Meeker Massacre and the White River War, Ute War, or the Ute Campaign, were conflicts that began when the Utes attacked an Indian agency on September 29, 1879, killing the Indian agent Nathan Meeker and his 10 male employees, taking women and children as hostages. United States Army were called in from Fort Steele in Wyoming. Following the massacre of Meeker and others, there was an attack at Milk Creek on U. S. troops, led by Major Thomas T. Thornburgh, killing the major and 13 troops within minutes. Relief troops were called in; the conflict resulted in the forced removal of the White River Utes and the Uncompahgre Utes from Colorado, the reduction in the Southern Utes' land holdings within Colorado. The war opened millions of new acreage to settlement. By the 1870s, white miners were encroaching into land granted to natives by treaty. From 1875 to early Fall 1879, the 9th Cavalry were the only Army troops in southern Colorado. By 1879, most of the 9th Cavalry troops were fighting Apaches in New Mexico in Victorio's War, only two troops were stationed in Colorado.
K Troop was escorting surveyors. D Troop patrolled between Fort Garland. In 1878, Nathan Meeker was appointed United States Indian agent at the White River Ute Indian Reservation, on the western side of the continental divide, he received this appointment. While living among the Ute, Meeker tried to extend his policy of religious and farming reforms, but they were used to a hunter-gatherer lifestyle with seasonal bison hunting, as opposed to one which would require them to settle on a particular piece of land. In addition to forcing agriculture on the White River Utes, Meeker had been attempting to convert the White River Utes to Christianity, he angered the Utes by plowing a field they used to race horses. In addition, Frederick Walker Pitkin, the elected Governor of Colorado, had campaigned on a theme of "The Utes Must Go!". They wanted to gain the rich land occupied by the Ute under the Treaty of 1867. Nathan Meeker had a tense conversation with an irate Ute chief after he began to force his lifestyle on the Utes. Meeker wired for military assistance, claiming that he had been assaulted by an Indian, driven from his home, injured.
On September 29, 1879, the Ute attacked the Indian agency, killing his 10 male employees. This attack occurred with the ambush of Major Thomas T. Thornburgh's soldiers near Milk Creek; the dead included: Nathan Meeker, Frank Dresser, Henry Dresser, George Eaton, Wilmer E. Eskridge, Carl Goldstein, W. H. Post, Shaduck Price, Fred Shepard, Arthur L Thompson, "Unknown teamster", they took some women and children as hostages to secure their own safety as they fled and held them for 23 days. Two of the women taken captive were of Meeker's family: his wife and daughter, just graduated from college and working as a teacher and physician. Chief Ouray of the Uncompahgre Ute, who had not been involved in the uprising, attempted to keep the peace after the massacre and attack on Army forces, he and his wife, helped negotiate the release of the women and children, taken hostage. Major Thomas T. Thornburgh led a command of 153 soldiers, twenty-five militiamen, to the White River Agency from Fort Steele on September 21, 1879, in response to a request for assistance by the Nathan C. Meeker.
The force consisted of 3rd Cavalry. On September 29, 1879, Ute warriors ambushed Thornburgh's forces and, at the Indian agency, killed Meeker and Meeker's white employees. Ute warriors, led by Chief Colorow, attacked Thornburgh's forces at Milk Creek on the northern edge of the reservation, about 18 miles from the White River Agency. Within a few minutes, Major Thornburgh and 13 men were killed, including all his officers above the rank of captain. Another 28 men were wounded. Three-quarters of the horses and mules were killed at leisure by the surrounding Utes. Surviving troops dug in behind the animals' bodies for defense. One man rode hard to get out a request for reinforcements; the US forces held out for several days. Chief Colorow joked with his band of warriors about the smell of dead animals the troops had to endure; the troops were reinforced by 35 black cavalrymen known as Buffalo Soldiers from the 9th Cavalry at Fort Lewis in southern Colorado, who got through the enemy lines on October 2.
Captain Francis Dodge and Sergeant Henry Johnson were among the reinforcements. Over the next three days, thirty-eight of the forty-two animals that Captain Dodge brought with him were killed, the other four were wounded. Dodge focused on gathering drinking water. Henry Johnson, responsible for the guards in the outposts, made rounds of the outposts under heavy fire to check on his men. In gathering water for the troops from the nearby creek, there were some accounts that the Utes would not shoot at black soldiers. Larger U. S. Army relief columns were sent from forts Steele and Fort D. A. Russell, both established in Wyoming Territory after the American Civil War as part of the Department of Dakota. Colonel Wesley Merritt commanded 5 troops from the 5th Cavalry Regiment, or about 350 troops, who traveled by train and marched to reach the surviving forces on Milk Creek on October 5. By the time Colonel Merritt arrived, the Utes had dispersed. While the 9th Cavalry returned to New Mexico to fight Chief Victorio, the other regiments wint
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe is one of three federally recognized tribes of the Ute Nation, are descendants of the historic Weeminuche Band who moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. Their reservation is headquartered at Towaoc, Colorado on the Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation in southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico and small sections of Utah; the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe are descendants of the Weeminuche band lived west of the Great Divide along the Dolores River of western Colorado, in the Abajo Mountains, in the Valley of the San Juan River and its northern tributaries and in the San Juan Mountains including eastern Utah. They moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. Two thousand years ago, the Utes lived and ranged in the mountains and desert over much of the Colorado Plateau: much of present-day eastern Utah, western Colorado, northern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico; the use of lands in the Four Corners area, where the Ute Mountain Ute tribe now live, came later.
Most anthropologists agree that Utes were established in the Four Corners area by 1500 C. E; the Ute people were hunters and gatherers who moved on foot to hunting grounds and gathering land based upon the season. The men hunted animals, including deer, buffalo and other small mammals and birds. Women gathered grasses, berries and greens in woven baskets. Ute in the western part of their territory lived in ramadas; as a result of American westward expansion, the Utes now possess only a small fraction of the land that they once traveled seasonally. The Ute people consist of three populations of people: Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation near Fort Duchesne in northeastern Utah; the Southern Ute live on a reservation in southwestern Colorado near Ignacio. The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe headquartered in Towaoc, the subjects of this article; the Mesa Verde Region, the present day area containing the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe reservation and the Mesa Verde National Park, was the northern most edge of the colonial territory of Spain.
Initial exploration of the American Southwest by the Spanish occurred in 1540, but Spaniards didn't settle into present day New Mexico until 1598. They established their first capital near the pueblo of Ohkay Owingeh, which they renamed San Juan de los Caballeros. In 1626 an account was taken of the Utes by a Spanish scribe in New Mexico. About 1640 the Utes began trading with the Spanish for horses. Spanish traders followed trails to Ute Utes traveled to New Mexican towns; the Utes brought buckskin, dried meats and slaves to exchange for horses and blankets. Spanish officials negotiate the first peace treaty with the Utes in 1670. In search of gold, Juan de Rivera made three expeditions between 1761 and 1765 from Taos through southwestern Colorado to the Gunnison River, he did not return with gold, but did establish trade with Utes and other Native Americans along the Gunnison River. On July 29, 1776 two Franciscan priests, Francisco Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and eight men left Santa Fe to conduct an expedition through Ute territory to find a route to Spanish missions in California.
They traveled through western Colorado and Utah, documenting the "lush, mountainous land filled with game and timber, strange ruins of stone cities and villages, rivers showing signs of precious metals." Beset by hunger and illness, the men returned to Santa Fe. The maps and information provided from the expedition provided useful information for future travel and their route from Santa Fe to the Salt Lake Valley became known as the Old Spanish Trail; the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 established an official boundary line between Spanish and United States possessions in the southwest. Spanish territory included the southern plains, a large part of the western Rocky Mountains, the entire western plateau region of Colorado. With the boundary, the Spanish did little to maintain their northern borders; when Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the Spanish lands became Mexican land. American fur trappers encountered the Utes; the Santa Fe Trail was opened in 1821 by William Bucknell. William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain complete Bent's Fort in 1834 on the Arkansas River, a trading stop along the Santa Fe trail.
In 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican–American War and New Mexico and southern Colorado are ceded to the United States. The next year, the first United States treaty is made with Utes made at New Mexico. Americans recruited Southern Utes to aid them in conflicts with the Navajos, which the Ute saw as an economic need. In 1868 both the Navajo and Ute tribes were removed to reservations; as more Americans moved into the western frontier, conflicts arose with the establishment of forts, reduction in land and access to ancient hunting and gathering grounds, significant reduction in the Ute population from disease and malnutrition. In 1868 Utes are confined to western third of Colorado Territory by treaty. In 1873 the gold and silver rush occurred in San Juan Mountains. In the 1870s, Utes were pushed to the western part of the state of Colorado and held just a small portion of their land in Utah. Between 1859 and 1879 the Ute population fell from 8,000 to 2,000 due
Chief Ignacio was a chief of the Weeminuche band of the Ute tribe of American Indians called the Southern Utes, located in present-day Colorado north of the San Juan River. He led the band through many difficult years in the late nineteenth century, when they were being encroached on by European-American settlers. In January 1880, Chief Ignacio was part of the Ute delegation that traveled to Washington, DC to testify before the US Congress about the 1879 Meeker Massacre and the Ute uprising among the northern Utes on the White River. Although the Weeminuche had not participated in that violence, white settlers wanted to push all the Utes away from their areas; the Utes tried to negotiate for peace, but that year Congress passed legislation forcing the Utes into reservations. Unlike the Northern and Central bands of Utes, who were forced to reservations in Utah, the Weeminuche and two other Southern bands managed to stay in Colorado. Together with the Muache and Capote Utes, the Weeminuche occupied the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in southern Colorado and named their capital Ignacio in the chief's honor.
In 1887 the US Congress passed the General Allotment Act, better known as the Dawes Act. It was intended to regulate the breakup of the communal Native American lands and assign separate householder allotments of 160 acres each, with "surplus" land to be sold on the open market; this was another step in assimilating the Native Americans to European-American ways, based on individual landholdings. In 1895 the Southern Utes voted on the issue. Refusing to have their land broken up, Chief Ignacio and the Weeminuche people moved to the western part of the Southern Ute Reservation in 1896, their descendants have occupied the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation with headquarters at Navajo Springs. They moved their capital to Towaoc; the Ute Mountain Ute are one of three federally recognized tribes of the Ute people. Frederick J. Dockstader. Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. Van Nostrand Reinhold. P. 119. ISBN 0-442-02148-8. Find a Grave
Southern Ute Indian Reservation
The Southern Ute Indian Reservation is a Native American reservation in southwestern Colorado near the northern New Mexico state line. Its territory consists of land from three counties; the reservation has a land area of 1,058.785 sq mi. Its largest communities are Arboles; the only other community, recognized as a separate place by the Census Bureau is the CDP of Southern Ute, which lies just southeast of Ignacio. The Southern Ute tribes include the Muache and the Weeminuche, the latter of which are at Ute Mountain; these tribes were considered the Southern Utes. The Capote band lived east of the Great Divide south of the Conejos River and east of the Rio Grande towards the west site of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, they were living in the San Luis Valley, along the headwaters of the Rio Grande and along the Animas River, centered in the vicinity of today Chama and Tierra Amarilla of Rio Arriba County. Like the Mahgrahch the Kahpota maintained trade relations to Puebloan peoples and came into conflict with southern plains people because of their alliance with the Ollero band of the Jicarilla Apache.
The Muache band lived along the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains from Denver, Colorado in the north to Las Vegas, New Mexico in the south, traded with northern Puebloan peoples with Taos Pueblo, therefore called Taos-Ute, ranged after adoption of the horse with their allies, the Llanero band of the Jicarilla Apache, southeastward as far as the Texas Panhandle. Ouray of the Uncompahgre band was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln as head of all Ute tribes, not agreed upon by the Southern Ute bands; the first reservation created by the treaty of 1868 encompassed about 1/3 of present-day Colorado the mountainous regions west of the continental divide. When precious metals and minerals were discovered in the central mountains settlers sought access to the land. In 1873 The Brunot Agreement was created; this agreement limited the reservation to the narrow strip of land, called The Southern Ute Reservation today. The United States made treaties with various bands of Ute in 1855, 1865, 1866, which the Senate failed to ratify.
Given the whole of eastern Colorado for a reservation, the discovery of gold there in the 1860s brought a quick reduction in territory. The treaty with the Ute in 1865 provided for the cession of land in exchange for the entire valley of the Uintah River in Utah, plus $25,000 per year for ten years $20,000 for 20 years, thereafter $15,000 per year, based on an estimated population of 5,000 Ute; the treaty banned liquor and provided for the establishment and maintenance of a manual labor school for ten years. The Southern Ute Indian Reservation was opened in southwestern Colorado; the eastern part of the reservation is forest with elevations of more than 9000 feet. The western portion is arid mesa; the actual land lies in the southwestern corner of the state of Colorado and consists of a strip 15 miles north to south and 110 miles east to west. In 1895 The Hunter Act distributed the land in the reservation in plots to the heads of households in the Mouache and Capote tribes; the Weeminuche tribe had approved an 1888 congressional bill relocating them to San Juan County, however this bill did not pass so the Weeminuche were brought back to Colorado.
They refused to go back to the old grounds of the agency so they established camps on the western end of the Southern Ute Reservation. With the three tribes given their land the final provisions of the Hunter Act were implemented opening over 500,000 acres of the Reservation to non-native settlers. Established in 1873, it is the reservation of the Southern Ute Indian Tribe, a federally recognized Ute tribe; the southern Utes are made up of the Mouache and the Capote. Government is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 and is led by a tribal council with a chairman as head of the executive. For decades at the end of the 20th century, Leonard C. Burch had been the tribes chairman. In 2008 a new chairman, Matthew Box was elected. There have been numerous council members, with some being elected to council many times, but they all serve one purpose, and, to serve the tribal membership for their best interest. Leonard C. Burch was the most popular chairman to serve for the tribal population.
When Matthew Box was elected he won in a runoff election against Clement J. Frost; the Southern Ute Indian Tribe is the largest employer in the Four Corners, being a stupendous and competitive organization. With being on the top-ten list of wealthiest tribes in America, the Southern Utes put their priority to their spiritual traditions as well as their compatibility towards the non-Indian people, they supply numerous non-Indians with employment. By creating a "checkerboard reservation", the Southern Utes created a relationship with the non-Indians that they knew was imminent. Census population in Southern Ute Reservation in 1980 and 20 years 2000. Southern Ute Reservation 1980 2000 Archuleta County 2,257 4,796 La Plata County 259 695 Montezuma County 1,998 4,101 Matthew Box resigned as Tribal Chairman in 2011. Under a special election Pearl Casias was elected as the first Chairwoman in the history of the Tribe and served for a time in 2011. Jimmy Newton served as Tribal Chairman from 2012 until his death in 2014.
Clement Frost served as Tribal Chairman following Newton's death in 2014. Frost retired in 2017, in December 2017 Christine Baker-Sage was elected to serve as Tribal Chairwoman. Joseph Rael, dancer
The sun dance is a ceremony practiced by some Indigenous people of United States of America and Canada those of the Plains cultures. It involves the community gathering together to pray for healing. Individuals make personal sacrifices on behalf of the community. After European colonization of the Americas, with the formation of the Canadian and United States governments, both countries passed laws intended to suppress Indigenous cultures and encourage assimilation to majority-European culture, they banned Indigenous ceremonies and, in many schools and other areas, prohibited Indigenous people from speaking their native languages. In some cases they were not allowed to visit sacred sites when these had been excluded from the territory of community; the sun dance was one of the prohibited ceremonies, as was the potlatch of the Pacific Northwest peoples. Canada lifted its prohibition against the practice of the full ceremony in 1951, but in the United States, Indigenous peoples were not allowed to practice the sun dance or other sacred ceremonies until the late 1970s, after they gained renewed sovereignty and civil rights following a period of high activism, including legal challenges to the government.
Congress passed the American Indian Religious Freedom Act in 1978, enacted to protect basic civil liberties, to protect and preserve the traditional religious rights and cultural practices of American Indians, Eskimos and Native Hawaiians. Several features are common to the ceremonies held by sun dance cultures; these include dances and songs passed down through many generations, the use of a traditional drum, a sacred fire, praying with a ceremonial pipe, fasting from food and water before participating in the dance, and, in some cases, the ceremonial piercing of skin and a trial of physical endurance. Certain plants are prepared for use during the ceremony; the sun dance is a grueling ordeal for the dancers, a physical and spiritual test that they offer in sacrifice for their people. According to the Oklahoma Historical Society, young men dance around a pole to which they are fastened by "rawhide thongs pegged through the skin of their chests."While not all sun dance ceremonies include piercing, the object of the sun dance is to offer personal sacrifice for the benefit of one's family and community.
The dancers fast for many days, in the open whatever weather occurs. At most ceremonies, family members and friends stay in the surrounding camp and pray in support of the dancers. Much time and energy by the entire community are needed to conduct the sun dance gatherings and ceremonies. Communities organize for at least a year to prepare for the ceremony. One leader or a small group of leaders are in charge of the ceremony, but many elders help out and advise. A group of helpers do many of the tasks required to prepare for the ceremony; as this is a sacred ceremony, people are reluctant to discuss it in any great detail. Given a long history of cultural misappropriation, Indigenous people are suspicious that non-Indigenous people may abuse or misuse the traditional ways. Elders and medicine men are concerned that the ceremony should only be passed along in the right ways; the words used at a sun dance are in the native language and are not translated for outsiders. Not talking about this ceremony is part of the respect the people display for it.
In addition, the detailed way in which a respected elder speaks and explains a sun dance to younger members of the community is unique and not quoted, nor is it intended for publication. In 1993, responding to what they believed was a frequent desecration of the sun dance and other Lakota sacred ceremonies, US and Canadian Lakota and Nakota nations held "the Lakota Summit V", it was an international gathering of about 500 representatives from 40 different peoples and bands of the Lakota. They unanimously passed the following'Declaration of War Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality': "Whereas sacrilegious "sundances" for non-Indians are being conducted by charlatans and cult leaders who promote abominable and obscene imitations of our sacred Lakota sundance rites. We hereby and henceforth declare war against all persons who persist in exploiting and misrepresenting the sacred traditions and spiritual practices of the Lakota and Nakota people." - Mesteth, Wilmer, et al In 2003, the 19th-Generation Keeper of the Sacred White Buffalo Calf Pipe of the Lakota asked non-Indigenous people to stop attending the sun dance.
This statement was supported by keepers of sacred bundles and traditional spiritual leaders from the Cheyenne, Dakota and Nakota nations, who issued a proclamation that non-Indigenous people would be banned from sacred altars and the Seven Sacred Rites and the sun dance, effective March 9, 2003 onward: The Wi-wanyang-wa-c'i-pi: The only participants allowed in the centre will be Native People. The non-Native people need to respect our decision. If there have been any unfinished commitments to the sundance and non-Natives have concern for this decision. Our purpose for the sundance is for the survival of the future generations to come and foremost. If the non-Natives understand this purpose, they will understand this decision and know that by their departure from this Ho-c'o-ka is their sincere contribution to the survival of our future generations. Though only some nations' sun dances include the body piercings, the Canadian government outla
American Indian Wars
The American Indian Wars is the collective name for the various armed conflicts fought by European governments and colonists, the United States and Canadian governments and American and Canadian settlers, against various American Indian and First Nation tribes. These conflicts occurred in North America from the time of the earliest colonial settlements in the 17th century until the 1920s; the various Indian Wars resulted from a wide variety of factors, including cultural clashes, land disputes, criminal acts committed on both sides. European powers and the colonies enlisted Indian tribes to help them conduct warfare against one another's colonial settlements. After the American Revolution, many conflicts were local to specific states or regions and involved disputes over land use; the British Royal Proclamation of 1763, included in the Constitution of Canada, prohibited white settlers from taking the lands of indigenous peoples in Canada without signing a treaty with them. It continues to be the law in Canada today, 11 Numbered Treaties, covering most of the First Nations lands, limited the number of such conflicts.
As white settlers spread westward across America after 1780, the size and intensity of armed conflicts increased between settlers and various cultures of Indians. The climax came in the War of 1812, which resulted in the defeat of major Indian coalitions in the Midwest and the South. Conflict with settlers became much less common and were resolved by treaty through sale or exchange of territory between the federal government and specific tribes; the Indian Removal Act of 1830 authorized the US government to enforce the Indian removal from east of the Mississippi River to the west, what the government considered the sparsely populated American frontier. The federal US policy of removal was refined in the West, as American settlers kept expanding their territories, to relocate Indian tribes to specially designated and federally protected reservations; the colonization of North America by the English, Spanish and Swedish was resisted by some Indian tribes and assisted by other tribes. Wars and other armed conflicts in the 17th and 18th centuries included: Beaver Wars between the Iroquois and the French, who allied with the Algonquians Anglo-Powhatan Wars, including the 1622 Jamestown Massacre, between English colonists and the Powhatan Confederacy in the Colony of Virginia Pequot War of 1636–38 between the Pequot tribe and colonists from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Connecticut Colony Kieft's War in the Dutch territory of New Netherland between colonists and the Lenape people Peach Tree War, the large-scale attack by the Susquehannocks and allied tribes on several New Netherland settlements along the Hudson River Esopus Wars, conflicts between the Esopus tribe of Lenape Indians and colonial New Netherlanders in Ulster County, New York King Philip's War in New England between colonists and the Narragansett people Tuscarora War in the Province of North Carolina Yamasee War in the Province of South Carolina Dummer's War in northern New England and French Acadia Pontiac's War in the Great Lakes region Lord Dunmore's War in western Virginia In several instances, warfare in America was a reflection of European rivalries, with American Indian tribes splitting their alliances among the powers siding with their trading partners.
Various tribes fought on each side in King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Dummer's War, King George's War, the French and Indian War, allying with British or French colonists according to their own self interests. Indian tribes differed in their alliances during the American Revolution and the War of 1812; the Cherokees supported the British in the Revolutionary War and raided frontier American settlements in the hope of driving out the settlers, four Iroquois tribes fought against the Patriots. Other tribes fought for the American Patriots, such as the Oneida people and Tuscarora people of the Iroquois Confederacy in New York. British merchants and government agents began supplying weapons to Indians living in the United States following the Revolution in the hope that, if a war broke out, they would fight on the British side; the British further planned to set up an Indian nation in the Ohio-Wisconsin area to block further American expansion. The US protested and went to war in 1812. Most Indian tribes supported the British those allied with Tecumseh, but they were defeated by General William Henry Harrison.
The War of 1812 spread to Indian rivalries, as well. Many refugees from defeated tribes went over the border to Canada. During the early 19th century, the federal government was under pressure by settlers in many regions to expel Indians from their areas; the Indian Removal Act of 1830 offered Indians the choices of assimilating and giving up tribal membership, relocation to an Indian reservation with an exchange or payment for lands, or moving west. Some resisted most notably the Seminoles in a series of wars in Florida, they were never defeated. The United States gave up on the remainder, by living defensively deep in the swamps and Everglades. Others were moved to reservations west of the Mississippi River, most famously the Cherokee whose relocation was call