Albussac is a French commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Albussacois or AlbussacoisesThe commune has been awarded one flower by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Albussac is located south-west of the Massif Central about 500m above sea level, it has an oceanic climate with temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 30 °C in summer and 9 °C in winter with periods of frequent cold waves in January and February. Albussac has regular snowfalls in winter with 20 cm of snow common; the Roanne has its source in the commune. Albussac is located 20 km east of Brive-la-Gaillarde, it can be accessed by the D921 road which comes from Beynat in the west and continues east through the commune and the village and continues to Saint-Chamant. There is the D87 road branching off the D940 just south of Sainte-Fortunade and coming through the northern border of the commune and south-east to the village.
There is a network of country roads in numerous hamlets and villages. These are: The Ruisseau de la Font Blanc rises in the south of the commune which flows north gathering several tributaries and joining the Ruisseau de Rochette flowing from the west continuing north-east to join the Valeine at the edge of the commune; the Valeine flows from the west north of the village gathering numerous tributaries in the commune and continuing to the east. There is the Ruisseau de Mejeu forming part of the northern border flowing east to join the Souvigne. In the west an unnamed stream flows north-west forming the western border of the commune and joins the Ruisseau de la Grande. List of Successive Mayors of Albussac The Church of Saint Martin is registered as an historical monument; the Church contains two items which are registered as historical objects: A Cross: Christ on the Cross A Bronze Bell The Murel Waterfall A Lime tree called "Sully" is more than 400 years old and one of the last in the Limousin region.
Roche de Vic is a former Gallic oppidum. Yvon Bourdet, writer, he evoked Albussac in his book: In Praise of Patois or the Itinerary of an Occitan Emmanuel Berl and essayist, lived in the town during the Second World War at a place called La Malmaurie with his wife, the singer Mireille Communes of the Corrèze department Cantons of the Corrèze department Arrondissements of the Corrèze department Doctor Albert Massonie: Old Times in Albussac, Tulle, 1990 Albussac on the old National Geographic Institute website Albussac on Lion1906 Albußac on the 1750 Cassini Map Albussac on the INSEE website INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Gare de Bordeaux-Saint-Jean
Bordeaux-Saint-Jean or Bordeaux-Midi is the main railway station in the French city of Bordeaux. It is the southern terminus of the Paris–Bordeaux railway, the western terminus of the Chemins de fer du Midi main line from Toulouse; the current station building opened in 1898. As well as Midi trains, the station accepted trains from the État; the station was built by S Choron. The station building, situated in Bordeaux city centre at the end of the Cours de la Marne, appears from the front as three parts; the middle part separates the arrivals and departures halls. All three parts are parallel to the platforms; the station buildings hide a large trainshed, built by Gustave Eiffel, 56 m wide and covers 17,000 m². Since the arrival of the TGV the station has been renovated and upgraded with modern equipment, but has kept its original features; the great hall has a large map of the network of the Midi on one of the walls and reminds passengers of the origins of the station. The station is the main railway interchange in Aquitaine and links Bordeaux to Paris, Sète, Toulouse Matabiau and Spain.
A long metal viaduct built by Eiffel was used to carry the railway over the River Garonne but this two-track bridge became a bottleneck and a new four-track railway bridge was built next to it. The following services call at Bordeaux-Saint-Jean as of January 2018: High speed services Paris - Bordeaux - Dax - Lourdes - Tarbes High speed services Paris - Bordeaux - Dax - Bayonne - Biarritz - Hendaye High speed services Paris - Bordeaux - Agen - Toulouse High speed services Paris - Bordeaux - Arcachon High speed services Paris - Tours - Poitiers - Angoulême - Bordeaux High speed services Lille - Aéroport CDG - Tours - Bordeaux High speed services Strasbourg - Aéroport CDG - Tours - Bordeaux Intercity services Bordeaux - Toulouse - Montpellier - Marseille Intercity services Bordeaux - Périgueux - Limoges Intercity services Bordeaux - Périgueux - Brive-la-Gaillarde - Ussel Intercity services Nantes - La Rochelle - Bordeaux local service Bordeaux - Libourne - Angoulême local service Bordeaux - Libourne - Mussidan - Périgueux local service Bordeaux - Libourne - Bergerac - Sarlat-la-Canéda local service Bordeaux - Arcachon local service Bordeaux - Lesparre - Le Verdon local service Bordeaux - Morcenx - Mont-de-Marsan local service Bordeaux - Langon - Marmande - Agen local service Bordeaux - Dax - Bayonne - Hendaye local service Bordeaux - Saintes - La Rochelle From January 2nd 2019 for 9 months Line 26 will be under major work rail replacement to became suitable and safe for the new trains, Between Libourne and Le Bussion Via Bergerac will be replaced by coaches.
Bordeaux - Libourne Libourne - Bordeaux Le Buisson De Cadouin - Sarlat Sarlat - Le Buisson Trains on the Angouleme, Perigueux and Brive lines via Libourne are not affected and are operating on their lines as normal. Gare de Bordeaux État Gare de Bordeaux Passerelle Gare de Bordeaux Bastide Gare de Bordeaux Ravezies Gare de Bordeaux Brienne Gare de Bordeaux Bénauge Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean
Affieux is a French commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Affieucoises; the commune has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Affieux is located some 45 km south-east of Limoges. Access to the commune is by road D940 from Treignac in the north passing south through the east of the commune to Le Lonzac; the D20 road comes from Treignac, changing to the D3E3 in the commune and passing through the village before continuing south-west to join the D3 south-west of the commune. The Vézère river forms the western and northern border of the commune with numerous streams criss-crossing the commune and flowing to this river. There is a lake to the south of the town of Affieux. Affieux Les Rivieres La Louche La Gane Le Fargeau Espinet Le Peuch Marcilloux Merciel List of Successive Mayors of Affieux Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: A Chateau at le Peuch The Chateau de Maury A Chateau at Balème A Farmhouse at l'Allouche A Chateau Farmhouses The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: The Chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes A Cemetery Cross A Monumental Cross Monumental Crosses The Parish Church of Saint-Pardoux The Parish Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: Jean Alambre: a writer and composer in French and Occitan Élise Palaudoux:, a designer.
Her designs were shown at Outsider Art in Lausanne. A street in the commune of Cabestany, bears the name "Nataska". Communes of the Corrèze department Affieux on the old IGN website Affieux on Lion1906 Affieux on the 1750 Cassini Map Affieux on the INSEE website INSEE
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Ussel is a railway station in Ussel, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. The station is located on the Brive - Limoges - Ussel railway lines; the line eastwards to Laqueuille and onwards to Clermont Ferrand was closed in 2014 due to the poor state of the track, a lack of agreement between regional authorities as to who would fund repairs. Onward connections are now by bus; the following services call at Ussel: local service Limoges - Ussel local service Brive-la-Gaillarde - Tulle - Ussel Bus services operate from Ussel to Felletin, Montluçon and Bort-les-Orgues. Timetables TER Limousin Timetables TER Auvergne
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona