The Republic of Sakha is a federal Russian republic. It had a population of 958,528 at the 2010 Census ethnic Yakuts and Russians. Comprising half the Far Eastern Federal District, it is the largest subnational governing body by area in the world at 3,083,523 square kilometers, its capital is the city of Yakutsk. It is known for its extreme and severe climate, with the lowest temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere being recorded in Verkhoyansk and Delyankir, regular winter averages being below −35 °C in Yakutsk; the hypercontinental tendencies result in warm summers for much of the republic. Borders: internal: Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Magadan Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai. Water: Arctic Ocean. Highest point: Peak Pobeda, Mus-Khaya Mountain Peak Maximum N->S distance: 2,500 km Maximum E->W distance: 2,000 km Sakha stretches to the Henrietta Island in the far north and is washed by the Laptev and Eastern Siberian Seas of the Arctic Ocean.
These waters, the coldest and iciest of all seas in the Northern Hemisphere, are covered by ice for 9–10 months of the year. New Siberian Islands are a part of the republic's territory. After Nunavut was separated from Canada's Northwest Territories, Sakha became the largest subnational entity in the world, with an area of 3,083,523 square kilometers smaller than the territory of India. Sakha can be divided into three great vegetation belts. About 40% of Sakha lies above the Arctic circle and all of it is covered by permafrost which influences the region's ecology and limits forests in the southern region. Arctic and subarctic tundra define the middle region, where lichen and moss grow as great green carpets and are favorite pastures for reindeer. In the southern part of the tundra belt, scattered stands of dwarf Siberian pine and larch grow along the rivers. Below the tundra is the vast taiga forest region. Larch trees dominate in the north and stands of fir and pine begin to appear in the south.
Taiga forests cover about 47% of Sakha and 90% of the cover is larch. The Sakha Republic is the site of Pleistocene Park, a project directed at recreating Pleistocene tundra grasslands by stimulating the growth of grass with the introduction of animals which thrived in the region during the late Pleistocene — early Holocene period. Sakha Republic is the only subject of Russia. Sakha spans three time zones: Yakutsk Time Zone. Covers the republic's territory to the west of the Lena River as well as the territories of the districts located on both sides of the Lena River. Vladivostok Time Zone. Covers most of the republic's territory located between 140 ° E longitude. Districts: Oymyakonsky, Ust-Yansky, Verkhoyansky. Magadan Time Zone. Covers most of the republic's territory located east of 140°E longitude. Districts: Abyysky, Momsky, Srednekolymsky, Verkhnekolymsky. Navigable Lena River, as it moves northward, includes hundreds of small tributaries located in the Verkhoyansk Range. Other major rivers include: Vilyuy River Lena River tributary Olenyok River Aldan River Lena River tributary Kolyma River Indigirka River Alazeya River Amga River Aldan River tributary Olyokma River Lena River tributary Markha River Vilyuy River tributary Tyung River Vilyuy River tributary Maya River Aldan River tributary Anabar River Yana River Morkoka River Markha River tributary Uchur River Aldan River tributary Linde River Lena River tributary Nyuya River Lena River tributary Selennyakh River Indigirka River tributary There are over 800,000 lakes in the republic.
Major lakes and reservoirs include: Lake Mogotoyevo Lake Nedzheli Lake Nerpichye Vilyuyskoye Reservoir Sakha's greatest mountain range, the Verkhoyansk Range, runs parallel and east of the Lena River, forming a great arc that begins in the Sea of Okhotsk and ends in the Laptev Sea. The Chersky Range has the highest peak in Sakha, Peak Pobeda; the second highest peak is Peak Mus-Khaya reaching 3,011 m. The Stanovoi Range borders Sakha in the south; the Republic's extensive coastline contains a number of peninsulas. The soil contains large reserves of oil, coal, gold, tin and many others. Sakha p
Yerofey Pavlovich Khabarov or Svyatitsky, was a Russian entrepreneur and adventurer, best known for his exploring the Amur river region and his attempts to colonize the area for Russia. For background see Russian-Manchu border conflicts; the major Russian city of Khabarovsk, as well as the small town and railway station Yerofey Pavlovich bear his name. A native of the Veliky Ustyug area in the northern European Russia, Khabarov was a manager for the Stroganovs at the saltworks in Solvychegodsk. In 1625, Khabarov sailed from Tobolsk to Mangazeya. Three years he left the town with his expedition and reached the Kheta River. In 1630, Khabarov took part in a voyage from Mangazeya to Tobolsk. In 1632—1641, he reached the Lena River and founded a farming settlement with saltworks along the Lena at the mouths of the Kuta and Kirenga Rivers. Now his descendants live in Stavropol. In 1649 he became the second Russian to explore the Amur after Vassili Poyarkov. Poyarkov's route up the Aldan River was too difficult to be practical.
At some point Khabarov attempted to reach the Amur via the Vitim River. In 1647 a hunter returned to Yakutsk from the Olyokma River and reported that this might lead to the Amur. In the spring of 1649 Khabarov set off at his own expense up the Olyokma River its branch, the Tungur and portaged to the Shilka River. Reaching the upper Amur in early 1650, he found the country nearly deserted, the cossacks' reputation having preceded them. Having pioneered a good route, he gave his report, he praised the land, warned of the danger of Chinese intervention and suggested a larger expedition with professional soldiers. Given the time delays in communicating with Moscow, the Yakutsk Voivode Frantsbekov decided to act on his own and sent Khabarov back south with a larger force; the voivode gave Khabarov letters from His Majesty Czar Alexis to the Daurian Prince Lavkai of Albazin and "Prince Bogdoi" asking those potentates to submit to the Russian Czar, threatening to send a 6,000-strong army if they don't obey.
Frantsbekov assumed. He was, in fact, the Emperor of China. Khabarov crossed the mountains in the fall of 1650 and this time was met with armed resistance, he built winter quarters at Albazin at the northernmost point of the Amur. After receiving reinforcements in June 1651 he set off down the Amur. By September they reached the mouth of the Sungari. By 29 September they decided to winter there. On 8 October they were attacked by about 1,000 local people, being defeated, appealed to their Manchu overlords. On March 24, 1652, a force of 2,000 Manchus and Koreans armed with artillery arrived from Ninguta and attacked Achansk. Khabarov somehow managed to defeat them. Not knowing how many more Chinese were in the area, on 22 April he withdrew up the Amur. At one point he encountered another force of 6,000 Chinese, but was able to slip around them under cover of fog and darkness. Further upstream he met a force of 117 cossacks, sent as reinforcements, he learned from a captive. On August 1 he reached the mouth of the Zeya.
Here 136 of his men mutinied leaving only 212 loyal. From the Zeya he sent a report to the Yakutsk Voevode matter-of-factly describing the burning of villages, slaughter of natives and the torture of prisoners. From this point the English sources become unclear, they wintered at the Zeya. In the fall of 1653, 150 reinforcements under Dimitry Zinoviev appeared; as a nobleman, Zinoviev demanded full command. When Khabarov refused, he was arrested. Unable to gain the support of Khabarov's men and having no adequate way to deal with the Manchus and part of the force withdrew from the Amur. Onufriy Stepanov was left in charge of those. Khabarov was deprived of his rank and property and was sent on a fifteen-month journey to Moscow to be tried. After a year's delay he was acquitted, he was given a minor noble rank on the condition. He reappears again in the records in 1658 when the Siberian Office ordered that he be placed in irons if he refused to guide a new expedition to the Amur. After that he disappears from the records.
Khabarov charted the Amur river in his "Draft of the Amur river". Albazinians Oros Niru W Bruce Lincoln, The Conquest of a Continent, 1994
Tiksi is an urban locality and the administrative center of Bulunsky District in the Sakha Republic, located on the shore of the Buor-Khaya Gulf of the Laptev Sea, southeast of the delta of the Lena River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 5,063. In August 1901, Russian Arctic ship Zarya headed across the Laptev Sea, searching for the legendary Sannikov Land but was soon blocked by floating drift ice in the New Siberian Islands. During 1902, the attempts to reach Sannikov Land continued. Leaving the ship, Russian Arctic explorer Baron Eduard Toll and three companions vanished forever in November 1902 while traveling away from Bennett Island towards the south on loose ice floes. Zarya was moored close to Brusneva Island in the Tiksi Bay, never to leave the place again; the remaining members of the expedition returned to St. Petersburg, while Captain Fyodor Matisen went to Yakutsk. Modern Tiksi was founded in 1933. During the Cold War, Tiksi saw military construction projects at Tiksi North and Tiksi West airfields.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Tiksi's population has declined markedly and many of its apartment blocks have been abandoned. Despite its rapid population decline, it remains the most northerly settlement with a population of over 5,000. Within the framework of administrative divisions, the urban-type settlement of Tiksi serves as the administrative center of Bulunsky District; as an administrative division, it is incorporated within Bulunsky District as the Settlement of Tiksi. As a municipal division, the Settlement of Tiksi is incorporated within Bulunsky Municipal District as Tiksi Urban Settlement. Tiksi serves as one of the principal ports for accessing the Laptev Sea, it is served by the Tiksi Airport, shut down by the Defense Ministry on October 1, 2012 except for helicopters. Tiksi was connected only by helicopter flights and winter roads; the closure was harshly criticized by Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. Following an agreement between the Defense Ministry and the Government of the Sakha Republic in April 2013, the airfield re-opened to passenger traffic in June 2013.
In December 2013, President Vladimir Putin announced that the Tiksi airport would be "rehabilitated" along with others beyond the Arctic Circle. The Lena River is navigable in the summer months. There is infrequent passenger navigation from Yakutsk. Tiksi has a tundra climate. Winters are similar to those of the inland subarctic regions, have frequent and heavy snowfalls; the short summers are cooler than inland regions and see rainfall on most days. The polar night lasts from November 19 to January 24, the period with continuous daylight, the midnight sun, lasts a bit longer, from May 11 to August 3. Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Bulunsky District. Государственное Собрание Республики Саха. Закон №172-З №351-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом муниципального района муниципальных образований Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1535-З №597-V от 27 ноября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 1 и 2 Закона Республики Саха "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом муниципального района муниципальных образований Республики Саха"».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г.. Государственное Собрание Республики Саха. Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г.. Barr, William. "Baron Eduard von Toll's Last Expedition: The Russian Polar Expedition, 1900–1903". Arctic. 34: 201–224. Doi:10.14430/arctic2524
Siberian Cossacks were Cossacks who settled in the Siberian region of Russia from the end of the 16th century, following Yermak Timofeyevich's conquest of Siberia. In early periods the whole Russian population in Siberia the serving-men, were called Cossacks, but only in the loose sense of being neither land-owners nor peasants. Most of these people came from northwest Russia and had little connection to the Don Cossacks or Zaporozhian Cossacks. Siberian Cossacks participated in military conflicts on behalf of the Tsars, from the 18th century until the revolution of 1917. In 1801 the Siberian Host provided 6,000 cossacks to garrison the settlements and frontier posts of the territory. By 1808 the Host had been organised into ten regiments of mounted cossacks and two companies of horse artillery. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1905 the cossacks of the Siberian Host provided a significant proportion of the 207 squadrons of Russian cavalry involved. There was, criticism of their standard of horsemanship, they were described as "infantry on horseback".
The Siberian Host was disbanded in 1919, following the Russian Revolution, efforts were made by the new Soviet regime to eliminate the cultural and other distinctions of the cossacks at large. While some cossack regiments were reestablished in 1937, these did not include Siberian units. A regiment of the Russian Ground Forces at Borzya in the Eastern Military District has the title "Cossack". In 1802 the Siberian Host were authorized replacing their traditional dress; these were based on the uniforms of the Don Cossacks, although after 1812 a more conventional lancer style dress was adopted. In practice the Siberian cossacks continued to provide their own clothing and equipment, meaning both were variegated. By the 1880s, the distinguishing colour of the Siberian Cossack Host was red. High fleece hats were worn on occasion with red cloth tops. In 1909 khaki government issue tunics and caps were provided but the red facings and green breeches were retained. In recognition of their service during the French Invasion of Russia in 1812, the regiments of the Siberian Host were given the privilege of attaching colored pennants to the lances which remained their primary weapon until World War I
Lake Baikal is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast. Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22–23% of the world's fresh surface water. With 23,615.39 km3 of fresh water, it contains more water than the North American Great Lakes combined. With a maximum depth of 1,642 m, Baikal is the world's deepest lake, it is considered among the world's clearest lakes and is considered the world's oldest lake – at 25–30 million years. It is the seventh-largest lake in the world by surface area. Like Lake Tanganyika, Lake Baikal was formed as an ancient rift valley, having the typical long, crescent shape with a surface area of 31,722 km2. Baikal is home to thousands of species of plants and animals, many of which exist nowhere else in the world; the lake was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. It is home to Buryat tribes who reside on the eastern side of Lake Baikal, raising goats, cattle and horses, where the mean temperature varies from a winter minimum of −19 °C to a summer maximum of 14 °C.
The region to the east of Lake Baikal is referred to as Transbaikalia, the loosely defined region around the lake is sometimes known as Baikalia. Lake Baikal is in a rift valley, created by the Baikal Rift Zone, where the Earth's crust is pulling apart. At 636 km long and 79 km wide, Lake Baikal has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake in Asia, at 31,722 km2, is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642 m; the bottom of the lake is 1,186.5 m below sea level, but below this lies some 7 km of sediment, placing the rift floor some 8–11 km below the surface, the deepest continental rift on Earth. In geological terms, the rift is young and active – it widens about 2 cm per year; the fault zone is seismically active. The lake is divided into three basins: North and South, with depths about 900 m, 1,600 m, 1,400 m, respectively. Fault-controlled accommodation zones rising to depths about 300 m separate the basins; the North and Central basins are separated by Academician Ridge, while the area around the Selenga Delta and the Buguldeika Saddle separates the Central and South basins.
The lake drains into the Angara tributary of the Yenisei. Notable landforms include Cape Ryty on Baikal's northwest coast. Baikal's age is estimated at 25–30 million years, making it the most ancient lake in geological history, it is unique among large, high-latitude lakes, as its sediments have not been scoured by overriding continental ice sheets. Russian, U. S. and Japanese cooperative studies of deep-drilling core sediments in the 1990s provide a detailed record of climatic variation over the past 6.7 million years. Longer and deeper sediment cores are expected in the near future. Lake Baikal is the only confined freshwater lake in which direct and indirect evidence of gas hydrates exists; the lake is surrounded by mountains. The Baikal Mountains on the north shore, the Barguzin Range on the northeastern shore, the taiga are technically protected as a national park, it contains 27 islands. The lake is fed by as many as 330 inflowing rivers; the main ones draining directly into Baikal are the Selenga River, the Barguzin River, the Upper Angara River, the Turka River, the Sarma River, the Snezhnaya River.
It is drained through the Angara River. Baikal is one of the clearest lakes in the world. During the winter in open sections the water transparency can be as much as 30–40 m, but during the summer it is 5–8 m. Baikal is rich in oxygen in deep sections, which separates it from distinctly stratified bodies of water such as Lake Tanganyika and the Black Sea. In Lake Baikal, the water temperature varies depending on location and time of the year. During the winter and spring, the surface freezes for about 4–5 months. On average, the ice reaches a thickness of 0.5 to 1.4 m, but in some places with hummocks, it can be more than 2 m. During this period, the temperature increases with depth in the lake, being coldest near the ice-covered surface at around freezing, reaching about 3.5–3.8 °C at a depth of 200–250 m. After the surface ice breaks up, the surface water is warmed up by the sun, in May–June, the upper 300 m or so becomes homothermic at around 4 °C because of water mixing; the sun continues to heat up the surface layer, at the peak in August can reach up to about 16 °C in the main sections and 20–24 °C in shallow bays in the southern half of the lake.
During this time, the pattern is inverted compared to the winter and spring, as the water temperature falls with increasing depth. As the autumn begins, the surface temperature falls again and a second homothermic period at around 4 °C of the upper circa 300 m occurs in October–November. In the deepest parts of the lake, from about 300 m, the temperature is stable at 3.1–3.4 °C with only minor annual variations. The average surface temperature has risen by
The Baikal–Amur Mainline is a 1,520 mm broad gauge railway line in Russia. Traversing Eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East, the 4,324 km long BAM runs about 610 to 770 km north of and parallel to the Trans-Siberian railway; the BAM was built as a strategic alternative route to the Trans-Siberian Railway along the vulnerable sections close to the border with China. The BAM's costs were estimated at $14 billion, it was built with special, durable tracks since much of it was built over permafrost. Due to the severe terrain, weather and cost Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev described BAM as "the construction project of the century"; the BAM departs from the Trans-Siberian railway at Tayshet crosses the Angara River at Bratsk and the Lena River at Ust-Kut, proceeds past Severobaikalsk at the northern tip of Lake Baikal, past Tynda and Khani, crosses the Amur River at Komsomolsk-on-Amur and reaches the Pacific Ocean at Sovetskaya Gavan. There are 21 tunnels along the line, with a total length of 47 km.
There are more than 4,200 bridges, with a total length of over 400 km. Of the whole route, only the western Tayshet-Taksimo sector of 1,469 km is electrified; the route is single-track, although the reservation is wide enough for double-tracking for its full length, in the case of eventual duplication. The unusual thing about the railway is that it is electrified with a 27.5 kV, 50 Hz catenary minimum height at 6.5 metres above top of the rails to suit double-stacking under the overhead wires on the Russian gauge tracks, which requires rolling stock to be modified for service on the railway. At Tynda the route is crossed by the Amur–Yakutsk Mainline, which runs north to Neryungri and Tommot, with an extension to Yakutsk opened in 2014, now extension to Magadan under construction; the original section of the AYaM connecting the Trans-Siberian at Bamovskaya with the BAM at Tynda is referred to as the "Little BAM". During the winter the passenger trains go from Moscow past Tayshet and Tynda to Neryungri and Tommot and there are a daily trains from Tynda to Komsomolsk-on-Amur and from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to Sovetskaya Gavan on the Pacific Ocean via Vanino.
Travel time from Tayshet to Tynda is 48 hours. Travel time from Tynda to Komsomolsk-on-Amur is 36 hours. Travel time from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to Sovetskaya Gavan is 13 hours; the route of the present-day BAM first came under consideration in the 1880s as an option for the eastern section of the planned Trans-Siberian railway. In the 1930s labor-camp inmates, in particular from the Bamlag camp of the Gulag system, built the section from Tayshet to Bratsk. In a confusing transfer of names, the label BAM applied from 1933 to 1935 to the project to double-track the Trans-Siberian east of Lake Baikal, constructing using forced labor.1945 saw the finalisation of plans for upgrading the BAM for diesel or electric instead of steam traction, for the heavier axle-loads of eight-axle oil tankers to carry new-found oil from Western Siberia. The upgrading required 25 years and 3,000 surveyors and designers, although much of the redesign work took place between 1967 and 1974. In March 1974, Soviet General Secretary Brezhnev proposed that the BAM would be one of the two major projects in the Tenth Five Year Plan.
He famously stated that "BAM will be constructed with clean hands only!" and rejected the suggestion to again use prison labor. A few weeks he challenged the Young Communist League to join in "the construction project of the century". 17th Komsomol congress announced BAM a Komsomol shock construction project, created the central Komsomol headquarters of BAM construction, appointed Dmitry Filippov the chief of the headquarters. By the end of 1974 50,000 young people of the 156,000 young people who applied had moved to the BAM service area. In 1975 and 1976 28 new settlements were inaugurated, 70 new bridges including the Amur and Lena bridges were erected, and while 110 miles of track was laid, the tracklaying rate would have needed to nearly triple to meet the 1983 deadline. In September 1984, a "golden spike" was hammered into place, connecting the eastern and western sections of the BAM; the Western media was not invited to attend this historic event as Soviet officials did not want any comments about the line's operational status.
In reality, only one third of the BAM's track was operational for civilians, due to military reasons. The BAM was again declared complete in 1991. By the total cost to build the line was US$14 billion. Beginning in the mid-1980s, the BAM-project attracted increasing criticism for bad planning. Infrastructure and basic services like running water were not in place when workers arrived. At least 60 boomtowns developed around the route, but nowadays a lot of these places are deserted ghost towns and unemployment in the area is high; the building of the BAM has been criticised for its complete lack of environmental protection. When the Soviet Union was dissolved, numerous mining and industrial projects in the region were cancelled, the BAM was underutilized until the late 1990s, running at a large operational deficit. In 1996, the BAM as a single operational body was dissolved, with the western section from Tayshet to Khani becoming the East Siberian Railway, the rest transferred to the management of the Far Eastern Railway.
A major improvement was the opening of the 15,343-meter Severomuysky Tunnel on December 5, 2003. It is up to 1.5 kilometres deep. Construct
Russian Census (2010)
The Russian Census of 2010 is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Preparations for the census began in 2007 and it took place between October 14 and October 25; the census was scheduled for October 2010, before being rescheduled for late 2013, citing financial reasons, although it was speculated that political motives were influential in the decision. However, in late 2009, Prime Minister Putin announced that the Government of Russia allocated 10.5 billion rubles in order to conduct the census as scheduled. Results showed the population to stand at 142.9 million. Since the previous 2002 census, population had decreased by 2.3 million. According to the 2010 census, urban population is 105.3 million, rural population is 37.5 million. The urbanisation rate is 73.7%. The median age is 38 years; the ethnic composition is dominated by Russians. Demographics of Russia Russian Census 2010 final results Results of 2010 All-Russia population census Official website of the 2010 Census