Ute people /ˈjuːt/ are Native Americans of the Ute tribe and culture. They are now living primarily in Utah and Colorado, the Ute are in the Great Basin classification of Indigenous People. They have three Ute tribal reservations, Uintah-Ouray in northeastern Utah, Southern Ute in Colorado, and Ute Mountain which primarily lies in Colorado, the majority of Ute are believed to live on one of these reservations. The State of Utah is named after these people, the primary language of the Ute people is English. However, some of the people speak their ancestral Ute language. It is related to the Southern Paiute language and belongs to the Southern subdivision of the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, a dictionary and grammar have been written for the language, and the Bible has been translated into Ute. Several orthographies exist, but the language is written in the Latin script, different ideas about the phonetic spelling of many names and some words has caused confusion about the spelling, so many names are often spelled in several different ways. An example is Timpanogos, which has also been spelled as Toompahnahwach, Tumpanuwac, Tumpanawach, Timpanog, Tumpipanogo or Timanogos, from this area, speakers of Uto-Aztecan languages gradually diffused northward and southward. The Ute, Paiute, Shoshone, Comanche and some belong to what is called the Numic subdivision within the Uto-Aztecan language family. It is believed that this Numic group originated near the border of Nevada and California, then spread North, the Numic group is divided into 3 main subdivisions - Southern, Central and Western. Not all of the languages are mutually intelligible, especially those in different subdivisions, Ute and Southern Paiute are Southern Numic Languages, while Shoshone, Gosiute and Comanche are Central Numic, and Northern Paiute and Bannock are Western Numic. The Numic-speaking tribes share many cultural, genetic and linguistic characteristics, many of the tribes met and merged with each other or divided from each other at various times. For instance, the Comanche split off from the Shoshone in about the mid-1600s, since the mid-1800s, some Ute bands merged with Southern Paiute bands to become Paiute. Some possibly Shoshonean tribes, such as the Timpanogos, merged with the Ute and it is also true that there were many times when the tribes did not get along. The name Comanche is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, before Mexican settlers arrived, the Utes occupied significant portions of what are today eastern Utah, western Colorado, including the San Luis Valley, and parts of New Mexico and Wyoming. The Utes were never a group within historic times, instead. Some of the largest known groups were the Capote, Moache, Moanumts, Parianuche, Taviwach, Weeminuche, also the Uintah or Uinta, Uncompahgre tribe and White River Utes. The last partial migration of the Utes within this area was in the year 1885, “In 1861, President Abraham Lincoln signed an executive order establishing the original Uintah Valley Reservation in the eastern part of the Utah territory
Image: Utes chief Severo and family, 1899
Map dated 1838 showing the "Youta" people. From Britannica 7th edition.
Ledger drawing of a battle between a Ute warrior and mounted Cheyenne warrior. ca. 1880s