The Rashidun Caliphs simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Uthman ibn Affan, Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the Abbasid Caliphate based in Baghdad, it is a reference to the Sunni imperative "Hold to my example and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs". The first four Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad are described as the "Khulafāʾ Rāshidūn"; the Rashidun were either chosen based on the wishes of their predecessor. In the order of succession, the Rāshidūn were: Abu Bakr. Umar ibn al-Khattab, – Umar is spelled Omar in some Western scholarship. Uthman ibn Affan – Uthman is spelled Othman in some non-Arabic scholarship. Ali ibn Abi Talib – During this period however, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan controlled the Levant and Egypt regions independently of Ali.
Abu Bakr was the father-in-law of Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632–634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death; as caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions exercised by Muhammad, since the religious function and authority of prophethood ended with Muhammad's death according to Islam. Abu Bakr was called As-Siddiq, was known by that title among generations of Muslims, he prevented the converted Muslims from dispersing, kept the community united, consolidated Islamic grip on the region by containing the Ridda, while extending the Dar Al Islam all the way to the Red Sea. Umar c. 2 Nov. was a leading adviser to Muhammad. His daughter Hafsa bint Umar was married to Muhammad thus he became Muhammad's father-in-law, he ruled for 10 years. He succeeded Abu Bakr on 23 August 634 as the second caliph, played a significant role in Islam. Under Umar the Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate ruling the whole Sassanid Persian Empire and more than two thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire.
His legislative abilities, his firm political and administrative control over a expanding empire and his brilliantly coordinated multi-prong attacks against the Sassanid Persian Empire that resulted in the conquest of the Persian empire in less than two years, marked his reputation as a great political and military leader. Among his conquests are Jerusalem and Egypt, he was killed by a Persian captive. `Uthman was one of the companions and son in law of Muhammad. Two of Muhammad's daughters Ruqayyah bint Muhammad and Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad was married to him one after another. Uthman was born into the Umayyad clan of a powerful family of the Quraysh tribe, he became caliph at the age of 70. Under his leadership, the empire expanded into Fars in 650 and some areas of Khorasan in 651, the conquest of Armenia was begun in the 640s, his rule ended. Uthman is best known for forming the committee which compiled the basic text of the Quran as it exists today, based on text, gathered separately on parchment and rocks during the lifetime of Muhammad and on a copy of the Quran, collated by Abu Bakr and left with Muhammad's widow after Abu Bakr's death.
The committee members were reciters of the Quran and had memorised the entire text during the lifetime of Muhammad. This work was undertaken due to the vast expansion of Islam under Uthman's rule, which encountered many different dialects and languages; this had led to variant readings of the Quran for those converts who were not familiar with the language. After clarifying any possible errors in pronunciation or dialects, Uthman sent copies of the sacred text to each of the Muslim cities and garrison towns, destroyed variant texts. Ali was a cousin of Muhammad, he was the second companion of Muhammad. He was only 10 years old at the time of his conversion. At the age of 21, he married Fatimah, Muhammed's youngest daughter by Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, became a son-in-law of Muhammed, he had two daughters with Fatimah. He was a scribe of the Quran, who kept a written copy of it, memorized its verses as soon as they were revealed. During the Khilafat of Uthman and Abu Bakr, he was part of the Majlis ash-Shura and took care of Medina in their absence.
After the death of Uthman, Medina was in political chaos for a number of days. After four days, when the rebels who assassinated Uthman felt that it was necessary that a new Khalifa should be elected before they left Medina, Many of the companions approached Ali to take the role of caliph, which he refused to do initially; the rebels offered Khilafat to Talha and Zubair, who refused. The Ansars declined their offer to choose a
Osman I or Osman Gazi, sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. He and the dynasty bearing his name established and ruled the nascent Ottoman Empire; the state, while only a small principality during Osman's lifetime, transformed into a world empire in the centuries after his death. It existed until shortly after the end of World War I. Historians mark the end date at the abolition of the sultanate in 1922, the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, or the abolition of the caliphate in 1924. Due to the scarcity of historical sources dating from his lifetime little factual information is known about him. Not a single written source survives from Osman's reign; the Ottomans did not record the history of Osman's life until the fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after his death. Because of this, it is challenging for historians to differentiate between fact and myth in the many stories told about him.
One historian has gone so far as to declare it impossible, describing the period of Osman's life as a "black hole."According to Ottoman tradition, Osman's ancestors were descendants of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks. The Ottoman principality was just one of many Anatolian beyliks that emerged in the second half of the thirteenth century. Situated in the region of Bithynia, Osman's principality was well-placed to launch attacks on the vulnerable Byzantine Empire, which his descendants would go on to conquer; some scholars have argued that Osman's original name was Turkish Atman or Ataman, was only changed to ʿOsmān, of Arabic origin. The earliest Byzantine sources, including Osman's contemporary George Pachymeres, spell his name as Ατουμάν or Ατμάν, whereas Greek sources render both the Arabic form ʿUthmān and the Turkish version ʿOsmān with θ, τθ, or τσ. An early Arabic source mentioning him writes ط rather than ث in one instance. Osman may thus have adopted the more prestigious Muslim name in his life.
The exact date of Osman's birth is unknown, little is known about his early life and origins due to the scarcity of sources and the many myths and legends which came to be told about him by the Ottomans in centuries. He was most born around the middle of the thirteenth century in 1254/5, the date given by the sixteenth-century Ottoman historian Kemalpaşazade. According to Ottoman tradition, Osman's father Ertuğrul led the Turkic Kayı tribe west from Central Asia into Anatolia, fleeing the Mongol onslaught, he pledged allegiance to the Sultan of the Anatolian Seljuks, who granted him dominion over the town of Söğüt on the Byzantine frontier. This connection between Ertuğrul and the Seljuks, was invented by court chroniclers a century and the true origins of the Ottomans thus remain obscure. Osman became chief, or bey, upon his father’s death in c. 1280. Nothing is known for certain about Osman's early activities, except that he controlled the region around the town of Söğüt and from there launched raids against the neighboring Byzantine Empire.
The first datable event in Osman's life is the Battle of Bapheus in 1301 or 1302, in which he defeated a Byzantine force sent to counter him. Osman appears to have followed the strategy of increasing his territories at the expense of the Byzantines while avoiding conflict with his more powerful Turkish neighbors, his first advances were through the passes which lead from the barren areas of northern Phrygia near modern Eskişehir into the more fertile plains of Bithynia. These legends have been romanticized by the poetical pens which recorded them in years; the Ottoman writers attached great importance to this legendary, dreamlike conception of the founder of their empire. Osman I had a close relationship with a local religious leader of dervishes named Sheikh Edebali, whose daughter he married. A story emerged among Ottoman writers to explain the relationship between the two men, in which Osman had a dream while staying in the Sheikh's house; the story appears in the late fifteenth-century chronicle of Aşıkpaşazade as follows: He saw that a moon arose from the holy man's breast and came to sink in his own breast.
A tree sprouted from his navel and its shade compassed the world. Beneath this shade there were mountains, streams flowed forth from the foot of each mountain; some people drank from these running waters, others watered gardens, while yet others caused fountains to flow. When Osman awoke he told the story to the holy man, who said'Osman, my son, for God has given the imperial office to you and your descendants and my daughter Malhun shall be your wife; the dream became an important foundational myth for the empire, imbuing the House of Osman with God-given authority over the earth and providing its fifteenth-century audience with an explanation for Ottoman success. The dream story may have served as a form of compact: just as God promised to provide Osman and his descendants with sovereignty, it was implicit that it was the duty of Osman to provide his subjects with prosperity. According to Shaw, Osman's first real conquests followed the collapse of Seljuk authority when he was able to occupy the fortresses of
Barbara Uthmann was considered to be one of the greatest supporters of bobbin lace making and was a successful businesswoman in the Ore Mountains. Her last name has sometimes been spelled Uttmann, but the spelling Uthmann is considered to be correct today, she was the daughter of Heinrich von Elterlein and continued the business of her deceased husband, Christoph Uthmann, but failed as a result of intrigue by her competition. She was thus forced to look for another field of activity, it cannot be proven that she had bobbin lace made as a cottage industry, but it can be proven that she was active as a manufacturer of braids. At times, she employed 900 braid makers. After her death, she left behind a considerable life's work and is still counted today as one of the extraordinary personalities of the Ore Mountains. In 1885, a bronze figure of Uthmann was cast for the town of Annaberg by the Dresden sculptor, Professor Eduard Robert Henze, it served as an acknowledgement to Barbara Uthmann, considered to be the instigator of the second industrial boom in the history of the Ore Mountains.
In the second half of the 1930s, a child died while playing at the edge of the Barbara Uthmann fountain and the water was removed from the pool. It was planted afterwards. In the Second World War, the bronze figure was melted down for armaments production. On 12 November 1998, after two polls, it was decided that the Barbara Uthmann monument should be erected again. After collecting donations for ten years, a replica of the Henze monument was erected in the market square at Annaberg-Buchholz on 2 October 2002. On this occasion, the Uthmann family celebrated a family reunion in Annaberg-Buchholz. Over 60 descendants witnessed the official opening of the fountain and signed the golden book of the town. There is a Barbara-Uthmann monument in the market square of Elterlein. In 2003, Planetoid 1998 CA, discovered on 1 February 1998, by the Drebach Observatory in the Ore Mountains, was named after Barbara Uthmann; the planetoid, now called Uthmann, orbits the sun between the planets of Mars and Jupiter.
Barbara Uthmann und das Klöppeln Joachim Mehnert | Barbara Uthmann: eine ungewöhnliche Frau
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Abdallah bin Abi Quhafah, popularly known as Abu Bakr, was a companion and—through his daughter Aisha—a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr was born in Mecca in 573 CE to Uthman Abu Salma Umm al-Khair, he is regarded as the fourth person to have accepted Islam, after Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Ali ibn Abi Talib, Zayd ibn Harith. Abu Bakr was present at a number of battles of Islam, such as the Battle of Badr and the Battle of Uhud. Abu Bakr was present at the Farewell Pilgrimage, as well as the event of Ghadir Khumm, in 632 CE. However, shortly after Muhammad died, Abu Bakr and some others left the still-unburied body of Muhammad and gathered at a place known as Saqifa. After lengthy debates that included violence, Umar ibn Al-Khattab pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr at Saqifa. Saqifa was described by the famous Sunni historian Al-Tabari as "a scene from the period of Jahiliya". Abu Bakr thus assumed power, ruling over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE. Once in power, Abu Bakr launched the Ridda Wars to quell an outbreak of "apostasy" in various lands outside Medina.
The Ridda Wars, were expanded to include the use of force against Muslims who did not recognize Abu Bakr's government, instead of focusing on those who had left Islam. After the conclusion of the Ridda Wars, Abu Bakr launched campaigns into Syria and Persia, but died before their conclusion. Another significant event during Abu Bakr's reign was the seizure of the land of Fadak from Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter. In 634 CE, Abu Bakr died shortly thereafter, he was succeeded by Umar. Abu Bakr's full name was Abdullah ibn Uthman ibn Aamir ibn Amr ibn Ka'ab ibn Sa'ad ibn Taym ibn Murrah ibn Ka'ab ibn Lu'ai ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr al-Quraishi. In Arabic, the name Abd Allah means "servant of Allah". One of his early titles, preceding his conversion to Islam, was Ateeq, meaning "saved one". Muhammad restated this title when he said that Abu Bakr is the "Ateeq", he was called Al-Siddiq by Muhammad after he believed him in the event of Isra and Mi'raj when other people didn't, Ali confirmed that title several times.
There is a dispute over his name being Abdullah. Ibn Hajar in Al-Isaabah, as well as many other sources, narrates from Qasim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakr, "I asked Aisha the name of Abu Bakr, she said Abdullah. I said, she said Abu Quhafa had three children, one was second Mu' taq and third, Utaiq. "All three names are similar and derived from the same root. He was referred to in the Quran as the "second of the two in the cave" in reference to the event of hijra, where with Muhammad he hid in the cave in Jabal Thawr from the Meccan party, sent after them. Many Sunni hadiths available about Muhammad comes through Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha. After the death of Abu Bakr, her brother Muhammad ibn. After Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was killed by the Umayyads, Aisha raised and taught her nephew, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr and her nephew Urwah ibn Zubayr, he taught his son, Hisham ibn Urwah, the main teacher of Malik ibn Anas, whose views many Sunni follow. Qasim's mother was of Ali's family and his daughter Farwah bint al-Qasim, who married Muhammad al-Baqir, was the mother of Jafar al-Sadiq.
Therefore, al-Qasim was the grandson of the first caliph Abu Bakr and the grandfather of Ja'far al-Sadiq. Another of Abu Bakr's grandsons, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, was close to Husayn bin Ali. After Hussein ibn Ali was betrayed by the people of Kufa and killed by the army of Yazid I, the Umayyad ruler, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr confronted Yazid and expelled him from Iraq, southern Arabia and the greater part of Syria, parts of Egypt. Following a lengthy campaign, on his last hour Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr asked his mother Asma' bint Abu Bakr, the daughter of Abu Bakr, for advice. Asma' bint Abu Bakr replied to her son: "You know better in your own self, that if you are upon the truth and you are calling towards the truth go forth, for people more honourable than you have been killed and if you are not upon the truth what an evil son you are and you have destroyed yourself and those who are with you. If you say, that if you are upon the truth and you will be killed at the hands of others you will not be free".
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr left and was also killed and crucified by the Syrian Army under the control of the Umayyads. Abu Bakr was born in Mecca some time in 573 CE, to a rich family in the Banu Taym tribe of the Quraysh tribal confederacy. Abu Bakr's father's name was Uthman and given the laqab Abu Quhafa, his mother was Salma bint Sakhar, given the laqab of Umm ul-Khair, he spent his early childhood like other Arab children of the time, among the Bedouins who called themselves Ahl-i-Ba'eer- the people of the camel, developed a particular fondness for camels. In his early years he played with the camel calves and goats, his love for camels earned him the nickname "Abu Bakr", the father of the camel's calf. Like other children of the rich Meccan merchant families, Abu Bakr was literate and developed a fondness for poetry, he used to attend the annual fair at Ukaz, participate in poetical symposia. He had a good memory and had a good knowledge of the genealogy of the Arab tribes, their stories and their politics.
A story is preserved that once when he was a child, his father took him to the Kaaba, asked him to pray before the idols. His father went away to atte
Ali ibn Abi Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam. He ruled as the fourth caliph from 656 to 661, but is regarded as the rightful immediate successor to Muhammad as an Imam by Shia Muslims. Born to Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad, Ali was born inside the sacred sanctuary of the Kaaba in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam. Ali was the first male who accepted Islam, according to some authors, the first Muslim. Ali protected Muhammad from an early age and took part in all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. After migrating to Medina, he married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, he was appointed caliph by Muhammad's companions in 656, after Caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated. Ali's reign saw civil wars and in 661, he was attacked and assassinated by a Kharijite while praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa, being martyred two days later. Ali is important to both Shias and Sunnis and spiritually; the numerous biographical sources about Ali are biased according to sectarian lines, but they agree that he was a pious Muslim, devoted to the cause of Islam and a just ruler in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
While Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun caliphs, Shia Muslims regard Ali as the first Imam after Muhammad due to their interpretation of the events at Ghadir Khumm. Shia Muslims believe that Ali and the other Shia Imams are the rightful successors to Muhammad. Ali has received recognition from a variety of non-Muslim organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Organization for Human Rights, for his governance and social justice. Ali's father, Abu Talib, was the custodian of the Ka'bah and a sheikh of Banu Hashim, an important branch of the powerful Quraysh tribe, he was an uncle of Muhammad, had raised Muhammad after Abdul Muttalib died. Ali's mother, Fatima bint Asad belonged to Banu Hashim, making Ali a descendant of Ismā'īl the son of Ibrāhīm. Many sources Shi'i ones, attest that Ali was born inside the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, where he stayed with his mother for three days, his mother felt the beginning of her labour pain while visiting the Kaaba and entered it where her son was born.
Some Shia sources contain miraculous descriptions of the entrance of Ali's mother into the Kaaba. Ali's birth in the Kaaba is regarded as a unique event proving his "high spiritual station" among Shia, while Sunni scholars consider it a great, if not unique, distinction. According to a tradition, Muhammad was the first person whom Ali saw as he took the newborn in his hands. Muhammad named him Ali, meaning "the exalted one". Muhammad had a close relationship with Ali's parents; when Muhammad was orphaned and lost his grandfather Abdul Muttalib, Ali's father took him into his house. Ali was born three years after Muhammad married Khadijah bint Khuwaylid; when Ali was five years old, Muhammad took Ali into his home to raise him. Some historians say that this was because there was a famine in Mecca at the time and that Ali's father had a large family to support. While it is not disputed that Muhammad raised Ali, it was not due to any financial stress that Ali's father was going through. Many Shia Muslims celebrate Imam Ali's birth anniversary as Father's Day in Iran.
The Gregorian date for this changes every year: Ali had been living with Muhammad and Muhammad's wife Khadija since he was five years old. When Ali was nine, Muhammad announced himself as the Prophet of Islam, Ali became the first male to accept Islam, he was the second person, after Khadija. According to Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy in A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, "Ali and Qur'an'grew up' together as'twins' in the house of Muhammad Mustafa and Khadija-tul-Kubra."The second period of Ali's life began in 610 when he declared Islam at the age of 9, ended with the Hijra of Muhammad to Medina in 622. When Muhammad reported that he had received a divine revelation, Ali only about nine years old, believed him and professed to Islam. Ali became the first male to embrace Islam. Shia doctrine asserts that in keeping with Ali's divine mission, he accepted Islam before he took part in any old Meccan traditional religion rites, regarded by Muslims as polytheistic or paganistic. Hence the Shia say of Ali that his face is honoured, as it was never sullied by prostrations before idols.
The Sunnis use the honorific Karam Allahu Wajhahu, which means "God's Favour upon his Face." The reason his acceptance is not called a conversion is because he was never an idol worshipper like the people of Mecca. He was known to have broken idols in the mould of Abraham and asked people why they worshipped something they made themselves. Ali's grandfather, along with some members of the Bani Hashim clan, were Hanifs, or followers of a monotheistic belief system prior to the emergence of Islam in Mecca. Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret for three years. In the fourth year of his preaching, when Muhammad was commanded to invite his close relatives to come to Islam, he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet; the Prophet ordered Ali to invite the 40 people again. T