Sennybridge is a village in the historic county of Brecknockshire, now within the unitary authority area of Powys, situated some 42 miles from Cardiff and 31 miles from Swansea. It lies 9 miles west of Brecon on the A40 trunk road to Llandovery, at the point where the Afon Senni flows into the Usk, it is in the community of Maescar. One of the factors which influenced the growth of Sennybridge was the establishment of the Neath and Brecon Railway which opened a station in the adjoining village of Defynnog in 1867; the promoter and contractor of the railway, John Dickson made a start on constructing a railway north from Sennybridge that would have linked the Neath and Brecon Railway to the Central Wales Line at Llangammarch Wells but work was suspended on his bankruptcy in 1867 and never resumed. The completed earthworks can still be seen in the countryside north of Sennybridge. An extensive area of land to the north of Sennybridge is used by the Ministry of Defence for military training purposes.
Sennybridge Camp and Army Field Training Centre, known as SENTA, is one of the major bases for Infantry Warfare Training by the British Army in the UK. Sennybridge's primary school, which houses a Welsh Language Unit, utilises the old Secondary Modern buildings in the village. Although the school is in Sennybridge, it continued to be named Defynnog Primary School until the 1980s when its name was changed to Sennybridge Primary School. Tom Rees, born in 1895, at Cefnbrynich, near the town, was the first official victim of the "Red Baron"—German flying ace Manfred von Richthofen. Sennybridge is the home village of X Factor 4 runner up Rhydian Roberts. BBC Mid Wales webguide to Sennybridge Photos of Sennybridge and surrounding area on geograph.org.uk
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Llanddeusant is a community in the Black Mountain of the Brecon Beacons National Park in Carmarthenshire, Wales. It is about 5 miles southeast of Llangadog. Llanddeusant lies within the Llansadwrn & Llangadog / Myddfai & Llanddeusant ward, which had a population of 2,412 at census 2001; the boundaries were changed and most of the population was shown under the Llangadog community. The remaining population at the 2011 census was 220 only; the name, meaning "church of two saints", is supposed to originate from the fact that Teilo and Saint David are believed to have met there. The'Old Red Lion Inn' is now a Youth hostel; the village lies below the prominent Black Mountain escarpment and the glacial lake of Llyn y Fan Fach. The lake is the setting of a famous folk tale known as The Lady of the Lake. A low level alternative of the footpath the Beacons Way runs by Llanddeusant. In the west, the route climbs to Carreg Cennen Garn Goch; the route finished at the railway station at Llangadog but now stops at the village of Bethlehem.
The community is bordered by the communities of: Quarter Bach. Map sources for Llanddeusant, Carmarthenshire www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Llanddeusant and surrounding area
Black Mountain (range)
The Black Mountain is a mountain range in South and West Wales, straddling the county boundary between Carmarthenshire and Brecknockshire and forming the westernmost range of the Brecon Beacons National Park. Its highest point is Fan Brycheiniog at 802 metres or 2,631 ft; the Black Mountain forms a part of the Fforest Fawr Geopark. The Black Mountain should not be confused with the Black Mountains in the east of the National Park, nor with a 703 metres summit in the Black Mountains, confusingly called Black Mountain. In his description of a Blak Montayne, the antiquarian John Leland refers to a massif extending between Carmarthen and Monmouth i.e. what is now considered to be the Brecon Beacons in the wider modern sense of that term, thus including the Black Mountains and the intervening high ground of Fforest Fawr. The term "Carmarthen Fans" is sometimes used inaccurately to describe a large part of this massif, whereas it should be restricted to the peaks along the northern escarpment, west of the border with Brecknockshire, beyond, Fan Brycheiniog.
The term thus includes Picws Du and Waun Lefrith, both of which lie to the west of Fan Foel and Fan Brycheiniog. The range stretches from Ammanford in the south-west to Sennybridge in the north-east; the larger part of these hills is formed from Old Red Sandstone, though bands of Carboniferous Limestone and of Twrch Sandstone are important landscape-forming rocks in the south and west of the range owing to their greater resistance to erosion. The most resistant of all are the Plateau beds, which form a protective cap over most of the range, they form steep cliffs just below the edge of the escarpment. The rocks are of the Devonian, in common with their companion peaks of the Brecon Beacons to the east; the area was glaciated during the ice ages and a number of fresh moraines are to be found beneath the spectacular north and east facing sandstone scarps in the north-east of the range below Fan Hir. There are smaller moraines lying below the cliffs of Waun Lefrith and Picws Du; the lakes below the escarpment of Llyn y Fan Fawr and Llyn y Fan Fach are remnants of glacial action, having been created by other moraines blocking drainage by forming deep hollows below the cliffs.
There are many surviving remains prehistoric and Roman, in the area. They include the castras at Mynydd Bach Trecastell and a Roman road crossing Fforest Fawr as Sarn Helen. There are round barrows and several small stone circles. An famous circle occurs on the banks of the River Tawe below Fan Hir, is known as Cerrig Duon, or "black stones". There is a standing stone outside the circle nearby, known as Maen Mawr, with two smaller stones forming a small avenue. There is evidence of human settlements, hut circles and agriculture. Recent excavation of a cairn or round barrow on Fan Foel showed it to be of early Bronze Age in date and there is a similar unexcavated round barrow on Picws Du; the excavation at Fan Foel indicated that the moorland was well-wooded in Bronze Age Britain owing to a warmer climate than at present, with much of the present moorland covered by hazel scrub with oak at lower heights. Most current moorland elsewhere in Britain was in a similar condition, extensive Bronze Age remains have been found there too.
Examples include Dartmoor, Bodmin Moor, much of the upland Pennines and upland Welsh moorland in the centre and north of the country. All such moorlands are tree-less in their upper parts, in their current sub-arctic state; the massif is drained by a number of rivers which flow down the southern dip-slopes of the massif from its main ridge. In contrast the northerly directed streams tend to be steeper; the upper parts of the range are moorland and covered with peat bog, some of, degrading judging by the destroyed sections of peat bank near Llyn y Fan Fawr. The rivers Usk and Tawe have their sources on the northern and eastern flanks of the range whilst the smaller Loughor arises at the western end of the range. Significant right bank tributaries of the Tawe such as the River Giedd and the Afon Twrch, as well as the River Amman, a tributary of the Loughor, are the principal southerly-directed watercourses. Two left-bank tributaries of the River Towy, the River Cennen and the Afon Sawdde, drain the northwestern slopes of the Black Mountain.
The range is noted for its two large glacial lakes which sit directly below the main escarpment, being much larger than the small lake of similar origin which occurs below Pen y Fan. Llyn y Fan Fach is the more westerly of two natural lakes within the Black Mountain, it is enclosed within a rock hollow formed as a result of glacial action during the ice ages. It is about 500 yards long and 200 yards wide, oriented east-west, it is drained by the Afon Sawdde which cuts through a glacial moraine which in part forms a natural dam. A small artificial dam was constructed in the 1930s to divert some of its waters to boost Llanelli's water supply. Llyn y Fan Fach is associated with the Lady of the Lake legend; the lake can be reached by foot from the car park on the water board access road near Llanddeusant, although the road to the car park is poorly signposted, in poor condition for car travel. The lake Llyn y Fan Fawr or lake of the large peak, which lies below Fan Brycheiniog towards the eastern end of the mountain.
It is of similar glacial origin to its westerly neighbour, but is larger. It is about 600 yards long and 200 yards wide, being oriented north south, it is drained by a stream known as
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, which can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Steelhead that live out their lives in fresh water are called rainbow trout. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.
Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.
These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.
However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live m
Fan Brycheiniog is the highest peak at 2633 feet in the Black Mountain region of the Brecon Beacons National Park in southern Wales. There is a trig point at the peak and on the edge of the escarpment, nearby, a stone shelter with an inner seat, it is just inside the county of Powys Brecknockshire, the Welsh name of which gives the mountain its name. It is within the Fforest Fawr Geopark designated in 2005 in recognition of the area's geological heritage; the views of the moorland and open country to the north are spectacular when the weather is clear, reveals the isolation of the range when compared with the more popular Pen y Fan range to the east. The Beacons Way, a waymarked long distance footpath heading southwest from Llanddeusant passes along the summit ridge before descending to the southern end of the lake Llyn y Fan Fawr to the east of the summit, en route to Abercraf in the south-east; the path crosses several peat bogs, but there are stone pavements in many places to protect the walker from the wet conditions.
There is a stone staircase of regular downward gradient across the escarpment to the lake below. It is followed, is dry underfoot when the weather is clear; the path leads on to Waun Lefrith above the smaller glacial lake of Llyn y Fan Fach. Fan Foel and these two peaks form the so-called Carmarthen Van, since they fall within Carmarthenshire, which has its border with Powys at Fan Foel. Fan Brycheiniog is formed from the sandstones and mudstones of the Brownstones Formation of the Old Red Sandstone laid down during the Devonian period, its summit and southern slopes are formed from the hard-wearing sandstones of the overlying Plateau Beds Formation which are of upper/late Devonian age. The cwm below the summit drains into the River Usk to the north; the southern slopes drain into the slopes to the east drain into the River Tawe. The local soils are acidic owing to the large areas of peat bog on the mountain. Vegetation includes tussock grass, cotton grass, bilberry and many types of moss owing to the high rainfall on the summit.
The dip slope merges with the Carboniferous limestone which outcrops in the karst landscape to the south. North-west of the main summit is a prominent peak called Fan Foel, which, at 2,562 feet above sea level, is the highest point in the county of Carmarthenshire, it occurs on a promontory which juts out from the escarpment to form the northernmost part of the cliffs in the range, is a prominent landmark in the entire range. There are extensive views over the moorland below in the panoramic vista revealed at the apex of the escarpment, more extensive than the views from the main peak owing to the exposure to both east and west. There is a clear footpath. There are two associated peaks to the west along Waun Lefrith and Picws Du. There is a Bronze Age burial cairn at the summit of Fan Foel, it was excavated in 2002-4 with the results published in 2014 in Archaeologia Cambrensis; the round barrow was about 16 metres wide and was badly eroded with stones from the structure removed to build a central cairn by passing walkers.
Excavation of the barrow showed that it contained two separate burials, the central one in a stone cist contained the burnt bones of an adult woman and two children carbon dated to about 2000 BC. The ground surface beneath the barrow was carbon dated to about 2300 BC; the cist contained a broken pottery food vessel decorated in the style of the Beaker people as well as a chert knife. The second burial was somewhat and contained a broken collared urn with a rare belt hook, indicating a wealthy person; the remains of meadowsweet flowers were found in the primary cist, may represent a wreath left with the burnt bones. The large capstone which covers the cist has been left in place in the current state of the barrow; the outer kerb stones are still exposed, show how the barrow was built. There is great similarity to the early Bronze Age barrows on the summits of Pen y Fan and Corn Du, which are exposed to show the internal cists and outer kerbstones. Pollen analysis of the buried soil under the barrow showed that a grass-heath vegetation community dominated the summit of Fan Foel prior to construction of the barrow, with hazel scrub on the lower slopes and mixed woodland with oak at lower levels.
Charcoal was found in the buried soil, may indicate burning to improve soil cultivation, or alternatively, local use of fire as a beacon, as suggested by the name of the range of the Brecon Beacons. Both Pen y Fan and Corn Du are visible on the horizon about 15 miles away; the climate was warmer than judging by the evidence of extensive settlement and cultivation of the high land during the British Bronze Age. There are numerous different species of bird in the area, they include the red kite, common buzzard, carrion crow, common raven and skylark to name a few of the most obvious residents; the kestrel and buzzard are distributed, but the raven is restricted to the higher mountains. The large birds can be seen from the summit in good weather soaring on thermals or updrafts from the cwm below, sometimes in groups for buzzards. Game birds include the Red grouse and Pheasant although few shoots are now organised on the mountains; the birds of prey thrive accordingly. The Red Kite survived decades of persecution in this area, has now repopulated much of England and Wales, thanks to campaigns run by the RSPB for example.
List of Scheduled prehistoric Monuments in Carmarthenshire List of Scheduled