casas in 1552.  Yet it was not until 1601 when the Spanish Empire against the constant incursions of Dutch and English in the Paria Peninsula - with the firm intention of seizing the salt and the pearl farm on the island of Cubagua  and other resources like tar  start a study to build a fortress in Araya. The castle of Araya.
In this regard, in 1604 the governor Suárez Amaya, engineer Bautista Antonelli and Captain Pedro Coronel Suárez visited the place; the situation came to a head when the following year eight Dutch ships engaged the Spanish fleet (Armada) that defeated, destroyed facilities that were built in Araya, besides executing the prisoners, including their commander; what paralyzed for several years Dutch attempts to occupy the peninsula.
In 1620 a new offensive against the Dutch to occupy the peninsula, the governor of Cumana, Diego de Arroyo and Daza King communicates the urgent need to build defenses in the province; this situation was soon confirmed when the Dutch were rejected in 1621, after carrying out two attacks. Therefore, the January 15, 1622 in Madrid was declared the construction of the castle, which coincided with the arrival of several hookers in Dutch Araya to load salt, followed by a fleet of 27 ships that proceeded to build two strong and facilities for extraction. On November 30, 1622, there was one of the most important naval battles of America in the seventeenth century, when Dutch ships attacked Araya 43 in order to stop the construction of the fortress and take a final of the peninsula, being rejected finally on January 13, 1623 by Governor Arroyo and killed the Dutch commander  Inside the castle ruins.
By January 1625, he finally had built the first bastion of what was called Real Fuerza de Santiago Arroyo de Araya, who was also the first and most important strength of the provinces of Venezuela, as we have resaltante data between the first soldiers to occupy the garrison was John Orpin, future founder of Barcelona. Shortly built the fortress, came near the saline Guamache port, which facilitated traffic and castle defense supplies; function take place until 1648, when he made peace with Holland. Subsequently, in 1684   an earthquake seriously damaged the structure, situation worsened in 1725 when a hurricane flooded the salt.
In 1761 the governor of Cumana, Joseph Diguja recommended destruction considering it useless, thus meeting the following year, when it was partially blown, dated January 6, 1762 being useless for defense. Alexander von Humboldt, 1806.
Until near the castle itself come two eminent scientists who visited the Venezuelan territory in the colonial period, the first of which the Swede Pehr Löfling who pioneered conduct proper scientific descriptions of the Venezuelan wildlife and enter the microscope in the country Löfling on April 8, 1754 at 8 years of the destruction of the castle from the ship which came to Venezuela, anchored off the peninsula of Araya, studies the phenomenon of marine bioluminescence characteristic of the area   [ 16]  The second of these eminent scientists is Baron Alexander von Humboldt who his tour of the country and start an expedition to the peninsula of Araya, said expedition begins August 19, 1799 in elle visit the ruins of the castle Araya and conduct studies, astronomical, geographical, geological, zoological and botanical like Löfling studies the phenomena of bioluminescence of the waters of the region    
Moreover, although the Castillo de Araya stopped having defensive functions in the peninsula, salt operated by private remained until in 1872 were acquired by the Venezuelan state under President Antonio Guzmán Blanco. On October 31, 1960 during the government of President Romulo Betancourt, the castle was declared a National Historic Landmark as Official Gazette No. 26395 
The saltworks in the Araya Peninsula were discovered by Pedro Alonso Niño and Cristóbal Guerra on February 1500, two years after Christopher Columbus' first journey through the Venezuelan coasts in 1498, when conducting several expeditions for exploration and conquest in the coast of Paria under order of the Spanish monarchy. In 1601, after constant raids by the Dutch and English, attempting to take over the saltworks on the peninsula and the pearl farm on the island of Cubagua, the Spanish monarchy began preparations to build a fortress in Araya. Governor Suárez Amaya, along with engineer Bautista Antonelli and captain Pedro Suárez Coronel coordinated an expedition to the proposed placement on 1604.
- Varela Marcos, Jesús (1980). Las salinas de Araya y el orígen de la Armada de Barlovento. Academia Nacional de la Historia. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Palacios, Mariantonia (2000). Noticias musicales en los cronistas de la Venezuela de los siglos XVI-XVIII (in Spanish). Fondo Editorial Humanidades. p. 27-30. ISBN 9789806440135.