Ute Hommola is a former German athlete who competed in the women's javelin throw event. She competed for East Germany at the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow, Russia where she won the bronze medal in the javelin throw event. Profile
The Timpanogos were a tribe of Native Americans who inhabited a large part of central Utah—particularly, the area from Utah Lake eastward to the Uinta Mountains and south into present-day Sanpete County. In some accounts they were called the Timpiavat, Timpanogotzi, Timpannah and other names. During the mid-19th century, when Mormon pioneers entered the territory, the Timpanogos were one of the principal tribes in Utah based on population, area occupied and influence. Scholars have had difficulty identifying their language; the Timpanogos have been classified as Ute people. They may have been a Shoshone band. Nineteenth-century historian Hubert Howe Bancroft wrote in 1882 that the Timpanogos were one of four sub-bands of the Shoshone. Chief Walkara known as Chief Walker, was a noted mid-19th-century chief who led his people against Mormon settlers in the Walker War; the Shoshone and Ute shared a common genetic and linguistic heritage as part of the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Most Timpanogos live on the Uintah Valley Reservation, established by executive order in 1861 and affirmed by congressional legislation in 1864, where they are counted with the Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation. In 2002, the Timpanogos won a federal case against the state in the Court of Appeals upholding their traditional rights to hunt and gather on the reservation; the court concluded that their relationship with the federal government was well-established, although they are not listed by the Department of the Interior as a federally-recognized tribe. They have submitted an application and documentation to the Department of the Interior seeking federal recognition as an independent tribe; the Timpanogos entered Utah as part of the southern Numic expansion around 1000 CE or in the subsequent central Numic Shoshonean expansion north and west from their Numic homelands in the Sierra Nevada. They were hunter-gatherers, living on fish and wild game caught by the men and cooked and processed by the women and on the seeds and roots of wild plants gathered and prepared by the women.
As part of their religion, in the mornings they gathered together and greeted the morning with song to express gratitude to the Creator. They were divided into each with its headman, spiritual leader and warrior; the clans would band together for specific purposes, such as hunting. There was no division of the land, people were free to travel to different villages, they developed an extensive trading network. The Timpanogos lived in the Wasatch Range around Mount Timpanogos, along the southern and eastern shores of Utah Lake of the Utah Valley and in Heber Valley, Uinta Basin and Sanpete Valley; the band around Utah Lake became dominant due to the area's food supply. During the spring spawning season at Utah Lake, the tribes hosted an annual fish festival. Timpanogos and Shoshone bands would come from 200 miles away to gather fish. At the festival there was dancing, trading, horse races and feasting, it was an opportunity for young people to find a mate from another clan, since exogamous marriage was required.
The shores of Utah Lake became a sacred meeting place for the Timpanogos and Shoshone tribes. The first known Europeans to enter this area were a Spanish expedition of Franciscan missionaries led by Father Silvestre Vélez de Escalante; the Dominguez–Escalante Expedition of 1776 was trying to find a land route from Santa Fe, New Mexico to Monterey, California. Two or three Timpanogos from the Utah Valley were guides for the party. On September 23, 1776, they entered the Utah Valley. Escalante documented the expedition in his journal, describing the people who lived around Utah Lake: Round about it are these Indians, who live on the abundant fish of the lake, for which reason the Yutas Sabuaganas call them Come Pescados. Besides this, they gather in the plain grass seeds from which they make atole, which they supplement by hunting hares and fowl of which there is great abundance here; the explorers named many geographic features in central Utah for the Timpanog tribe, who were led by Turunianchi.
The next recorded European visitor was Étienne Provost, a French-Canadian trapper who visited the Timpanog in October 1824. In 1826, American mountain man Jedediah Smith visited a camp along the Spanish Fork River with 35 lodges and about 175 people. By the time Mormon pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, the Timpanogos were guided by Turunianchi's grandson, Walkara. Walkara led the tribe with a number of sub-chiefs, most of whom were his brothers: Chief Arapeen, Chief San-Pitch, Chief Kanosh, Chief Sowiette, Chief Tabby-To-Kwanah, Chief Grospean and Chief Amman. Brigham Young once called them a "royal line" of Indian chiefs, they had hereditary leadership through their clan. Parley P. Pratt explored the Utah Utah Lake; the first battle between settlers and Indians, known by the Americans as the Battle Creek massacre, occurred in early March 1849 at present-day Pleasant Grove, Utah. A company of 40 Mormon men went to the Utah Valley to persuade the Timpanogos to stop stealing cattle from the Salt Lake Valley.
Brigham Young ordered the Mormons "to take such measures as would put a final end to their depredations in future". The company went to the village of Little Chief
Ute Mountain, is a peak within the Ute Mountains, a small mountain range in the southwestern corner of Colorado. It is on the northern edge of the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation; the Reservation forms the southwestern corner of Montezuma County. Nomenclature for this peak and its range varies; the highest peak is sometimes known as Sleeping Ute Mountain. All of these forms of the mountain's name and of the range's name can be found on various USGS maps and reports; the Ute Mountains, with a collective profile known as “The Sleeping Ute”, are a dense cluster of peaks 5 by 12 miles in extent and stand in isolation from other mountains. Despite being much lower than Colorado's highest peaks, Ute Mountain is the eighth most topographically prominent peak in the state, due to this isolation, it is notable for its large local relief in all directions its rise of 4,250 ft over the Montezuma Valley to the southeast. The Sleeping Ute is said to resemble a Ute Chief lying on his back with arms folded across his chest.
The mountains were valued as a sacred place by the Weeminuche Ute band. It is still a sacred place to their descendants, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe and still plays a role in their ceremonies as indicated by the “Sundance Ground” on some topographical maps nestled between The Knees and Horse Peak; the northern part of the mountains were outside the reservation boundaries as reduced following a series of treaties in the late 19th century, but a trade of land now in Mesa Verde National Park 15 miles east, for federal land on the mountain, allowed the reservation boundary to be extended north to McElmo Creek and encompass the entire mountain range. In particular, this means that recreational access to the range by outsiders is restricted. Few roads or trails are found in the mountains, although radio towers and water tanks have been built, a road along Cottonwood Wash from Towaoc nearly reaches the summit of Ute Peak. A Ute Indian legend describes the Sleeping Ute as the sleeping form of a “Great Warrior God, known as a chief” who fell asleep while recovering from wounds received in a great battle with “the Evil Ones”.
Various other forms of the legend can be found. Recognized from many spots up to 50 miles east or west, the profile is best seen from 15 to 25 miles somewhat north of east of the mountains as in the accompanying photograph. Identified features of the profile include the following: Head - the profile of Marble Mountain provides recognized facial features while a feathered headdress can be seen tapering north from Black Mountain and Marble Mountain.. Crossed Arms – Ute Peak is the highest, the most prominent and eastern-most peak in the Ute Mountains Ribcage – Horse Mountain to the east and the twin peaks Black Mountain/Ute Mountain to the west form a recognizable ribcage. Knees – Hermano Mountain or “The Knees” are the knees of the figure. Toes – East Toe is a small and prominent igneous protrusion at the south-eastern end of the Ute Mountains proportioned and placed to complete the figure from the east. West Toe, a second protrusion, has a similar profile and is placed to complete the figure from the west.
The illusion of a reclining figure is further reinforced by its symmetry. The figure is nearly as complete seen from the west as from the east.located east of cortez Though on the southwestern fringe of the original Rocky Mountain home of the Ute Tribe, the Sleeping Ute is the most prominent feature of the high-desert Ute Mountain Ute Reservation. The only town on the Reservation, lies at the feet of the figure and is home to most of the Reservation's population; as the Reservation capital, Towaoc is the Ute Mountain Ute tribal headquarters. Cortez, the largest town in the area with a population of over 8000, lies outside the reservation 11.5 miles east-northeast of Ute Peak. The elevation of Cortez can be considered the base elevation of the Ute Mountains; the Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park adjoins Mesa Verde National Park to the east of the mountains. The western boundary of Mesa Verde National Park is 12 miles east of Ute Peak; the Mesa and the Sleeping Ute share equal prominence as regional landmarks.
McElmo Creek and Canyon Of The Ancients National Monument form the northern terminus of the Ute Mountains and the Reservation. The Ute Mountains were formed by intrusion of igneous rocks at about 72 million years, concurrent doming, subsequent erosion; the most common type of igneous rock is porphyritic hornblende diorite, but rock types present range from gabbro to granite. Forms of intrusions include laccoliths, stocks and sills. One dike can be examined at a roadside there; the igneous rocks intrude a sedimentary section of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks and the youngest rocks intruded are in the Point Lookout Sandstone. The intrusions are similar in form and rock type to those in other Colorado Plateau mountain ranges, such as the Henry Mountains and the La Sal Range and the Abajo Mountains, all nearby in Utah, but the intrusions at these three Utah occurrences are about 20 to 30 million years in age; the Ute Mountains and the similar Carrizo Mountains, nearby in Arizona, lie within a southwest extension of the Colorado Mineral Belt, but no ore deposits are known to be associated with these igneous rocks.
Ute is a city in Monona County, United States, along the Soldier River. The population was 374 at the 2010 census. A post office called Ute has been in operation since 1876; the city was named after the Ute people. Ute is located at 42°2′59″N 95°42′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.39 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 374 people, 179 households, 102 families residing in the city; the population density was 959.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 209 housing units at an average density of 535.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.7% White, 0.3% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population. There were 179 households of which 21.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.0% were non-families.
36.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.70. The median age in the city was 49.8 years. 19.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 378 people, 183 households, 112 families residing in the city; the population density was 956.7 people per square mile. There were 201 housing units at an average density of 508.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.74% White and 0.26% African American. There were 183 households out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.3% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.07 and the average family size was 2.61.
In the city, the population was spread out with 17.7% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 19.6% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 33.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 53 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,875, the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had a median income of $31,000 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,650. About 7.5% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.0% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. Charter Oak-Ute Community School District operates public schools
University of Santiago, Chile
The University of Santiago, Chile is one of the oldest public universities in Chile. The institution was born as Escuela de Artes y Oficios in 1849, under the government of Manuel Bulnes, it became Universidad Técnica del Estado in 1947, with various campuses throughout the country. In 1981, as a consequence of a reform on higher education under the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, it became what is now known as Universidad de Santiago de Chile, with all activities centered in a single 340,000 m² campus in the capital Santiago; the University of Santiago of Chile started as the School of Arts and Crafts in 1849. It was born in mid-20th century and it is the fifth oldest university in Chile; the Escuela de Artes y Oficios was founded in July 6, 1849 during the Manuel Bulnes Prieto rule, to improve scientific and technical development in the country. It started with four workshops: Mining, Mechanics and Carpentry. At the time, students ages ranged between 15 and 18 years old, thus making the EAO not a University, but a secondary education entity.
Students were required to know basic arithmetic operations. Besides being intensely trained in workshops, students studied algebra, descriptive geometry, technical drawing, industrial mechanics and chemistry, besides Spanish and geography; this was a four-year education that in 1858, extended to five years. Graduates were called'apprentices'. In 1886 the EAO moved to a bigger building, located at Quinta Normal, where it would stay up until now. In 1912 it started to educate'industrial sub-engineers' known as'technicians'. By the time, the EAO was able to grant two education level degrees: Arts and Crafts degrees and Technician degrees, by 1936 it granted Industrial Engineering degrees too. During the presidency of Gabriel González Videla through the DFL Decree No. 1831 of April 9, 1947, the School of Arts and Crafts was joined with the School of Mining in Copiapó, La Serena and Antofagasta, with the Industrial Design Schools in Temuco and Valdivia, with the Industrial Engineering Schools in Santiago and with the Technical Pedagogy Institute.
Together these formed the Technical State University, resulting in it becoming the best Chilean university in the area of applied engineering and industrial technician training. In February 8, 1952, the first statute that allowed the grouping to begin functioning as a university in legal and academic terms, was enacted, its first president was Don Octavio Valenzuela Lazo. In 1958, the Teknos, the university's troupe, was founded. Academic activity remained in the hands of the four Faculty Councils under the tuition of the University Council. During the 1960s, the DFL No. 2, 1971, allowed for the enacting of a second organizational statute, which allowed the University to be organized through offices, colleges and all academic structures that the board would deem appropriate. In 1968 due to the University Reform of 1967-1973, Enrique Kirberg Baltiansky assumed the rectory, the only university rector elected by faculty and students. In 1971, during the government of Salvador Allende, Revised Statutes of the Universidad Técnica del Estado were approved.
During the 1973 coup, Kirberg was removed from his post and imprisoned by the military regime, the statute approved was declared void, new guidelines were reformulated with appointments done by the military regime. In 1981, the military regime through the DFL Decree No. 23 of March 21, 1981, divided the headquarters of the State Technical University, giving rise to new universities and professional institutes. Steps were taken to form the headquarters into the University of Santiago de Chile; the other sites became separately named universities such as the University of Atacama, the University of Antofagasta, the University of Serena, the Professional Institute of Talca, the University of the Bío-Bío, the University of La Frontera, the Professional Institute of Osorno, the Professional Institute of Valdivia and the Magellan Professional Institute. The University of Santiago de Chile, near the University of Atacama and the University of Magallanes are the only heirs of the traditional State Technical University, because at the time of the dissolution and the creation of the new universities in 1981, the headquarters, Copiapó and Punta Arenas, were not integrated with other university offices.
The headquarters is located where the old School of Arts and Crafts used to be in the municipality of Estación Central. One of its symbols is the planetarium built in the 1980s; the university houses over 18,000 undergraduate students in 66 different majors, in the following departments: Engineering, Bachelors Program in Arts and Sciences, Business Administration & Economics, Chemistry & Biology, Medical Sciences, Humanities, School of Architecture, Technology Department. In 2017, Times Higher Education ranked the university within the 401-500 band globally. Victor Jara, theatre director, social activist, academic. Sergio Campos, Nationa
Beechcraft King Air
The Beechcraft King Air family is part of a line of American utility aircraft produced by Beechcraft. The King Air line comprises a number of twin-turboprop models that have been divided into two families; the Model 90 and 100 series developed in the 1960s are known as King Airs, while the T-tail Model 200 and 300 series were marketed as Super King Airs, with the name "Super" being dropped by Beechcraft in 1996. The King Air was the first aircraft in its class and has been in continuous production since 1964, it has outsold all of its turboprop competitors combined. It now faces competition from jet aircraft such as the Embraer Phenom 100, Honda HA-420 HondaJet and Cessna Citation Mustang; the Model 90 King Air was conceived as the Model 120 in 1961. In May 1963, Beechcraft began test flights of the proof-of-concept Model 87, a modified Queen Air with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-6 engines. On July 14, Beech announced a new type, a month began accepting orders for the "King Air", with deliveries to commence in Autumn 1964.
On January 24, 1964, the first definitive prototype, by now designated Model 65-90 and fitted with PT6A-6 engines, flew for the first time. After 10 months of test flying, in 1964 the Model 87 was delivered to the United States Army as the NU-8F; the first production aircraft was delivered on October 8, by the end of the month, 152 aircraft had been ordered. In 1966, after 112 65-90s were completed, production switched to the Model 65-A90 with PT6A-20 engines; as a measure of the type's popularity, 206 65-A90s were built in less than two years when production switched to the Model B90, the first of these rolling off the production line in 1968. Military versions built during these years included the 65-A90-1, 65-A90-2, 65-A90-3, 65-A90-4, all being unpressurised models based on the Model 87; these were produced for the US Army. A total of 162 of these were built between 1967 and 1971. A total of 184 B90 models were produced before the Model C90 was introduced in 1971, with wingspan increased over earlier models by 4 ft 11 in to 50 ft 3 in, Maximum Take-Off Weight increased by 350 lb to 9,650 lb, PT6A-20A engines.
The broadly similar Model E90 was introduced the following year, with PT6A-28 engines. Further refinement of the 90 series resulted in the Model F90 and follow-on Model F90-1; the F-models featured the T-tail of the Model 200 King Air mated to the fuselage and wings of the E90, with PT6A-135 engines of 750 shp driving four-bladed propellers. The F90 prototype flew on January 16, 1978 and 203 production versions followed between 1979 and 1983, when the F90 was superseded by the F90-1; the F90 prototype was re-engined with Garrett AiResearch TPE-331 engines to test the feasibility of a Model G90, but this model was not put into production. The Model C90-1 entered production in 1982 after 507 C90s and 347 E90s had been built, featured PT6A-21 engines and improvements to the pressurization system. 54 were built. The following year the F90-1 was put into production with redesigned engine cowlings, upgraded PT6A-135A engines, hydraulic landing gear, triple-fed electrical bus; the C90-1 was soon followed by the Model C90A, which featured the redesigned engine cowlings of the F90-1.
The C90A received an increase in MTOW in 1987. The C90A model was in production until 1992, by which time 235 had been built, all but 74 with the increased MTOW. Only two C90As were built in 1992, the Model C90B followed that year with airframe improvements, four-bladed propellers, propeller synchrophasing, all in an effort to reduce cabin noise; this model had PT6A-21s. In 1994 a cheaper version was introduced as the C90SE, with three-bladed propellers, standardised interior and mechanical instruments instead of the Electronic Flight Instrument System fitted to the C90B. A total of 456 C90Bs and C90SEs were delivered by the time production of these models ended in late 2005. In July 2005, during the Oshkosh Airshow, Beechcraft introduced the C90GT; the C90GT was fitted with 750 shp PT6A-135As, flat rated to the same 550 shp as the earlier King Airs. This engine change increased performance due to lower operating temperatures, improving both cruise speed and climb rate. With a 275 kt cruise speed, the C90GT was competitive with the new generation of Very Light Jets over short to medium distances, while providing a larger and more luxurious cabin.
C90GT deliveries commenced at the beginning of 2006. On May 21, 2007, during the 7th Annual European Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition in Geneva, Beechcraft announced the Model C90GTi updated version of the C90GT, featuring the Rockwell Collins Proline 21 avionics package only offered for the B200 and B300 King Airs. Deliveries commenced in 2008 after 97 C90GTs were delilvered to customers over the previous two years; the Model 100 is a stretched derivative of the Model 90 featuring five cabin windows instead of the Model 90's three. The 100 used the wings and engines from the Model 99 airline
The Ute Pass is a mountain pass west of Colorado Springs that ranges from a peak elevation at Divide of 9,165 to 6,165 feet at its lowest point. About 75,000 years ago glaciers moved down the sides of. Over time, the ground thrusted upward; the combination of the change in terrain from the moving tectonic plates and the sculpting of rock due to the moving boulders created the steep canyons of the Ute Pass entrance. From the entrance of Ute Pass at Manitou Springs and for about 5 miles, the terrain is steep canyon land and the road has many curves; the terrain becomes less steep becoming "gentle u-shaped valleys" near the summit at Divide. Ute Pass is located west of Colorado Springs, to the north of Pikes Peak and is located along U. S. Highway 24. From west to east, the pass traverses through Divide, Woodland Park, Green Mountain Falls, Chipita Park and Cascade, its waters collect through the mountains of Ute Pass, through Fountain Creek canyon west of Manitou Springs and collect in Fountain Creek.
Ute Trail, which runs along the north side of Pikes Peak is believed to have first been a buffalo trail that delivered buffalo from the "milder winter pastures of the eastern plains" to the "lush, grassy" meadows of South Park, Colorado during the summer months. Joel Palmer wrote in his 1847 Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains: "These paths are remarkable in their appearance, being about 15 inches wide, four inches deep, worn into the soil as smoothly as they could be cut with a spade."Stephen Harriman Long wrote of his 1820s travel through the Pikes Peak region that Ute Trail was used by bison and Native Americans. For the Utes, the trail and pass was used to transport salt from Bayou Salade, the salt valley of South Park, to Santa Fe and Taos for trade; the Ute's name for the pass was El Puerto del Sierra Almagre, which means "Doorway to the Red Earth Mountains". Ute trail became a wagon road in the 1860s providing transport to Leadville mining camp. In 1872 the old wagon road through Ute Pass started at Ute Pass Falls.
The Colorado Midland Railway had tracks through the Ute Pass to Leadville and Aspen beginning in 1888. Service was extended to Cripple Creek. Once the mining industry declined, the railroad tracks were removed. In 1932 a new road was built. Ute Pass is now along U. S. Highway 24, a four-lane highway, which obscured Rainbow Falls. Tourism began to be a major economic force in the late 19th century and towns along Ute Pass built cabins and hotels as a result; the pass at one time was used by equestrian traffic. It is steep on the east side; the climate is arid, so many plants that grow here are adapted to low water usage. Wildlife in the Ute Pass area includes wild turkey, mule deer, mountain lion, bighorn sheep, during the summer and fall, black bear. Ute Pass History Park is located at 231 E. Henrietta Avenue on the north side of Woodland Park; the Pikes Peak Museum comprises six buildings that tell the history of the pass, people who traversed it, the communities founded along the pass. The buildings include the museum center, four cabins and a jailhouse, with exhibits that convey the lifestyle, industries and communities along Ute Pass.
Its exhibits includes information about early pioneers. Colorado mountain passes Ute Pass History Pikes Peak Museum at Ute Pass History Park - Ute Pass Historical Society