Nathaniel Méchaly is a French musician and film composer. Méchaly was born in 1972, he studied music at the Conservatoire National de Région de Musique de Marseille. Méchaly began his career as a composer for television shows and commercials by French media conglomerates, he has served as an assistant to French-Lebanese composer Gabriel Yared. He wrote his first score for French-Israeli director Raphaël Nadjari's 2004 film Avanim, he went on to score two more Israeli feature films: Ushpizin, Tehilim directed by Nadjari. The French production company EuropaCorp's music department director became aware of Méchaly's earlier works and referred him to compose French actor Richard Berry's 2005 directorial feature film The Black Box. Afterward, French screenwriter and director Luc Besson, co-founder of EuropaCorp became pleased with Méchaly's work in The Black Box and decided to hire him for future projects. Méchaly's composing credits include Revolver, The Secret and Room of Death, Dorothy Mills and Angélique.
He is best known as the film composer of the Taken trilogy. Méchaly, with Japanese composer Shigeru Umebayashi, won Best Original Film Score at the 33rd Hong Kong Film Awards and Best Composer at the 8th Asian Film Awards for The Grandmaster. Official website Nathaniel Méchaly on IMDb
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
Kiryat Wolfson known as Wolfson Towers, is a high-rise apartment complex in western Jerusalem. Comprising five towers ranging from 14 to 17 stories above-ground, the project was Jerusalem's first high-rise development; the project encountered opposition from both municipal officials and the public at each stage of its design and construction. The complex includes 10,000 square feet of a medical center; the project was financed by the Isaac Wolfson Trust. Kiryat Wolfson is situated on a ridge at the western edge of Sha'arei Hesed, northwest of Rehavia; the towers overlook the Valley of the Cross, the Knesset, the Israel Museum. In the early 1960s, Jerusalem Mayor Mordechai Ish-Shalom sought entrepreneurs to improve Jerusalem's cityscape, he approached Mordechai and Moshe Meir of Israel, business partners with Sir Charles Clore of England and Sir Isaac Wolfson, to invest in the city. With Ish-Shalom's assistance, Mordechai Meir selected a 32 acres plot overlooking the Valley of the Cross for an apartment project.
The land was purchased from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate and the Israel Land Administration for $1.2 million. To overcome the topographical drawbacks of the ridge, the developers applied for taller building rights. To convince the members of the Jerusalem planning committee to agree to the taller-than-normal construction, they hired a world-renowned architect, I. M. Pei, to design it. In 1967 Pei submitted his design; the local planning committee responded with "total opposition", claiming that the towers would "dwarf the Knesset", which faced it across the valley. The committee rejected the design but said it would be prepared to issue permits for towers no higher than 16 stories. Pei resigned from the project. Architect Yitzhak Perlstein, a brother-in-law of Mordechai Meir and architect in Meir's company, was tapped to produce a new design. Perlstein expanded the project to five towers averaging 16 stories each, he added 50 terraced apartments and a shopping center at the base of the buildings to accommodate the topographical contours.
The revised plan raised another round of opposition when it was presented to the Jerusalem district planning committee. Kadish Luz, Speaker of the Knesset, claimed that "from the height of the towers, it would be possible to snipe at the Knesset, to bomb it". Ish-Shalom persuaded Luz to retract his opposition, hinted to the committee that a few small apartments could be set aside for committee members if they would approve the five towers, which they did; the first two towers were constructed between 1970 and 1972. After their completion, a public outcry ensued. Jerusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek appealed to Meir to change the plans for the three remaining towers to a series of low-rise, terraced buildings, but Meir refused. Besides completing the three remaining towers, Meir erected six more high-rises on adjacent land a few years later; the finished towers of Kiryat Wolfson present a 400 metres long, 16-story-high "wall" that obscures the rural landscape of Sha'arei Hesed when viewed from the west.
Kiryat Wolfson comprises 300 apartments and 50 terraced apartments, or "villas". The units are spacious, ranging from 90 square metres for a two-bedroom apartment to 140 square metres for a four-bedroom unit. Apartments sell for over $1 million. A professional management company oversees the cleanliness and security of the grounds, entrance lobbies, underground parking areas; the buildings have Shabbat elevators. The 10,000 square feet commercial center located on the lower levels of one of the buildings features a supermarket, retail shops and the Shalom Mayer Medical Center, which includes an English-speaking family clinic and many specialists. Most residents of the Wolfson Towers are foreign retirees. A 2006 Israel Central Bureau of Statistics survey reported that 22.1% of residents of Kiryat Wolfson were aged 70 or older. Kiryat Wolfson logs the highest median age of any Jerusalem neighborhood, religious or secular, in the annual Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies survey. In 2010 the median age in Kiryat Wolfson was 66, down from 68 in 2009.
Kiryat Wolfson has the lowest housing density in Jerusalem. A JIIS survey reported a housing density of 71 square metres per person in Kiryat Wolfson in 2005, compared to an overall housing density of 19 square metres per person in Jerusalem. International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation World Jewish Congress IsraelThe Embassy of Costa Rica in Israel was located in one of the Wolfson Towers before 1980, from 1982 to 2006, after which it moved to Tel Aviv. Kiryat Wolfson is the name of an immigrant housing project in Acre, financed by the Edith and Isaac Wolfson Trust and inaugurated in 1966. Wolfson Towers on Emporis
A sukkah or succah is a temporary hut constructed for use during the week-long Jewish festival of Sukkot. It is topped with branches and well decorated with autumnal, harvest or Judaic themes; the Book of Vayikra describes it as a symbolic wilderness shelter, commemorating the time God provided for the Israelites in the wilderness they inhabited after they were freed from slavery in Egypt. It is common for Jews to eat and otherwise spend time in the sukkah. In Judaism, Sukkot is considered a joyous occasion and is referred to in Hebrew as Yom Simchateinu or Z'man Simchateinu, the sukkah itself symbolizes the frailty and transience of life and its dependence on God; the halakha requires traditionally sleeping in the sukkah. However, Jews are not expected to remain in the sukkah if they would be uncomfortable there. For this reason, Jews living at northern latitudes will not sleep in the sukkah due to the low temperatures of autumn nights; some Jews in these locales will spend some time in the sukkah eating and relaxing but go indoors to sleep.
When rain falls on the sukkah, one is not required to stay inside. The Mishna in Sukkah 28b compares rain falling on a sukkah to a master who receives a drink from his servant and throws it back in the servant's face; the analogy is that through the rainfall, God is showing displeasure with the performance of the mitzvah by not allowing the Jews to fulfill their obligation of sitting in the sukkah. In Israel and other temperate climates, observant Jews will conduct all their eating and sleeping activities in the sukkah. Many Jews will not drink anything outside the sukkah. Others will eat fruit outside the sukkah. In Israel, it is common practice for hotels, snack shops, outdoor tourist attractions to provide a Kosher sukkah for customers to dine in. All Lubavitcher Hasidim and some Belzer Hasidim do not sleep in the sukkah due to its intrinsic holiness. Though the halakha doesn't obligate one to eat or sleep in the sukkah if it is raining, Lubavitcher Hasidim will still eat there. A popular social activity which involves people visiting each other's Sukkot has become known as "Sukkah hopping".
Food is laid out so. According to halakha, a sukkah is a structure consisting of a roof made of organic material, disconnected from the ground for the purpose of the commandment. A sukkah must have three walls, it should be at least three feet tall, be positioned so that all or part of its roof is open to the sky. Most authorities require its floor area to be at least 16 square cubits. In practice, the walls of a sukkah can be constructed from any material that will withstand a anticipated terrestrial wind. If the material is not rigid and therefore will sway in the wind, the sukkah is not kosher. Accordingly, there is a discussion among contemporary halakhic authorities whether canvas may be used for walls: Some, such as R. Ovadiah Yosef hold that the slightest degree of swaying in the wind will disqualify the sukkah walls, thus canvas cannot realistically be employed. Others, such as the Chazon Ish, permit motion to and fro of less than three handbreadths, thereby facilitating the usage of canvas walls which are anchored at all sides.
The specific details of what constitutes a wall, the minimum and maximum wall heights, whether there can be spaces between the walls and the roof, the exact material required for the s'chach can be found in various exegetical texts. A sukkah can be built on an open porch or balcony. Indeed, many observant Jews who design their home's porch or deck will do so in a fashion that aligns with their sukkah-building needs. Portable sukkot made of a collapsible metal frame and cloth walls have become available for those who have little space, or for those who are traveling; the roof covering, known as s'chach in Hebrew, must consist of something that grew from the earth but is disconnected from it. Palm leaves, bamboo sticks, pine branches and the like can all be used for s'chach, unless they were processed for a different use. There must be enough. However, there must be sufficient gaps between the pieces of s'chach so that rain could come through. Many people hang decorations such as streamers, shiny ornaments, pictures from the interior walls and ceiling beams of a sukkah.
Fresh, dried or plastic fruit—including etrogs and the seven species for which Israel is praised —are popular decorations. Some families line the interior walls with white sheeting, in order to recall the "Clouds of Glory" that surrounded the Jewish nation during their wanderings in the desert; the Chabad custom is not to decorate the sukkah, as the sukkah itself is considered to be an object of beauty. One turn-of-the-century Sabbath Observer decorated a Succah wall with his stack of "Pink Slips" that he had convinced multiple employers to give: "one small favor". According to Jewish law, one must recite the following blessing; the blessing is recited after the blessing made on food, such as on bread or cake: ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך ה
Haredi Judaism is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture. Its members are referred to as Orthodox or ultra-Orthodox in English, although the term "ultra-Orthodox" is considered pejorative by many of its adherents. Haredim regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews, although this claim is contested by other streams. Haredi Judaism is a reaction to societal changes, including emancipation, the Haskalah movement derived from the Enlightenment, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements, etc. In contrast to Modern Orthodox Judaism, which hastened to embrace modernity, the approach of the Haredim was to maintain a steadfast adherence both to Jewish Law and custom by segregating themselves from modern society. However, there are many Haredi communities in which getting a professional degree or establishing a business is encouraged, contact exists between Haredi and non-Haredi Jews, as well as between Haredim and non-Jews.
Haredi communities are found in Israel, North America, Western Europe. Their estimated global population numbers 1.5–1.8 million, due to a virtual absence of interfaith marriage and a high birth rate, their numbers are growing rapidly. Their numbers have been boosted by a substantial number of secular Jews adopting a Haredi lifestyle as part of the Baal teshuva movement; the term most used by outsiders, including most American news organizations, is "ultra-Orthodox" Judaism. Hillel Halkin suggests the origins of the term may date to the 1950s, a period in which Haredi survivors of the Holocaust first began arriving in America. However, Isaac Leeser was described in 1916 as "ultra-Orthodox". Haredi is a Modern Hebrew adjective derived from the Biblical verb hared which appears in the Book of Isaiah and is translated as " trembles" at the word of God; the word connotes an awe-inspired fear and anxiety to perform the will of God, is used to describe staunchly Orthodox Jews and to distinguish them from other Orthodox Jews.
The word Haredi is used in the Jewish diaspora in place of the term "ultra-Orthodox", which many view as inaccurate or offensive, it being seen as a derogatory term suggesting extremism. Others, dispute the characterization of the term as pejorative. Ari L. Goldman, a professor at Columbia University, notes that the term serves a practical purpose to distinguish a specific part of the Orthodox community, is not meant as pejorative. Others, such as Samuel Heilman, criticized terms such as "ultra-Orthodox" and "traditional Orthodox", arguing that they misidentify Haredim as more authentically Orthodox than others, as opposed to adopting customs and practises that reflect their desire to separate from the outside world; the community has sometimes been characterized as "Traditional Orthodox", in contradistinction to the Modern Orthodox, the other major branch of Orthodox Judaism. Haredi Jews use other terms to refer to themselves. Common Yiddish words include Yidn or erlekhe Yidn, Ben Torah and heimish.
In Israel, Haredi Jews are sometimes called by the derogatory slang words dos, that mimics the traditional Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation of the Hebrew word datim, meaning religious, more "blacks", a reference to the black clothes they wear. According to its adherents, the forebears of the contemporary Haredim were the traditionalists of Eastern Europe who fought against modernization. Indeed, adherents see their beliefs as part of an unbroken tradition dating from the revelation at Sinai. However, most historians of Orthodoxy consider Haredi Judaism, in its modern incarnation, to date back no earlier than the start of the 20th century. For centuries, before Jewish emancipation, European Jews were forced to live in ghettos where Jewish culture and religious observance were preserved. Change began in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment when some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the emerging empires and nation states; the influence of the Haskalah movement was evidence.
Supporters of the Haskalah held that Judaism must change in keeping with the social changes around them. Other Jews insisted on strict adherence to halakha. In Germany, the opponents of Reform rallied to Samson Raphael Hirsch, who led a secession from German Jewish communal organizations to form a Orthodox movement with its own network of synagogues and schools, his approach was to apply them in defence of Orthodoxy. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Jews true to traditional values gathered under the banner of Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel. Moses Sofer was opposed to any philosophical, social, or practical change to customary Orthodox practice. Thus, he did not allow any secular studies to be added to the curriculum of his Pressburg Yeshiva. Sofer's student Moshe Schick, together with Sofer's sons Shimon and Samuel Benjamin, took an active role in arguing agai
Schneller Orphanage called the Syrian Orphanage, was a German Protestant orphanage that operated in Jerusalem from 1860 to 1940. It was one of the first structures to be built outside the Old City of Jerusalem – the others being Kerem Avraham, the Bishop Gobat school, Mishkenot Sha’ananim, the Russian Compound – and paved the way for the expansion of Jerusalem in the 19th century; as a philanthropic institution offering academic and vocational training to hundreds of orphaned and abandoned Arab children, it exerted a strong influence on the Arab population of Jerusalem and the Middle East through its graduates, who spread its philosophies of "orderliness and German language" throughout the region. The Syrian Orphanage was born out of South German Pietism, which combined Biblicism and religious individualism; the orphanage provided both academic and vocational training to orphaned boys and girls from Palestine, Egypt, Armenia, Russia and Germany, graduating students skilled in such trades as tailoring, engraving, metalworking, painting, printing and gardening.
In 1903 a school for the blind was opened on the premises, including dormitories and vocational workshops. The orphanage operated its own printing press and bindery. Located on high ground and surrounded by a high stone wall, the orphanage's distinctive onion-dome tower, multistory buildings, decorative facades exuded the power and influence of European Christians in Jerusalem in the mid-19th century. Continuous building and land acquisitions increased the size of the orphanage grounds to nearly 150 acres by World War I. At the beginning of World War II, the British mandatory government deported the German teachers and turned the compound into a closed military camp with the largest ammunition stockpile in the Middle East. On March 17, 1948, the British abandoned the camp and the Etzioni Brigade of the Haganah used it as a base of operations during the 1948 Israeli War of Independence. For the next 60 years the site served as an Israeli army base known as Camp Schneller; the army vacated the premises in 2008.
As of 2011, the compound is being developed for luxury housing. In 2015, remains of a Jewish settlement of the late Second Temple period were discovered at the site. In 2016, archaeologists unearthed a large wine production facility. In the mid-19th century and German Protestant missions were operating in the Old City of Jerusalem. In 1854 Johann Ludwig Schneller, a German Lutheran missionary, came to Jerusalem from Württemberg together with his wife Magdalene Böhringer and six other members of the Brudergemeinde of Saint Chrischona, Switzerland, in order to manage the German Protestant mission. On 11 October 1855 Schneller bought from the people of Lifta, a parcel of land outside Lifta 3 kilometres northwest of Jaffa Gate, with the intention of living among and missionizing to the local Arab population, drew up plans for the construction of a home for his family; the house was constructed from 1855–56. After Schneller and his family took occupancy, the house was attacked several times by Arab robbers from the village of Beit Sorek, forcing them to retreat to the safety of the Old City.
At the end of the decade, after the Turks had erected outposts and dispatched armed guards on horseback to patrol Jaffa Road and his family were able to return to their home. In 1860 Lebanese Druze massacred thousands of Maronite Christians in Syria. Schneller traveled to Beirut with the intention of rescuing battle-orphaned children, he was rebuffed by the local community, which did not trust foreign Protestant missionaries, but managed to bring back nine orphaned boys to Jerusalem in October 1860. He decided to open an orphanage for them in his home, by the end of 1861 had enrolled 41 boys in what became known as the Syrian Orphanage. Over the next four years Schneller expanded his property to 13.6 acres and erected a 3.5 metres -high stone wall around it. Through 1867 Schneller expanded and added new infrastructure, creating a kitchen, dining room, storage cellar and living areas. In 1867 the orphanage began accepting girls. Funds for construction and expansion, together with clothing and blankets, were solicited from Protestant communities in Germany and Switzerland.
Between 1861 and 1885 Schneller collected a total of 550,000 francs in donations. Schneller was determined to give orphaned and abandoned Arab children a complete education, including teaching them a trade. To that end, he employed both academic and vocational teachers from Germany; the latter led professional workshops in tailoring, engraving, metalworking, painting, printing and gardening. Children stayed at the orphanage for up to 10 years, graduating at the age of 18, they came from all parts of Palestine as well as Syria, Ethiopia, Turkey, Russia and Germany. They were of differing religious denominations, including Protestant, Greek Orthodox, Catholic and Maronite. Notwithstanding the ethnic diversity of the student body, the language of instruction was German and Arabic. Most of the teachers employed during the orphanage's first 50 years were German, with some Armenians and Arabs. In 1876 the orphanage had an enrollment of 70 students aged 4 to 17. By 1898 enrollment stood at 200 students.
By the time of Schneller's death on 18 October 1896, 1500
Sukkot translated as Festival of Tabernacles known as Chag HaAsif, the Festival of Ingathering, is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei. During the existence of the Jerusalem Temple, it was one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals on which the Israelites were commanded to perform a pilgrimage to the Temple; the names used in the Torah are Chag HaAsif, translated to "Festival of Ingathering" or "Harvest Festival", Chag HaSukkot, translated to "Festival of Booths". This corresponds to the double significance of Sukkot; the one mentioned in the Book of Exodus is agricultural in nature—"Festival of Ingathering at the year's end" —and marks the end of the harvest time and thus of the agricultural year in the Land of Israel. The more elaborate religious significance from the Book of Leviticus is that of commemorating the Exodus and the dependence of the People of Israel on the will of God; the holiday lasts eight in the diaspora. The first day is a Shabbat-like holiday.
This is followed by intermediate days called Chol Hamoed. The festival is closed with another Shabbat-like holiday called Shemini Atzeret. Shemini Atzeret coincides with the eighth day of Sukkot outside Israel; the Hebrew word sukkōt is the plural of sukkah, "booth" or "tabernacle", a walled structure covered with s'chach. A sukkah is the name of the temporary dwelling in which farmers would live during harvesting, a fact connecting to the agricultural significance of the holiday stressed by the Book of Exodus; as stated in Leviticus, it is intended as a reminiscence of the type of fragile dwellings in which the Israelites dwelt during their 40 years of travel in the desert after the Exodus from slavery in Egypt. Throughout the holiday, meals are eaten inside the sukkah and many people sleep there as well. On each day of the holiday it is mandatory to perform a waving ceremony with the Four Species. In the Book of Leviticus, God told Moses to command the people: "On the first day you shall take the product of hadar trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of leafy trees, willows of the brook", "You shall live in booths seven days.
The origins of Sukkot are both agricultural. Sukkot commemorates the forty-year period during which the children of Israel were wandering in the desert, living in temporary shelters. Agriculturally, Sukkot is a harvest festival and is sometimes referred to as Chag HaAsif, as it celebrates the gathering of the harvest. Sukkot is a seven-day festival, with the first day celebrated as a full festival with special prayer services and holiday meals; the seventh day of Sukkot has a special observance of its own. Outside Israel, the first and last two days are celebrated as full festivals; the intermediate days are known as Chol HaMoed. According to Halakha, some types of work are forbidden during Chol HaMoed. In Israel many businesses are closed during this time. Throughout the week of Sukkot, meals are eaten in the sukkah. If a brit milah or Bar Mitzvah rises during Sukkot, the seudat mitzvah is served in the sukkah; the father of a newborn boy greets guests to his Friday-night Shalom Zachar in the sukkah.
Males awaken there. Every day, a blessing is recited over the Etrog. Keeping of Sukkot is detailed in the Hebrew Bible; the sukkah walls can be constructed of any material. The walls can include the sides of a building or porch; the roof must be of organic material, known as s'chach, such as leafy tree overgrowth, schach mats or palm fronds - plant material, no longer connected with the earth. It is customary to decorate the interior of the sukkah with hanging decorations of the four species as well as with attractive artwork. Prayers during Sukkot include the reading of the Torah every day, reciting the Mussaf service after morning prayers, reciting Hallel, adding special additions to the Amidah and Grace after Meals. In addition, the service includes rituals involving the Four Species; the lulav and etrog are not brought to the synagogue on Shabbat. On each day of the festival, worshippers walk around the synagogue carrying the Four Species while reciting special prayers known as Hoshanot; this takes place either at the end of Mussaf.
This ceremony commemorates the willow ceremony at the Temple in Jerusalem, in which willow branches were piled beside the altar with worshippers parading around the altar reciting prayers. A custom originating with Lurianic Kabbalah is to recite the ushpizin prayer to "invite" one of seven "exalted guests" into the sukk