A recreational vehicle abbreviated as RV, is a motor vehicle or trailer which includes living quarters designed for accommodation. Types of RVs include motorhomes, caravans, fifth-wheel trailers, popup campers and truck campers. Typical amenities of an RV include a kitchen, a bathroom, one or more sleeping facilities. RVs can range from the utilitarian — containing only sleeping quarters and basic cooking facilities — to the luxurious, with features like air conditioning, water heaters and satellite receptors, quartz countertops, for example. RVs can either be self-motorized. Most RVs are single-deck. To allow a more compact size while in transit, larger RVs have expandable sides, called slide-outs, or canopies. An early type of caravan is the horse-drawn covered wagon, which from circa 1745 played a significant part in opening up of the interior of the North American continent to white settlement. By the 1920s the RV was well established in the United States, with RV camping clubs established across the country, despite the unpaved roads and limited camping facilities.
Several companies began manufacturing house trailers. Airstream is one such company; until the 1950s, the RV industry was connected to the mobile home industry because most mobile homes were shorter than 9 metres long, thus transportable. During the 1950s, the RV and mobile home industries became separated and RV manufacturers began building self-contained motorhomes. In Europe, wagons built for accommodation were developed in France around 1810, they were used in Britain by circus performers from the 1820s. Romani people only began living in caravans circa 1850. In Canada, the earliest motorhomes were built on car or truck bodies from about 1910. In Australia, the earliest known motorhome was built in 1929; this motorhome is recognized as being the first motorized caravan in Australia and is located in the Goolwa museum. Although the most common usage of RVs is as temporary accommodation when traveling, some people use an RV as their main residence. In the United States and Canada, travelling south each winter to a warmer climate is referred to as snowbirding.
In Australia, the slang term for a retired person who travels in a recreational vehicle is a "grey nomad". Some owners fit solar panels to the roof of their RV. Usage of RVs is common at rural festivals such as Burning Man; as of 2016, the average age of a person owning a recreational vehicle in the United States was 45, with a three year decrease since 2015. Gallant, JD. How to Select and Buy an RV. RV Consumer Group. ISBN 1890049-9-05. Freeman, Jayne; the Complete RV Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-144339-5. Moeller, Bill; the Complete Book of Boondock RVing: Camping Off the Beaten Path. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-149065-8. "Hitting the Trail 1935 Style". Popular Mechanics: 40–42. July 1935
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area is a recreation and conservation unit of the National Park Service that encompasses the area around Lake Powell and lower Cataract Canyon in Utah and Arizona, covering 1,254,429 acres of desert. The recreation area borders Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park on the north, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument on the west, Vermilion Cliffs National Monument and the northeasternmost reaches of Grand Canyon National Park on the southwest, the Navajo Nation on the southeast; the Glen Canyon NRA was established in 1972 "to provide for public use and enjoyment and to preserve the area's scientific and scenic features." The stated purpose of Glen Canyon NRA is for recreation as well as preservation. As such, the area has been developed for access to Lake Powell via 5 marinas, 4 camping grounds, two small airports, houseboat rental concessions; the southwestern end of Glen Canyon NRA in Arizona can be accessed via U. S. Route 89 and State Route 98.
State Route 95 and State Route 276 lead to the northeastern end of the recreation area in Utah. The current Lake Powell lies above Glen Canyon, flooded by the Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1966. Lake Powell has nearly 2,000 miles of fish-holding shoreline and provides opportunity to fish for largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and striped bass that swim in the midst of the recreation area. Several local marinas provide houseboats, jet skis, fishing gear, related equipment to visitors; the geology of the area is dominated by the Glen Canyon Group, consisting of the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Wingate Sandstone. The entire stratigraphic section included rocks dating from the Cretaceous to Pennsylvanian. With over one million visitors per year, it is inevitable that some will deface the rock faces of the canyon; the Glen Canyon NRA has implemented a voluntourism program wherein volunteers sign up for a five-day houseboat trip to remove graffiti from the canyon walls. Glen Canyon Glen Canyon Dam Glen Canyon Institute Rainbow Bridge National Monument Official National Park Service site Official National Park Service Concessionaire Site Lake Powell Resorts & Marinas, managed by ARAMARK, is an authorized concessioner of the National Park Service, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.
Glen Canyon Natural History Association Page Lake Powell Chamber of Commerce Lake Powell National Golf Course scenic 18-hole golf course Lake Powell Yacht Club to serve the interest of boat owners and water recreational enthusiasts
Fishlake National Forest
Fishlake National Forest is a U. S. National Forest located in south central Utah; the namesake for the forest is the largest freshwater mountain lake in the state. Animals that inhabit this forest are elk, deer, black bears, various species of bats, raccoons, two species of skunks, turkey vultures, two species of eagles, snowshoe hares, various species of woodpeckers, pine marten, four species of hummingbirds, kestrels, various species of owls, minks, three species of fox, bighorn sheep, wild turkeys, mountain goats. Established in 1907, the forest is split into four districts; the forest lies in parts of nine counties. In descending order of forestland area, they are Sevier, Piute, Wayne, Garfield and Sanpete counties. Forest headquarters are located in Richfield with local ranger district offices in Beaver, Fillmore and Richfield; the national forest is the headwaters of a tributary of the East Fork Sevier River. Pando, a clonal quaking aspen stand, according to some sources, is the oldest and largest organism on Earth, is located in the Fremont River Ranger District of the National Forest, 1 mile southwest of Fish Lake on Utah route 25.
Native water rights to Fish Lake were sold to the Fremont Irrigation Company on March 10, 1889 for nine horses, 500 pounds of flour, one steer, a suit of clothes. Ten years President William McKinley created a Forest Reserve which included Fish Lake. List of U. S. national forests Fish Lake, Utah Fishlake Scenic Byway Fishlake National Forest - USDA Forest Service Fishlake National Forest - Utah Office of Tourism
Bryce Canyon National Park
Bryce Canyon National Park is an American national park located in southwestern Utah. The major feature of the park is Bryce Canyon, which despite its name, is not a canyon, but a collection of giant natural amphitheaters along the eastern side of the Paunsaugunt Plateau. Bryce is distinctive due to geological structures called hoodoos, formed by frost weathering and stream erosion of the river and lake bed sedimentary rocks; the red and white colors of the rocks provide spectacular views for park visitors. Bryce Canyon National Park is much smaller, sits at a much higher elevation than nearby Zion National Park; the rim at Bryce varies from 8,000 to 9,000 feet. The Bryce Canyon area was settled by Mormon pioneers in the 1850s and was named after Ebenezer Bryce, who homesteaded in the area in 1874; the area around Bryce Canyon was designated as a national monument by President Warren G. Harding in 1923 and was redesignated as a national park by Congress in 1928; the park covers 35,835 acres and receives fewer visitors than Zion National Park or Grand Canyon National Park due to Bryce's more remote location.
In 2016, Bryce Canyon received 2,365,110 recreational visitors, representing an increase of 35% from the prior year. Bryce Canyon National Park lies within the Colorado Plateau geographic province of North America and straddles the southeastern edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau west of the Paunsaugunt Fault. Park visitors arrive from the plateau part of the park and look over the plateau's edge toward a valley containing the fault and the Paria River just beyond it; the edge of the Kaiparowits Plateau bounds the opposite side of the valley. Bryce Canyon was not formed from erosion initiated from a central stream, meaning it technically is not a canyon. Instead headward erosion has excavated large amphitheater-shaped features in the Cenozoic-aged rocks of the Paunsaugunt Plateau; this erosion exposed colorful pinnacles called hoodoos that are up to 200 feet high. A series of amphitheaters extends more than 20 miles north-to-south within the park; the largest is Bryce Amphitheater, 12 miles long, 3 miles wide and 800 feet deep.
A nearby example of amphitheaters with hoodoos in the same formation but at a higher elevation, is in Cedar Breaks National Monument, 25 miles to the west on the Markagunt Plateau. Rainbow Point, the highest part of the park at 9,105 feet, is at the end of the 18-mile scenic drive. From there, Aquarius Plateau, Bryce Amphitheater, the Henry Mountains, the Vermilion Cliffs and the White Cliffs can be seen. Yellow Creek, where it exits the park in the north-east section, is the lowest part of the park at 6,620 feet; the national park is located in southwestern Utah about 50 miles northeast of and 1,000 feet higher than Zion National Park. The weather in Bryce Canyon is therefore cooler, the park receives more precipitation: a total of 15 to 18 inches per year. Yearly temperatures vary from an average minimum of 9 °F in January to an average maximum of 83 °F in July, but extreme temperatures can range from −30 to 97 °F; the record high temperature in the park was 98 °F on July 14, 2002. The record low temperature was −28 °F on December 10, 1972.
Little is known about early human habitation in the Bryce Canyon area. Archaeological surveys of Bryce Canyon National Park and the Paunsaugunt Plateau show that people have been in the area for at least 10,000 years. Basketmaker Anasazi artifacts several thousand years old have been found south of the park. Other artifacts from the Pueblo-period Anasazi and the Fremont culture have been found; the Paiute Indians moved into the surrounding valleys and plateaus in the area around the same time that the other cultures left. These Native Americans hunted and gathered for most of their food, but supplemented their diet with some cultivated products; the Paiute in the area developed a mythology surrounding the hoodoos in Bryce Canyon. They believed. At least one older Paiute said his culture called the hoodoos Anka-ku-was-a-wits, Paiute for "red painted faces", it was not until the late 18th and the early 19th century that the first European Americans explored the remote and hard-to-reach area. Mormon scouts visited the area in the 1850s to gauge its potential for agricultural development, use for grazing, settlement.
The first major scientific expedition to the area was led by U. S. Army Major John Wesley Powell in 1872. Powell, along with a team of mapmakers and geologists, surveyed the Sevier and Virgin River area as part of a larger survey of the Colorado Plateaus, his mapmakers kept many of the Paiute place names. Small groups of Mormon pioneers followed and attempted to settle east of Bryce Canyon along the Paria River. In 1873, the Kanarra Cattle Company started to use the area for cattle grazing; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints sent Scottish immigrant Ebenezer Bryce and his wife Mary to settle land in the Paria Valley because they thought his carpentry skills would be useful in the area. The Bryce family chose to live right below Bryce Amphitheater—the main collection of hoodoos in the park. Bryce grazed his cattle inside what are now park borders, reputedly thought that the amphitheaters were a "helluva place to lose a cow." He built a road to the plateau to retrieve firewood and timber, a canal to irrigate his crops and w
Jurassic National Monument
Jurassic National Monument, at the site of the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, is well known for containing the densest concentration of Jurassic dinosaur fossils found, is a paleontological site located near Cleveland, Utah, in the San Rafael Swell, a part of the geological layers known as the Morrison Formation. Well over 15,000 bones have been excavated from this Jurassic excavation site and there are many thousands more awaiting excavation and study, it was designated a National Natural Landmark in October 1965. The John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act, signed into law March 12, 2019, named it as a national monument. All of these bones, belonging to different species, are found disarticulated and indistinctly mixed together, it has been hypothesised that this strong concentration of mixed fossilised bones is due to a "predator trap", but any kind of definitive scientific consensus hasn't been reached yet and debates still continue to the present day. The visitor center is administered by the Bureau of Land Management.
There is a skeleton reconstruction of an adult Allosaurus on display in the visitor center, along with many other exhibits. A renovated and expanded quarry visitor center was dedicated on April 28, 2007; the visitor center is open seasonally with variable hours. The quarry was found by sheepherders and cattlemen as they drove their animals through the area during the late 19th century. In 1927, the Department of Geology at the University of Utah, under the direction of Chairman F. F. Hintze, visited the area and collected 800 bones. In 1939-41 a field party of Princeton University, led by William Lee Stokes, came on site to extensively dig up specimens; because of the proximity to Cleveland and because these expeditions were financed by Malcolm Lloyd, the site was known as the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry. In three summers, the 1939-1941 Princeton expeditions collected 1,200 bones. A part of these bones was sent to Princeton and the bones were sorted to mount a complete composite skeleton of Allosaurus, but World World II broke out and the skeleton was not mounted and exhibited in the University until February 1961.
This Allosaurus skeleton, still nowadays on display at Guyot Hall, in the campus of New Jersey, is most the first Allosaurus skeletal mount obtained from the Quarry. In the meantime, because excavations had been interrupted by the war, work started again in 1960, when young paleontologist James Henry Madsen Jr. was hired within the University of Utah to assist William Lee Stokes with the excavations. As of 1960 Stokes and Madsen founded the "University of Utah Cooperative Dinosaur Project", with funds of the University of Utah; this project granted casts or specimens of dinosaurs to museums and institutions from the USA but from countries all around the world, in exchange of financial and excavation assistance. The project continued until 1976. Madsen managed to continue excavating the Quarry by means of a private company he founded the same year, intended to sell casts of dinosaur skeletons to museums and private buyers. Before that, in 1974, a new dinosaur had been described by Madsen Assistant Research Professor of Geology and Geophysics in the University of Utah.
He named it Stokesosaurus clevelandi, honouring professor William Lee Stokes. In 1976, another new dinosaur was described from fossils found in the quarry by Madsen, he named. In 1987, Brigham Young University paleontologists excavated a fossil dinosaur egg, at the time the oldest such egg found. Over the years, excavations led by the University of Utah and the Natural History Museum of Utah have resulted in the collection of more than 12,000 fossil bones from the quarry. While most of the original fossils are housed at the Natural History Museum of Utah, many skeletons reproduced from Cleveland-Lloyd dinosaur remains are now on exhibit in more than 65 museums worldwide. Original specimens from the quarry remain on public exhibit in Utah at the Natural History Museum of Utah in Salt Lake City, the Utah State University Eastern Prehistoric Museum in Price and the Earth Science Museum at Brigham Young University in Provo; the U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management opened a visitor center at the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry in 1968.
This was the first-ever BLM visitor center. On April 28, 2007 a new, larger facility was dedicated; the new visitor center generates its own electricity from rooftop solar panels. The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry of east central Utah has produced one of the most prolific dinosaurs bone assemblages in the Upper Jurassic beds of North America; the quarry is part of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. The fossil deposit, interpreted to be a possible predator trap, consists of a calcareous smectitic mudstone which accumulated on the floodplain of an anastomosing river system. An anastomosing river system consists of multiple interconnected channels confined by prominent levees separated by interchannel topographic lows; the depositional environment of the quarry mudstone was an interchannel seasonal accumulation of clay nested in a topographic low between channel levees called a floodpond. Dinosaurs became entrapped in the cohesive and adhesive mud as they drank and hunted near the floodpond.
The preserved fauna consists of all dinosaurs with the majority being carnivorous dinosaurs including Allosaurus, Ceratosaurus, Stokesosauru