Yayoi Kusama is a Japanese contemporary artist who works in sculpture and installation, but is active in painting, film, poetry and other arts. Her work is based in conceptual art and shows some attributes of feminism, surrealism, Art Brut, pop art, abstract expressionism, is infused with autobiographical and sexual content, she has been acknowledged as one of the most important living artists to come out of Japan. Raised in Matsumoto, Kusama trained at the Kyoto School of Arts and Crafts in a traditional Japanese painting style called nihonga. Kusama was inspired, however, by American Abstract Impressionism, she moved to New York City in 1958 and was a part of the New York avant-garde scene throughout the 1960s in the pop-art movement. Embracing the rise of the hippie counterculture of the late 1960s, she came to public attention when she organized a series of happenings in which naked participants were painted with brightly colored polka dots. Since the 1970s, Kusama has continued to create art, most notably installations in various museums around the world.
Yayoi Kusama was born on 22 March 1929 in Nagano. She was born into an affluent family of merchants who owned a plant nursery and seed farm, Kusama started creating art at an early age and began writing poetry at age 18, her mother was physically abusive, Kusama remembers her father as "the type who would play around, who would womanize a lot". The artist says that her mother would send her to spy on her father's extramarital affairs, which instilled within her a lifelong contempt for sexuality the male body and the phallus: "I don’t like sex. I had an obsession with sex; when I was a child, my father had lovers and I experienced seeing him. My mother sent me to spy on him. I didn’t want to have sex with anyone for years The sexual obsession and fear of sex sit side by side in me."When she was ten years old, she began to experience vivid hallucinations which she has described as "flashes of light, auras, or dense fields of dots". These hallucinations included flowers that spoke to Kusama, patterns in fabric that she stared at coming to life and engulfing or expunging her, a process which she has carried into her artistic career and which she calls "self-obliteration".
She was fascinated by the smooth white stones covering the bed of the river near her family home, which she cites as another of the seminal influences behind her lasting fixation on dots. When Kusama was 13, she was sent to work in a military factory where she was tasked with sewing and fabricating parachutes for the Japanese army embroiled in World War II. Discussing her time in the factory, she says that she spent her adolescence "in closed darkness" although she could always hear the air-raid alerts going off and see American B-29s flying overhead in broad daylight, her childhood was influenced by the events of the war, she claims that it was during this period that she began to value notions of personal and creative freedom. She went on to study Nihonga painting at the Kyoto Municipal School of Arts and Crafts in 1948. Frustrated with this distinctly Japanese style, she became interested in the European and American avant-garde, staging several solo exhibitions of her paintings in Matsumoto and Tokyo in the 1950s.
By 1950, Kusama was depicting abstracted natural forms in watercolor and oil on paper. She began covering surfaces—walls, floors and household objects, naked assistants—with the polka dots that would become a trademark of her work; the vast fields of polka dots, or "infinity nets", as she called them, were taken directly from her hallucinations. The earliest recorded work in which she incorporated these dots was a drawing in 1939 at age 10, in which the image of a Japanese woman in a kimono, presumed to be the artist's mother, is covered and obliterated by spots, her first series of large-scale, sometimes more than 30 ft-long canvas paintings, Infinity Nets, were covered in a sequence of nets and dots that alluded to hallucinatory visions. On her 1954 painting Flower Kusama has said: One day I was looking at the red flower patterns of the tablecloth on a table, when I looked up I saw the same pattern covering the ceiling, the windows, the walls, all over the room, my body and the universe. I felt as if I had begun to self-obliterate, to revolve in the infinity of endless time and the absoluteness of space, be reduced to nothingness.
As I realized it was happening and not just in my imagination, I was frightened. I knew. I ran up the stairs; the steps below me began to fall apart and I fell down the stairs straining my ankle. After living in Tokyo and France, Kusama left Japan at the age of 27 for the United States, she has stated that she began to consider Japanese society "too small, too servile, too feudalistic, too scornful of women." In 1957, she moved to Seattle. She stayed there for a year before moving on to New York City, following correspondence with Georgia O'Keeffe in which she professed an interest in joining the limelight of the city, sought O'Keeffe's advice. During her time in the US, she established her reputation as a leader in the avant-garde movement and received praise for her work from the anarchist art critic Herbert Read. In 1961 she moved her studio into the same building as sculptor Eva Hesse. In the early 1960s Kusama began to cover items such as ladders and chairs with
Nancy Holt was an American artist most known for her public sculpture, installation art and land art. Throughout her career, Holt produced works in other media, including film and photography, wrote books and articles about art. Nancy Holt was born in Massachusetts. An only child, she spent a great deal of her childhood in New Jersey, where her father worked as a chemical engineer and her mother was a homemaker, she studied biology at Tufts University in Massachusetts. Three years after graduating, she married fellow environmental artist Robert Smithson in 1963. In 2017 the Holt/Smithson Foundation was founded to continue the creative and investigative spirit of the artists Nancy Holt and Robert Smithson, over their careers, developed innovative methods of exploring our relationship with the planet, expanded the limits of artistic practice. Through public service, the Foundation engages in programs that increase awareness of both artists’ creative legacies, continuing the transformation they brought to the world of art and ideas.
Holt began her artistic career as a video artist. In 1974, she collaborated with fellow artist Richard Serra on Boomerang, in which he videotaped her listening to her own voice echoing back into a pair of headphones after a time lag, as she described the disorienting experience, her involvement with photography and camera optics are thought to have influenced her earthworks, which are “literally seeing devices, fixed points for tracking the positions of the sun and stars.” Today Holt is most known for her large-scale environmental works, Sun Tunnels and Dark Star Park. However, she created time-specific environmental works in public places all over the world. Holt contributed to various publications, which have featured both her written articles and photographs, she authored several books. Holt received five National Endowment for the Arts Fellowships, New York Creative Artist Fellowships, a Guggenheim Fellowship. Holt along with Beverly Pepper was a recipient of the International Sculpture Center's 2013 Lifetime Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award.
From 1995 to 2013, she resided in Galisteo, New Mexico. In 2008 Holt helped rally opposition to a plan for exploratory drilling near the site of Smithson's Spiral Jetty at the Great Salt Lake in rural Utah. After Smithson's death, Holt never remarried. Holt died in New York City on February 8, 2014 at the age of 75. Holt is associated with earthworks or land art. Land art emerged in the 1960s, coinciding with a growing ecology movement in the United States, which asked people to become more aware of the negative impact they can have on the natural environment. Land art changed. Unlike much of the commercialized art during this time period, land art could not be bought or sold on the art market. Thus, it shifted the perspective of. Land art was created in remote, uninhabited regions of the country the Southwest; some attribute this popular location for land art to artists’ need to escape the turmoil in the United States during the 1960s and 70s by turning to the open, uncorrupted land of the West.
Holt believed this artistic movement came about in the United States due to the vastness of the American landscape. As a result of earthworks not being accessible to the public, documentation in photographs, drawings became imperative to their being seen; the first exhibit of contemporary land art was at the Virginia Dwan Gallery in New York in 1968. Other earth artists who emerged during this period include Robert Smithson, James Turrell, Walter De Maria, Michael Heizer, Dennis Oppenheim and Peter Hutchinson. Holt's works of art deal with issues of how people perceive time and space; the various monumental works she created complement their environment. Works such as Hydra’s Head do not sit in their environments, but are made of the land, stand on it and are created to be harmonious with the land; the pools in this work are at the top of concrete tubes imbedded in the ground. The land at the site surrounds these pools, they reflect the natural landscape. Holt thought about human scale in relation to the works she created.
People can interact with the works and become more aware of space, of their own visual perception, of the order of the universe. Holt's works incorporate the passage of time and function to keep time. For example, Annual Ring functions so that when sunlight falls through the hole in the dome and fits into a ring on the ground, it is solar noon on the summer solstice. At different times, the sun falls differently on the work and other holes in the dome align with celestial occurrences. Holt has said that she is concerned with making art that not only makes an impact visually, but is functional and necessary in society, as seen in works like Sky Mound, which serves a dual function as a sculpture and park and it generates alternative energy. In her works, Holt created an intimate connection to nature and the stars, saying, "I feel that the need to look at the sky-at the moon and the stars-is basic, it is inside all of us. So when I say my work is an exteriorization of my own inner reality, I mean I am giving back to people through art what they have in them."
Collaboration with architects, construction crews and the like is an essential part of creating land art. Solar Rotary is a work located on the campus of the University of South Florida in Florida; the work, consists o
Thomas Gainsborough FRSA was an English portrait and landscape painter and printmaker. Along with his bitter rival Sir Joshua Reynolds, he is considered one of the most important British portrait artists of the second half of the 18th century, he painted and the works of his maturity are characterised by a light palette and easy strokes. Despite being a prolific portrait painter, Gainsborough gained greater satisfaction from his landscapes, he is credited as the originator of the 18th-century British landscape school. Gainsborough was a founding member of the Royal Academy, he was born in Sudbury, the youngest son of John Gainsborough, a weaver and maker of woolen goods, his wife, the sister of the Reverend Humphry Burroughs. One of Gainsborough's brothers, had a faculty for mechanics and was said to have invented the method of condensing steam in a separate vessel, of great service to James Watt; the artist spent his childhood at. He resided there, following the death of his father in 1748 and before his move to Ipswich.
The original building still is now a house dedicated to his life and art. When he was still a boy he impressed his father with his drawing and painting skills, he certainly had painted heads and small landscapes by the time he was ten years old, including a miniature self-portrait. Gainsborough was allowed to leave home in 1740 to study art in London, where he trained under engraver Hubert Gravelot but became associated with William Hogarth and his school, he assisted Francis Hayman in the decoration of the supper boxes at Vauxhall Gardens, contributed to the decoration of what is now the Thomas Coram Foundation for Children. In 1746, Gainsborough married Margaret Burr, an illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Beaufort, who settled a £200 annuity on them; the artist's work mostly consisting of landscape paintings, was not selling well. He returned to Sudbury in 1748–1749 and concentrated on painting portraits. In 1752, he and his family, now including two daughters, moved to Ipswich. Commissions for personal portraits increased, but his clientele included local merchants and squires.
He had to borrow against his wife's annuity. Towards the end of his time in Ipswich, he painted a self-portrait, now in the permanent collection of the National Portrait Gallery, London; the artist's family and self-portrait In 1759, Gainsborough and his family moved to Bath, living at number 17 The Circus. There, he studied portraits by van Dyck and was able to attract a fashionable clientele. In 1761, he began to send work to the Society of Arts exhibition in London, he selected portraits of notorious clients in order to attract attention. The exhibitions helped him acquire a national reputation, he was invited to become a founding member of the Royal Academy in 1769, his relationship with the academy was not an easy one and he stopped exhibiting his paintings in 1773. In 1774, Gainsborough and his family moved to London to live in Pall Mall. A commemorative blue plaque was put on the house in 1951. In 1777, he again began to exhibit his paintings at the Royal Academy, including portraits of contemporary celebrities, such as the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland.
Exhibitions of his work continued for the next six years. About this time, Gainsborough began experimenting with printmaking using the then-novel techniques of aquatint and soft-ground etching. During the 1770s and 1780s Gainsborough developed a type of portrait in which he integrated the sitter into the landscape. An example of this is his portrait of Frances Browne, Mrs John Douglas which can be seen at Waddesdon Manor; the sitter has withdrawn to a secluded and overgrown corner of a garden to read a letter, her pose recalling the traditional representation of Melancholy. Gainsborough emphasised the relationship between Mrs Douglas and her environment by painting the clouds behind her and the drapery billowing across her lap with similar silvery mauves and fluid brushstrokes; this portrait was included in his first private exhibition at Schomberg House in 1784. In 1776, Gainsborough painted a portrait of Johann Christian Bach, the youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach's former teacher Padre Martini of Bologna, was assembling a collection of portraits of musicians, Bach asked Gainsborough to paint his portrait as part of this collection.
The portrait now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery in London. In 1780, he painted the portraits of King George III and his queen and afterwards received many royal commissions; this gave him some influence with the Academy and allowed him to dictate the manner in which he wished his work to be exhibited. However, in 1783, he removed his paintings from the forthcoming exhibition and transferred them to Schomberg House. In 1784, royal painter Allan Ramsay died and the King was obliged to give the job to Gainsborough's rival and Academy president, Joshua Reynolds. Gainsborough remained the Royal Family's favorite painter, however. In his years, Gainsborough painted simple, ordinary landscapes. With Richard Wilson, he was one of the originators of the eighteenth-century British landscape school. William Jackson in his contemporary essays said of him "to his intimate friends he was sincere and honest
Oscar-Claude Monet was a French painter, a founder of French Impressionist painting and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature as applied to plein air landscape painting. The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant, exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon de Paris. Monet's ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From 1883, Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property and began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become the subjects of his best-known works. In 1899, he began painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a central feature and in the series of large-scale paintings, to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life.
Claude Monet was born on 14 November 1840 on the fifth floor of 45 rue Laffitte, in the 9th arrondissement of Paris. He was the second son of Claude Adolphe Monet and Louise Justine Aubrée Monet, both of them second-generation Parisians. On 20 May 1841, he was baptized in the local parish church, Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, as Oscar-Claude, but his parents called him Oscar. Despite being baptized Catholic, Monet became an atheist. In 1845, his family moved to Le Havre in Normandy, his father wanted him to go into the family's ship-chandling and grocery business, but Monet wanted to become an artist. His mother was a singer, supported Monet's desire for a career in art. On 1 April 1851, Monet entered Le Havre secondary school of the arts. Locals knew him well for his charcoal caricatures. Monet undertook his first drawing lessons from Jacques-François Ochard, a former student of Jacques-Louis David. On the beaches of Normandy around 1856 he met fellow artist Eugène Boudin, who became his mentor and taught him to use oil paints.
Boudin taught Monet "en plein air" techniques for painting. Both received the influence of Johan Barthold Jongkind. On 28 January 1857, his mother died. At the age of sixteen, he left school and went to live with his widowed, childless aunt, Marie-Jeanne Lecadre; when Monet traveled to Paris to visit the Louvre, he witnessed painters copying from the old masters. Having brought his paints and other tools with him, he would instead go and sit by a window and paint what he saw. Monet was in Paris for several years and met other young painters, including Édouard Manet and others who would become friends and fellow Impressionists. After drawing a low ballot number in March 1861, Monet was drafted into the First Regiment of African Light Cavalry in Algeria for a seven-year period of military service, his prosperous father could have purchased Monet's exemption from conscription but declined to do so when his son refused to give up painting. While in Algeria Monet did only a few sketches of casbah scenes, a single landscape, several portraits of officers, all of which have been lost.
In a Le Temps interview of 1900 however he commented that the light and vivid colours of North Africa "contained the germ of my future researches". After about a year of garrison duty in Algiers, Monet contracted typhoid fever and went absent without leave. Following convalescence, Monet's aunt intervened to remove him from the army if he agreed to complete a course at an art school, it is possible that the Dutch painter Johan Barthold Jongkind, whom Monet knew, may have prompted his aunt on this matter. Disillusioned with the traditional art taught at art schools, in 1862 Monet became a student of Charles Gleyre in Paris, where he met Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Frédéric Bazille and Alfred Sisley. Together they shared new approaches to art, painting the effects of light en plein air with broken colour and rapid brushstrokes, in what came to be known as Impressionism. In January 1865 Monet was working on a version of Le déjeuner sur l'herbe, aiming to present it for hanging at the Salon, which had rejected Manet's Le déjeuner sur l'herbe two years earlier.
Monet's painting was large and could not be completed in time. Monet submitted instead a painting of Camille or The Woman in the Green Dress, one of many works using his future wife, Camille Doncieux, as his model. Both this painting and a small landscape were hung; the following year Monet used Camille for his model in Women in the Garden, On the Bank of the Seine, Bennecourt in 1868. Camille became pregnant and gave birth to their first child, Jean, in 1867. Monet and Camille married on 28 June 1870, just before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, after their excursion to London and Zaandam, they moved to Argenteuil, in December 1871. During this time Monet painted various works of modern life, he and Camille lived in poverty for most of this period. Following the successful exhibition of some maritime paintings, the winning of a silver medal at Le Havre, Monet's paintings were seized by creditors, from whom they were bought back by a shipping merchant, a patron of Boudin. From the late 1860s, Monet and other like-minded artists met with rejection from the conservative Académie des Beaux-Arts, which held its annual exhibition at the Salon de Paris.
During the latter part of 1873, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley organized the Société anonyme des
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching. He is a pivotal figure in landscape painting and his vast output references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations of Impressionism. Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was born in Paris on July 16, 1796, in a house at 125 Rue du Bac, now demolished, his family were bourgeois people—his father was a wigmaker and his mother a milliner—and unlike the experience of some of his artistic colleagues, throughout his life he never felt the want of money, as his parents made good investments and ran their businesses well. After his parents married, they bought the millinery shop where his mother had worked and his father gave up his career as a wigmaker to run the business side of the shop; the store was a famous destination for fashionable Parisians and earned the family an excellent income. Corot was the second of three children born to the family, who lived above their shop during those years.
Corot received a scholarship to study at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen, but left after having scholastic difficulties and entered a boarding school. He "was not a brilliant student, throughout his entire school career he did not get a single nomination for a prize, not for the drawing classes." Unlike many masters who demonstrated early talent and inclinations toward art, before 1815 Corot showed no such interest. During those years he lived with the Sennegon family, whose patriarch was a friend of Corot's father and who spent much time with young Corot on nature walks, it was in this region. At nineteen, Corot was a "big child and awkward, he blushed. Before the beautiful ladies who frequented his mother's salon, he was embarrassed and fled like a wild thing... He was an affectionate and well-behaved son, who adored his mother and trembled when his father spoke." When Corot's parents moved into a new residence in 1817, the 21-year-old Corot moved into the dormer-windowed room on the third floor, which became his first studio as well.
With his father's help Corot apprenticed to a draper, but he hated commercial life and despised what he called "business tricks", yet he faithfully remained in the trade until he was 26, when his father consented to his adopting the profession of art. Corot stated, "I told my father that business and I were incompatible, that I was getting a divorce." The business experience proved beneficial, however, by helping him develop an aesthetic sense through his exposure to the colors and textures of the fabrics. Out of boredom, he turned to oil painting around 1821 and began with landscapes. Starting in 1822 after the death of his sister, Corot began receiving a yearly allowance of 1500 francs which adequately financed his new career, studio and travel for the rest of his life, he rented a studio on quai Voltaire. During the period when Corot acquired the means to devote himself to art, landscape painting was on the upswing and divided into two camps: one―historical landscape by Neoclassicists in Southern Europe representing idealized views of real and fancied sites peopled with ancient and biblical figures.
In both approaches, landscape artists would begin with outdoor sketching and preliminary painting, with finishing work done indoors. Influential upon French landscape artists in the early 19th century was the work of Englishmen John Constable and J. M. W. Turner, who reinforced the trend in favor of Realism and away from Neoclassicism. For a short period between 1821 and 1822, Corot studied with Achille Etna Michallon, a landscape painter of Corot's age, a protégé of the painter Jacques-Louis David and, a well-respected teacher. Michallon had a great influence on Corot's career. Corot's drawing lessons included tracing lithographs, copying three-dimensional forms, making landscape sketches and paintings outdoors in the forests of Fontainebleau, the seaports along Normandy, the villages west of Paris such as Ville-d'Avray. Michallon exposed him to the principles of the French Neoclassic tradition, as espoused in the famous treatise of theorist Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes, exemplified in the works of French Neoclassicists Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin, whose major aim was the representation of ideal Beauty in nature, linked with events in ancient times.
Though this school was on the decline, it still held sway in the Salon, the foremost art exhibition in France attended by thousands at each event. Corot stated, "I made my first landscape from nature...under the eye of this painter, whose only advice was to render with the greatest scrupulousness everything I saw before me. The lesson worked. After Michallon's early death in 1822, Corot studied with Michallon's teacher, Jean-Victor Bertin, among the best known Neoclassic landscape painters in France, who had Corot draw copies of lithographs of botanical subjects to learn precise organic forms. Though holding Neoclassicists in the highest regard, Corot did not limit his training to their tradition of allegory set in imagined nature, his notebooks reveal precise renderings of tree trunks and plants which show the influence of Northern realism. Throughout his career, Corot demonstrated an inclination to apply both traditions in his work, sometimes combining the
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.
It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.
The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Grünes Gewölbe of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria.
In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state; the building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals.
In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery opened to the public a decade in 1824. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities; this phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in the US alone; this number, compared to other kinds of art museums, makes university art museums the largest category of art museums in the country. While the first of these collections can be traced to learning collections developed in art academies in Western Europe, they are now associated with and housed in centers of higher education of all types; the word gallery being an archite
Claude Lorrain was a French painter and etcher of the Baroque era. He spent most of his life in Italy, is one of the earliest important artists, apart from his contemporaries in Dutch Golden Age painting, to concentrate on landscape painting, his landscapes are turned into the more prestigious genre of history paintings by the addition of a few small figures representing a scene from the Bible or classical mythology. By the end of the 1630s he was established as the leading landscapist in Italy, enjoyed large fees for his work; these became larger, but with fewer figures, more painted, produced at a lower rate. He was not an innovator in landscape painting, except in introducing the Sun into many paintings, rare before, he is now thought of as a French painter, but was born in the independent Duchy of Lorraine, all his painting was done in Italy. His patrons were mostly Italian, but after his death he became popular with English collectors, the UK retains a high proportion of his works, he was a prolific creator of drawings in pen and often monochrome watercolour "wash" brown but sometimes grey.
Chalk is sometimes used for under-drawing, white highlighting in various media may be employed, much less other colours such as pink. These fall into three distinct groups. Firstly there are large numbers of sketches of landscapes, very done at the scene. There are studies for paintings, of various degrees of finish, many done before or during the process of painting, but others after, complete; this was the case for the last group, the 195 drawings recording finished paintings collected in his Liber Veritatis. He produced over 40 etchings simplified versions of paintings before 1642; these served various purposes for him, but are now regarded as much less important than his drawings. He painted frescoes in his early career, which played an important part in making his reputation, but are now nearly all lost; the earliest biographies of Claude are in Joachim von Sandrart's Teutsche Academie and Filippo Baldinucci's Notizie de' professori del disegno da Cimabue in qua. Both Sandrart and Baldinucci knew the painter but at periods some 50 years apart at the start of his career and shortly before his death.
Sandrart knew him well and lived with him for a while, while Baldinucci was not intimate with him, derived much of his information from Claude's nephew, who lived with the artist. Claude's tombstone gives 1600 as his year of birth, but contemporary sources indicate a date, circa 1604 or 1605, he was born in the small village of Chamagne, Vosges part of the Duchy of Lorraine. He was the third of five sons of Anne Padose. According to Baldinucci, Claude's parents both died when he was twelve years old, he lived at Freiburg with an elder brother. Jean taught Claude the rudiments of drawing. Claude travelled to Italy, first working for Goffredo Wals in Naples joining the workshop of Agostino Tassi in Rome. Sandrart's account of Claude's early years, however, is quite different, modern scholars prefer this, or attempt to combine the two. According to Sandrart, Claude did not do well at the village school and was apprenticed to a pastry baker. With a company of fellow cooks and bakers, Claude travelled to Rome and was employed as servant and cook by Tassi, who at some point converted him into an apprentice and taught him drawing and painting.
Both Wals and Tassi were landscapists, the former obscure and producing small works, while Tassi had a large workshop specializing in fresco schemes in palaces. While the details of Claude's pre-1620s life remain unclear, most modern scholars agree that he was apprenticed to Wals around 1620–22, to Tassi from circa 1622/23 to 1625. Baldinucci reports that in 1625 Claude undertook a voyage back to Lorraine to train with Claude Deruet, working on the backgrounds of a lost fresco scheme, but left his studio comparatively soon, in 1626 or 1627, he returned to Rome and settled in a house in the Via Margutta, near the Spanish Steps and Trinita dei Monti, remaining in that neighbourhood for the rest of his life. On his travels, Claude stayed in Marseilles and Venice, had the opportunity to study nature in France and Bavaria. Sandrart met Claude in the late 1620s and reported that by the artist had a habit of sketching outdoors at dawn and at dusk, making oil studies on the spot; the first dated painting by Claude, Landscape with Cattle and Peasants from 1629 shows well-developed style and technique.
In the next few years his reputation was growing as evidenced by commissions from the French ambassador in Rome and the King of Spain. Baldinucci reported that a important commission came from Cardinal Bentivoglio, impressed by the two landscapes Claude painted for him, recommended the artist to Pope Urban VIII. Four paintings were made for the Pope in two small on copper. From this point, Claude's reputation was secured, he went on to fulfill many important commissions, both Italian and internation