Sunan Abu Dawood
Sunan Abu Dawood is one of the Kutub al-Sittah, collected by Abu Dawood. Abu Dawood compiled twenty-one books related to Hadith and preferred those ahadith which were supported by the example of the companions of Muhammad; as for the contradictory ahadith, he states under the heading of'Meat acquired by hunting for a pilgrim': "if there are two contradictory reports from the Prophet, an investigation should be made to establish what his companions have adopted". He wrote in his letter to the people of Mecca "I have disclosed wherever there was too much weakness in regard to any tradition in my collection, but if I happen to leave a Hadith without any comment, it should be considered as sound, albeit some of them are more authentic than others". Hadith Mursal has been a matter of discussion among the traditionists. Abu Dawood states in his letter to the people of Mecca: "if a Musnad Hadith is not contrary to a Mursal or a Musnad Hadith is not found the Mursal Hadith will be accepted though it would not be considered as strong as a Muttasil Hadith".
The traditions in Sunan Abu Dawood are divided in three categories. The first category consists of those traditions that Muslim; the second type of traditions are those which fulfil the conditions of Muslim. At this juncture, it should be remembered that Bukhari said, "I only included in my book Sahih Bukhari authentic traditions, left out many more authentic ones than these to avoid unnecessary length". Abu Dawood included only 4,800 in this collection. Sunnis regard this collection as fourth in strength of their six major hadith collections, it took Abu Dawod 20 years to collect the hadiths. He made a series of journeys to meet most of the foremost traditionists of his time and acquired from them the most reliable hadiths, quoting sources through which it reached him. Since the author collected hadiths which no one had assembled together, his sunan has been accepted as a standard work by scholars from many parts of the Islamic world after Ibn al-Qaisarani's inclusion of it in the formal canonization of the six major collections.
Sunan Abu Dawood has been translated into numerous languages. The Australian Islamic Library has collected 11 commentaries on this book in Arabic and Indonesian. Sahih Bukhari Sahih Muslim Jami al-Tirmidhi Sunan al-Sughra Either: Sunan ibn Majah, Muwatta Malik Arabic Wikisource has original text related to this article: Sunan Abu Dawud Translation and Commentaries in English, Urdu and Indonesian Languages English translation of Sunan Abu Dawud
Invasion of Banu Qurayza
The Invasion of Banu Qurayza took place in the Dhul Qa‘dah during February and March of 627 AD. The Banu Qurayza told the Muslims that they were allied to them during the Battle of the Trench, however they sided with the Pagan Arabs of Quraysh and their allies. According to traditional sources, Jewish leaders organized efforts against Muhammad and the Muslims. Three Jewish leaders from the tribe of Banu al-Nadir, three Jewish leaders from the tribe of Wa'il, various other Jewish groups and leaders united and pressured Banu Qurayza to betray their agreement to Muhammad. Afzalur Rahman states that during the Battle of the Trench, when the Muslims were surrounded by a large hostile force, the Banu Qurayza joined the enemies of the Muslims and threatened the Muslims from within the town itself. Waqidi claims that Muhammad had a treaty with the tribe, torn apart. Norman Stillman and Watt believe such a treaty was "doubtful" to have existed, though Watt believes the Qurayza had agreed not to assist Muhammad's enemies against him.
According to Mubrakpuri, Stillman, Guillaume and Ibn Kathir, on the day of the Meccans' withdrawal Muhammad led his forces against Banu Qurayza. According to Muslim tradition he had been ordered to do so by God; the Banu Qurayza, a Jewish tribe, were besieged for 25 days. According to Mohammed al-Ghazali, during that time the Muslims allowed the Jews who had refused to betray the Prophet during the Battle of the Ditch to leave and "go wherever they wished". Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, a companion of Muhammad, was chosen by him as an arbiter and all parties agreed to abide by his judgment. Sa'd gave his verdict that "the men should be killed, the property divided, the women and children taken as captives". Muhammad approved of the ruling, calling it similar to God's judgment, after which nearly all male members of the tribe who had reached puberty were beheaded; the Muslim jurist Tabari quotes 600–900 being executed. The Sunni hadith do not give the number killed, but state that all pubescent males were killed and one woman.
According to Ibn Kathir, Quranic verses 33:26-27 and 33:9-10 are about the attack against the Banu Qurayza. Researcher, W. N. Arafat places doubt on the description of events described by Ibn Ishaq. Arafat states in regards to the reception of Ibn Ishaq's and Tabari's account: "The attitude of scholars and historians to Ibn lshaq's version of the story has been either one of complacency, sometimes mingled with uncertainty, or at least in two important cases, one of condemnatlon and outright rejection." Ibn Ishaq was criticized by Sunni scholar, Malik ibn Anas as being "a liar" and somebody "who transmits his stories from the Jews." The Banu Qurayza were a Jewish tribe that lived at the oasis of Yathrib. Jewish tribes arrived in Hijaz in the wake of the Jewish-Roman wars and might have introduced agriculture, which may have put them in a culturally and politically dominant position; the Banu Qurayza, did not own any land. The Banu Qurayza signed a treaty with Muhammad. According to Watt it is unclear whether or not their treaty with Muhammad, obliged the Qurayza to help him defend Medina or to remain neutral.
This stance is supported by al-Waqidi. Both Watt and Stillman believe that no special agreement existed between the Qurayza. Watt, does agree that the Qurayza had agreed not to support Muhammad's enemies against him. Zafar Ali Qureshi, has criticized Watt's approach to such incidents. In 627AD, Abu Sufyan, led an attack on Medina during the Battle of the Trench; the Qurayza did not participate in the fighting - according to David Norcliffe, but they lent tools to the Muslims, to defend themselves in Medina. The Qurayza were offended by Muhammad's recitation of revelations which criticized some Jews. According to Al-Waqidi, the Banu Qurayza helped the defense effort of Medina by supplying spades and baskets for the excavation of the defensive trench the defenders of Medina had dug in preparation. According to Watt, the Banu Qurayza "seem to have tried to remain neutral" in the battle but changed their attitude when a Jew from Khaybar persuaded them that Muhammad was sure to be overwhelmed, making them doubt whether they should help and ally with Muhammad and though they did not commit any act overtly hostile to Muhammad, according to Watt, they entered into negotiations with the invading army to reach a settlement.
Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal no. 22823 mentions that the Qurayza helped Muhammad by turning down Abu Sufyan when he wanted their help to attack Muhammad, that Abu Sufyan was not happy with them. According to Shibli Nomani, Ibn Ishaq writes that during the siege, the Qurayza readmitted Huyayy ibn Akhtab, the chief of the Banu Nadir whom Muhammad had exiled, Al-Waqidi reports that Huyayy tore into pieces the agreement between Ka'b and Muhammad. Rumours began to spread. So Muhammad sent some men to confirm this. According to William Muir, the Qurayza said to the men "Who is Mahomet, and, the Apostle of God, that we should obey him? There is no bond or compact between us and him." Norman Stillman denies the claims of al-Waqidi and that there was an agreement. Watt rejects the existence of such a special agreement, but notes that the Qurayza had a general agreement with Muhammad because they were allie
Battle of the Trench
The Battle of the Trench known as the Battle of the Confederates, was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000; the outnumbered defenders of Medina Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, broke up the confederacy against him; the well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering few casualties.
Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution; the defeat caused the Meccans to lose much of their prestige. The battle is named after "trench", or khandaq, dug by Muslims in preparation for the battle; the word khandaq is the Arabised form of the Persian word kandak. Salman farsi; the battle is referred to as the Battle of Confederates. The Qur'an uses the term confederates in sura Al-Ahzab to denote the confederacy of non-believers and Jews against Islam. After their flight from Mecca, the Muslims fought the Meccan Quraysh at the Battle of Badr in 624, at the Battle of Uhud in 625. Although the Muslims neither won nor were defeated at the Battle of Uhud, their military strength was growing. In April 626 Muhammad raised a force of 300 men and 10 horses to meet the Quraysh army of 1,000 at Badr for the time. Although no fighting occurred, the coastal tribes were impressed with Muslim power.
Muhammad tried, with limited success, to break up many alliances against the Muslim expansion. He was unable to prevent the Meccan one; as they had in the battles of Badr and Uhud, the Muslim army again used strategic methods against their opponents. In this battle they dug a trench to render the enemy cavalry ineffective; the reason for this battle was to defend Medina from attack, after Banu Nazir and Banu Qaynuqa tribes formed an alliance with the Quraysh to attack him as revenge for expelling them from Medina during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa and Invasion of Banu Nadir. The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir states: "The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah where they met with the leaders of Quraysh and incited them to make war against the Prophet" Early in 627, the Banu Nadir met with the Quraysh of Makkah.
Huyayy ibn Akhtab, along with other leaders from Khaybar, travelled to swear allegiance with Safwan ibn Umayya at Makkah. The bulk of the Confederate armies were gathered by the Quraysh of Makkah, led by Abu Sufyan, who fielded 4,000 foot soldiers, 300 horsemen, 1,000–1,500 men on camels; the Banu Nadir began rousing the nomads of Najd. The Nadir enlisted the Banu Ghatafan by paying them half of their harvest; this contingent, the second largest, added a strength of about 2,000 men and 300 horsemen led by Unaina bin Hasan Fazari. The Bani Assad agreed to join, led by Tuleha Asadi. From the Banu Sulaym, the Nadir secured 700 men, though this force would have been much larger had not some of its leaders been sympathetic towards Islam; the Bani Amir, who had a pact with Muhammad, refused to join. Other tribes included the Banu Murra, with 400 men led by Hars ibn Auf Murri, the Banu Shuja, with 700 men led by Sufyan ibn Abd Shams. In total, the strength of the Confederate armies, though not agreed upon by scholars, is estimated to have included around 10,000 men and six hundred horsemen.
In January 627 the army, led by Abu Sufyan, marched on Medina. In accordance with the plan the armies began marching towards Medina, Meccans from the south and the others from the east. At the same time horsemen from the Banu Khuza'a left to warn Medina of the invading army; the men from Banu Khuza'a reached Muhammad in four days, warning him of the Confederate armies that were to arrive in a week. Muhammad gathered the Medinans to discuss the best strategy of overcoming the enemy. Meeting the enemy in the open, waiting for them inside the city were both suggested; the outnumbered Muslims opted to engage in a defensive battle by digging deep trenches to act as a barrier along the northern front. The tactic of a defensive trench was introduced by Salman the Persian; every capable Muslim in Medina including Muhammad contributed to digging the massive trench in six days. The ditch was dug on the northern side only, as the rest of Medina was surrounded by rocky mountains and trees, impenetrable to large
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached by Adam, Moses and other prophets, he is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. Born 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six, he was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. In years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; when he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, receiving his first revelation from God. Three years in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" to God is the right way of life, that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.
The followers of Muhammad were few in number, experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622; this event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca; the conquest went uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; the revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld and used as sources of Islamic law.
The name Muhammad appears four times in the Quran. The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations. Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded in Quran 74:1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets; the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy". The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of; the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe; the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography. Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era; these include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life.
The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE. Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi, the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic. Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.
Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. Muslim scholars on the other hand place a greater emph
Ali ibn Abi Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam. He ruled as the fourth caliph from 656 to 661, but is regarded as the rightful immediate successor to Muhammad as an Imam by Shia Muslims. Born to Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad, Ali was born inside the sacred sanctuary of the Kaaba in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam. Ali was the first male who accepted Islam, according to some authors, the first Muslim. Ali protected Muhammad from an early age and took part in all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. After migrating to Medina, he married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, he was appointed caliph by Muhammad's companions in 656, after Caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated. Ali's reign saw civil wars and in 661, he was attacked and assassinated by a Kharijite while praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa, being martyred two days later. Ali is important to both Shias and Sunnis and spiritually; the numerous biographical sources about Ali are biased according to sectarian lines, but they agree that he was a pious Muslim, devoted to the cause of Islam and a just ruler in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
While Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun caliphs, Shia Muslims regard Ali as the first Imam after Muhammad due to their interpretation of the events at Ghadir Khumm. Shia Muslims believe that Ali and the other Shia Imams are the rightful successors to Muhammad. Ali has received recognition from a variety of non-Muslim organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Organization for Human Rights, for his governance and social justice. Ali's father, Abu Talib, was the custodian of the Ka'bah and a sheikh of Banu Hashim, an important branch of the powerful Quraysh tribe, he was an uncle of Muhammad, had raised Muhammad after Abdul Muttalib died. Ali's mother, Fatima bint Asad belonged to Banu Hashim, making Ali a descendant of Ismā'īl the son of Ibrāhīm. Many sources Shi'i ones, attest that Ali was born inside the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, where he stayed with his mother for three days, his mother felt the beginning of her labour pain while visiting the Kaaba and entered it where her son was born.
Some Shia sources contain miraculous descriptions of the entrance of Ali's mother into the Kaaba. Ali's birth in the Kaaba is regarded as a unique event proving his "high spiritual station" among Shia, while Sunni scholars consider it a great, if not unique, distinction. According to a tradition, Muhammad was the first person whom Ali saw as he took the newborn in his hands. Muhammad named him Ali, meaning "the exalted one". Muhammad had a close relationship with Ali's parents; when Muhammad was orphaned and lost his grandfather Abdul Muttalib, Ali's father took him into his house. Ali was born three years after Muhammad married Khadijah bint Khuwaylid; when Ali was five years old, Muhammad took Ali into his home to raise him. Some historians say that this was because there was a famine in Mecca at the time and that Ali's father had a large family to support. While it is not disputed that Muhammad raised Ali, it was not due to any financial stress that Ali's father was going through. Many Shia Muslims celebrate Imam Ali's birth anniversary as Father's Day in Iran.
The Gregorian date for this changes every year: Ali had been living with Muhammad and Muhammad's wife Khadija since he was five years old. When Ali was nine, Muhammad announced himself as the Prophet of Islam, Ali became the first male to accept Islam, he was the second person, after Khadija. According to Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy in A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, "Ali and Qur'an'grew up' together as'twins' in the house of Muhammad Mustafa and Khadija-tul-Kubra."The second period of Ali's life began in 610 when he declared Islam at the age of 9, ended with the Hijra of Muhammad to Medina in 622. When Muhammad reported that he had received a divine revelation, Ali only about nine years old, believed him and professed to Islam. Ali became the first male to embrace Islam. Shia doctrine asserts that in keeping with Ali's divine mission, he accepted Islam before he took part in any old Meccan traditional religion rites, regarded by Muslims as polytheistic or paganistic. Hence the Shia say of Ali that his face is honoured, as it was never sullied by prostrations before idols.
The Sunnis use the honorific Karam Allahu Wajhahu, which means "God's Favour upon his Face." The reason his acceptance is not called a conversion is because he was never an idol worshipper like the people of Mecca. He was known to have broken idols in the mould of Abraham and asked people why they worshipped something they made themselves. Ali's grandfather, along with some members of the Bani Hashim clan, were Hanifs, or followers of a monotheistic belief system prior to the emergence of Islam in Mecca. Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret for three years. In the fourth year of his preaching, when Muhammad was commanded to invite his close relatives to come to Islam, he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet; the Prophet ordered Ali to invite the 40 people again. T
Battle of Khaybar
The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 628 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. According to Hagai Mazuz, “The Jewish community of northern Arabia was one of the largest ancient Jewish communities in the history of the Jewish people.” For a thousand years Jews lived in the oases of Teyma and Yathrib, in the northern Arabian Peninsula. According to Muslim sources, the Muslim soldiers attacked the native Jews who had barricaded themselves in forts. Two hadith of Bukhari state that the major purpose for raiding Khaybar was to procure food: Narrated'Aisha: When Khaibar was conquered, we said, "Now we will eat our fill of dates!". Other reasons are given as well. Muslim sources accuse Jews living in Khaybar of a plan to unite with other Jews from Banu Wadi Qurra, Taima', Fadak as well as Ghafataan Arab tribe to attack Madinah. Scottish historian William Montgomery Watt notes the presence in Khaybar of the Banu Nadir, who were working with neighboring Arab tribes to protect themselves from the Islamic community in Medina who had earlier sent into exile the Jewish tribes for violating the terms of the Charter of Medina and for conspiring to kill Muhammad.
Italian orientalist Laura Veccia Vaglieri claims other motives might have included the prestige the engagement would confer upon Muhammad among his followers, as well the booty which could be used to supplement future campaigns. The Jews of Khaybar surrendered after seeing no way out and were allowed to live in the oasis on the condition that they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. Jews continued to live in the oasis for several more years; the imposition of tribute upon the conquered Jews served as a precedent for provisions in the Islamic law requiring the exaction of tribute known as jizya from Dīn under Muslim rule, confiscation of land belonging to non-Muslims into the collective property of the Muslim community. In the 7th century, Khaybar was inhabited by Jews; the inhabitants had stored in a redoubt at Khaybar a siege-engine, lances and other weaponry. In the past some scholars attempted to explain the presence of the weapons, suggesting that they were used for settling quarrels among the families of the community.
Vaglieri suggests that it is more logical to assume that the weapons were stored in a depôt for future sale. The Jews kept 20 bales of cloth and 500 cloaks for sale, other luxury goods; these commercial activities as a cause of hostility, Vaglieri argues, are similar to the economic causes behind persecutions in many other countries throughout history. The oasis was divided into three regions: al-Natat, al-Shikk, al-Katiba separated by natural divisions, such as the desert, lava drifts, swamps; each of these regions contained several fortresses or redoubts including homes and stables. Each fortress was occupied by a separate family and surrounded by cultivated palm-groves. In order to improve their defensive capabilities, the fortresses were raised up on hills or basalt rocks. After they were sent into exile in 625 from Medina by Muslim forces, the Banu Nadir had settled in Khaybar. In 627, the Nadir chief Huyayy ibn Akhtab together with his son joined the Meccans and Bedouins besieging Medina during the Battle of the Trench.
In addition, the Nadir paid Arabian tribes to go to war against the Muslims. Bribing Banu Ghatafan with half of their harvest, Banu Nadir secured 2,000 men and 300 horsemen from the tribe to attack Muhammad, persuaded the Bani Asad, they attempted to get the Banu Sulaym to attack the Muslims, but the tribe gave them only 700 men, since some of its leaders were sympathetic towards Islam. The Bani Amir refused to join them all together. Once the battle started, Huyayy ibn Akhtab persuaded the Banu Qurayza to go against their covenant with Muhammad and turn against him during the battle. After the defeat of the confederates in the battle, Qurayza's subsequent surrender, Huyayy was killed alongside the men of the Qurayza. After Huyayy's death, Abu al-Rafi ibn Abi al-Huqayq took charge of the Banu Nadir at Khaybar. Al-Huqayq soon approached neighboring tribes to raise an army against Muhammad. After learning this, the Muslims, aided by an Arab with a Jewish dialect, assassinated him. Al-Huqayq was succeeded by Usayr ibn Zarim.
It has been recorded by one source that Usayr approached the Ghatafan and rumors spread that he intended to attack the "capital of Muhammad". The latter sent Abdullah bin Rawaha with a number of his companions, among whom were Abdullah bin Unays, an ally of Banu Salima, a clan hostile to the Jews; when they came to Usayr, they told him that if he would come to Muhammad, Muhammad would give him an appointment and honour him. They kept on at him. Abdullah bin Unays mounted him on his beast until he was in al-Qarqara, about six miles from Khaybar. Usayr changed his mind about going with them. Abdullah perceived Usayr's bad intention. So Abdullah struck him with his sword cutting off his leg. Usayr hit Abdullah with a stick of shauhat wood which he wounded his head. All Muhammad's emissaries fell upon the thirty Jewish companions and killed them except one man who escaped on his feet. Abdullah bin Unays is the assassin who volunteere
Battle of Mu'tah
The Battle of Mu'tah was fought in September 629 C. E. near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the forces of the Byzantine Empire. In Islamic histories, the battle is described as the Muslims' attempt to take retribution against a Ghassanid chief for taking the life of an emissary. According to Byzantine sources, the Muslims planned to launch their attack on a feast day; the local Byzantine Vicarius collected the garrisons of the fortresses. Seeing the great number of the enemy forces, the Muslims withdrew to the south where the fighting started at the village of Mu'ta and they were routed. After three of their leaders were killed, the command was given to Khalid ibn al-Walid and he succeeded in saving the rest of the forces; the Byzantines were reoccupying territory following the peace accord between Emperor Heraclius and the Sasanid general Shahrbaraz in July 629. The Byzantine sakellarios Theodore, was placed in command of the army, while in the area of Balqa, Arab tribes were employed.
Meanwhile, Muhammad had sent his emissary to the ruler of Bosra. While on his way to Bosra, he was executed in the village of Mu'tah by the orders of a Ghassanid official. Muhammad dispatched 3,000 of his troops to Jumada al-Awwal in 629, for a quick expedition to attack and punish the tribes; the army was led by Zayd ibn Harithah. When the Muslim troops arrived at the area to the east of Jordan and learned of the size of the Byzantine army, they wanted to wait and send for reinforcements from Medina.'Abdullah ibn Rawahah reminded them about their desire for martyrdom and questioned the move to wait when what they desire was awaiting them, so they continued marching towards the waiting army. The Muslims engaged the Byzantines at their camp by the village of Musharif and withdrew towards Mu'tah, it was here. Some Muslim sources report that the battle was fought in a valley between two heights, which negated the Byzantines their numerical superiority. During the battle, all three Muslim leaders fell one after the other as they took command of the force: first, Zayd Ja'far, then'Abdullah.
After the death of the latter, some of the Muslim soldiers began to rout. Thabit ibn Al-Arqam, seeing the desperate state of the Muslim forces, took up the banner and rallied his comrades thus saving the army from complete destruction. After the battle, Al-Arqam took the banner, before asking Khalid bin Walid to take the lead. Khalid bin Walid reported that the fighting was so intense that he used nine swords which broke in the battle. Khalid, prepared to withdraw, he avoided pitched battle. It is said; the casualties of slain of the Muslim side were recorded as the four of them from Muhajireen while eight the rest from Ansar. Their names were: Zaid bin Haritha Ja'far ibn Abi Talib Abdullah bin Rawahah Masoud bin Al-Aswad Wahab bin Saad Abbad bin Qais Amr ibn Saad Harith bin Nu'man Saraqah bin Amr Abu Kulaib bin Amr Jabir ibn'Amr Amer bin SaadDaniel C. Peterson, Professor of Islamic Studies at Brigham Young University, finds the ratio of casualties among the leaders suspiciously high compared to the losses suffered by ordinary soldiers.
David Powers, Professor of Near Eastern Studies at Cornell mentions this curiosity concerning the minuscule casualties recorded by Muslim historians. It is reported that when the Muslim force arrived at Medina, they were berated for withdrawing and accused of fleeing. Salamah ibn Hisham, brother of Amr ibn Hishām was reported to have prayed at home rather than going to the mosque to avoid having to explain himself. Muhammad ordered saying that they would return to fight the Byzantines again, it would not be until the third century A. H. that Muslim historians would state that Muhammad bestowed upon Khalid the title of'Saifullah' meaning'Sword of Allah'. Today, Muslims are considered martyrs; some have claimed. A mausoleum was built at Mu'tah over their grave. According to al-Waqidi and Ibn Ishaq, the Muslims were informed that 100,000 or 200,000 enemy troops were encamped at Balqa'. Modern historians refute this stating the figure to be exaggerated. According to Walter Emil Kaegi, professor of Byzantine history at the University of Chicago, the size of the entire Byzantine army during the 7th century might have totaled 100,000 even half this number.
While the Byzantine forces at Mu'tah are unlikely to have numbered more than 10,000. Muslim accounts of the battle differ over the result. In early Muslim sources, the battle is recorded as a humiliating defeat. While Muslim historians would rework the early source material, revising the narrative of the battle as a Muslim victory on grounds that most of the Muslim soldiers returned safely. Military career of Muhammad List of expeditions of Muhammad History of Islam Muhammad as a general Jihad Muhammad and Christianity El Hareir, Idris; the Different Aspects of Islam Culture: Volume 3, The Spread of Islam throughout the World. UNESCO publishing. Buhl, F.. "Muʾta". In H. A. R. Gibb. Encyclopaedia o