User space

A modern computer operating system segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space. This separation serves to provide memory protection and hardware protection from malicious or errant software behaviour. Kernel space is reserved for running a privileged operating system kernel, kernel extensions, most device drivers. In contrast, user space is the memory area where some drivers execute; the term userland refers to all code. Userland refers to the various programs and libraries that the operating system uses to interact with the kernel: software that performs input/output, manipulates file system objects, application software, etc; each user space process runs in its own virtual memory space, unless explicitly allowed, cannot access the memory of other processes. This is the basis for memory protection in today's mainstream operating systems, a building block for privilege separation. A separate user mode can be used to build efficient virtual machines – see Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements.

With enough privileges, processes can request the kernel to map part of another process's memory space to its own, as is the case for debuggers. Programs can request shared memory regions with other processes, although other techniques are available to allow inter-process communication; the most common way of implementing a user mode separate from kernel mode involves operating system protection rings. Another approach taken in experimental operating systems is to have a single address space for all software, rely on a programming language's semantics to make sure that arbitrary memory cannot be accessed – applications cannot acquire any references to the objects that they are not allowed to access; this approach has been implemented in JXOS, Unununium as well as Microsoft's Singularity research project. BIOS CPU modes Memory protection Linux Kernel Space Definition Entering User Mode at the Wayback Machine

Arya (Buddhism)

Arya is a term used in Buddhism that can be translated as "noble", "not ordinary", "valuable", "precious", "pure", etc. Arya in the sense of "noble" or "exalted" is used in Buddhist texts to designate a spiritual warrior or hero; the term is used in the following contexts: The Four Noble Truths are called the catvāry ārya satyāni or cattāri ariya saccāni. The Noble Eightfold Path is called the ārya ariya magga. Buddha's Dharma and Vinaya are the ariyassa dhammavinayo. In Buddhist texts, the āryas are those who follow the Buddhist path. Buddhists who have attained one of the four levels of awakening are themselves called ariya puggalas. In the context of the four noble truths, contemporary scholars explain the meaning of ārya as follows: Paul Williams states: "The Aryas are the noble ones, the saints, those who have attained'the fruits of the path','that middle path the Tathagata has comprehended which promotes sight and knowledge, which tends to peace, higher wisdom and Nibbana'. Geshe Tashi Tsering states: "The modifier noble means truth as perceived by arya beings, those beings who have had a direct realization of emptiness or selflessness.

Noble means something seen by arya beings as it is, in this case it is four recognitions—suffering, origin and path. Arya beings see all types of suffering—physical and mental and subtle—exactly as they are, as suffering. For people like us, who do not have the direct realization of emptiness, although we may understand certain levels of physical and mental experiences as suffering, it is impossible for us to see all the levels of suffering for what they are. Instead we may see some things as desirable when in truth they are suffering."Bhikkhu Bodhi explains: The word "noble," or ariya, is used by the Buddha to designate a particular type of person, the type of person which it is the aim of his teaching to create. In the discourses the Buddha classifies human beings into two broad categories. On one side there are the puthujjanas, the worldlings, those belonging to the multitude, whose eyes are still covered with the dust of defilements and delusion. On the other side there are the ariyans, the noble ones, the spiritual elite, who obtain this status not from birth, social station or ecclesiastical authority but from their inward nobility of character.

These two general types are not separated from each other by an impassable chasm, each confined to a sealed compartment. A series of gradations can be discerned rising up from the darkest level of the blind worldling trapped in the dungeon of egotism and self-assertion, through the stage of the virtuous worldling in whom the seeds of wisdom are beginning to sprout, further through the intermediate stages of noble disciples to the perfected individual at the apex of the entire scale of human development; this is the Arahant, the liberated one, who has absorbed the purifying vision of truth so that all his defilements have been extinguished, with them, all liability to suffering. In Chinese Buddhist texts, ārya is translated as 聖; the spiritual character of the use of the term ārya in Buddhist texts can be seen in the Mahavibhasa and in the Yogacarabhumi. The Mahāvibhasa states that only the noble ones realize all four of the four noble truths and that only a noble wisdom understands them fully.

The same text describes the āryas as the ones who "have understood and realized about the suffering," and who "understand things as they are". In another text, the Yogācārabhūmi, the āryas are described as being free from the viparyāsas. Several Buddhist texts show that the ārya dharma was taught to everybody, including the āryas, Devas and Asuras; the Bhaiṣajyavastu describes a story of Buddha teaching his dharma to the Four Heavenly Kings of the four directions. In this story, the guardians of the east and the south are āryajatiya who speak Sanskrit, while the guardians of the west and the north are dasyujatiya who speak Dasyu languages. In order to teach his Dharma, Buddha has to deliver his discourse in Dasyu languages; this story describes Buddha teaching his Dharma to the Dasyus alike. The Karaṇḍavyūha describes how Avalokiteśvara taught the ārya Dharma to the asuras, yakṣas and rakṣasas. In many parts of the South India, if somebody is supposed to be addressed respectably, the prefix "Ayya", derived from "Arya" is used.

South Indians used to call them "Arya", now transformed to "Ayya". This term is used today. Arya Arya

Andrew Kumarage

The Most Rev. Andrew Oliver Kumarage, was the third Bishop of Kurunegala, Sri Lanka. Andrew Kumarage was born on the eldest child in a family of five, his father, was a teacher and his mother, Mary, a nurse, who both worked as lay ministers for the Church of Ceylon. Kumarage was identified by the Bishop of Kurunegala, Lakdasa De Mel, as a prospective leader for the Church and an early candidate for ordination. In 1954 he went to study theology at Bishop’s College, Calcutta in India and after four years of study he received a degree of Bachelor of Divinity. In 1958 Kumarage was subsequently made a Deacon on 1 May that year. On 23 May 1959 he was ordained as a priest in the Diocese of Kurunagala. Kumarage was an inaugural faculty member at the Theological College of Lanka, he was selected as the Chairperson of the Board of Governors at Trinity College and served on the Governing Body of the CMS Schools. Kumarage subsequently trained at the Westhill College of Education in Birmingham, where he completed a Diploma of Religious Education.

Upon his return to Sri Lanka he was made responsible for Religious Education in the Diocese of Kurungala. On 6 May 1984 he was consecrated as the third Bishop of Kurunegala, succeeding Bishop Lakshman Wickremasinghe. After 16 years he retired from the position in 2000. In the years following his retirement he wrote and published a book on the Disciples of Jesus and compiled a Personal Book of Prayers for Clergy, he was appointed as the Chair of the Board of Management of the Ecumenical Institute for Study and Dialogue and remained a member of the EISD Board until his death. Kumarage died on 21 April 2012 at the age of 78. Church of Ceylon Bishop of Kurunegala A Priest's Book of Private Devotions The Church of Ceylon Anglican Church of Ceylon News Worship Resources including a Prayer for Sri Lanka written by Metropolitan Lakdasa de Mel