United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service is an American multinational package delivery and supply chain management company. Along with the central package delivery operation, the UPS brand name is used to denote many of its divisions and subsidiaries, including its cargo airline, freight-based trucking operation, retail-based packing and shipping centers; the global logistics company is headquartered in the U. S. city of Sandy Springs, a part of the Greater Atlanta metropolitan area. On August 28, 1907, James Casey founded the American Messenger Company with Claude Ryan in Seattle, capitalized with $100 in debt. Most deliveries at this time were made on foot and bicycles were used for longer trips; the American Messenger Company focused on package delivery to retail stores with special delivery mail delivered for its largest client the United States Postal Service. In 1913, the company acquired a Model T Ford as its first delivery vehicle. Casey and Ryan merged with a competitor, Evert McCabe, formed Merchants Parcel Delivery.
Consolidated delivery was introduced, combining packages addressed to a certain neighborhood onto one delivery vehicle. In 1916, Charlie Soderstrom joined Merchants Parcel Delivery bringing in more vehicles for the growing delivery business. In 1919, the company expanded for the first time outside of Seattle to Oakland and changed its name to United Parcel Service; the name change to United Parcel Service was to remind the company expansion that operations were still United under the same organisation and Parcel identified the type of business offered as part of its Service. Common carrier service was acquired in 1922 from a company in California. UPS became one of the only companies in the United States to offer common carrier service. At first common carrier was only limited to a small area around Los Angeles but by 1927 expanded to areas up to 125 miles outside the city. In 1924, a conveyor belt system was debuted for the handling of packages for UPS operations. In 1930, a consolidated service began in New York City, soon after in other major cities in the East and the Midwest.
The use of common carrier for delivery between all customers placed UPS in direct competition with the United States Postal Service and the Interstate Commerce Commission. The common carrier service was applied in cities where UPS could use the service without the authority of the ICC and state commerce commissions; the first city for UPS to use common carrier status outside California was Chicago, Illinois in 1953. Air service through UPS was first used in 1929 through private airlines. However, The Great Depression and a lack of volume ended the air service. In 1953, UPS resumed air service called UPS Blue Label Air with two-day service to major cities along the East Coast and West Coast. In 1975, UPS moved its headquarters to Greenwich and began serving all of the 48 contiguous states of the United States; the expanded operations to all 48 states made UPS the first package delivery company to serve every address in the Continental United States. UPS went international in 1975 establishing operations in Canada and in 1976 operations were established in Germany.
On February 28, UPS Ltd. began operations in Ontario. UPS Canada's head office is located in Ontario. In 1976, UPS established a domestic operation in West Germany. UPS Next Day Air Service was launched in 1985 for all 48 states plus Puerto Rico. In 1988, UPS Airlines was launched with authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration. UPS Airlines became the fastest-growing airline in FAA history and today is the 10th largest airline in the United States. Domestic air service was added to Germany in 1989. In 1991, UPS moved its headquarters to Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta. In 1992, UPS rebranded them UPS Supply Chain Solutions. Haulfast provided the pallet trucking network for the CarryFast group of companies. By 1993, UPS was delivering up to documents per day; the large volume of UPS customers in the 1990s made UPS develop new technology for better efficiency. A handheld device called Delivery Information Acquisition Device was created to record and upload delivery information to the UPS network upon pickup by every UPS driver.
In 1992, UPS began tracking all ground shipments electronically. In 1994, UPS.com debuted, provided the perfect interface to make what was internal operational information available for customer access. In 1995, UPS acquired SonicAir to compete with Choice Logistics. In the same year, UPS launched UPS Logistics Group to facilitate global supply chain management solutions and consulting for customer needs. In 1997, a walkout by the 185,000 members of the Teamsters shut down UPS for 16 days. In 1998, UPS Capital was established to enable companies to grow their business through a comprehensive menu of integrated financial services through UPS. UPS acquired Challenge Air in 1999 to expand its operations in Latin America. On November 10, 1999, UPS became a public company in the largest initial public offering of the century. In 2001, UPS acquired. Mail Boxes Etc. Inc. In 2003 3,000 Mail Boxes Etc. Inc. were rebranded as The UPS Store. In 2004, UPS entered the heavy freight business with purchase of Menlo Worldwide Forwarding, a former subsidiary of Menlo Worldwide.
UPS rebranded it as UPS Supply Chain Solutions. The purchase price was the assumption of US$110 million in long-term debt. On August 5, 2005, UPS announced that it has completed its acqui
Cintas Corporation is an American company with headquarters in Cincinnati, that provides specialized services to businesses in North America. The firm designs and implements corporate identity uniform programs and provides entrance mats, restroom cleaning and supplies and carpet cleaning, promotional products, first aid and fire protection products and services. Cintas is a publicly held company traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol CTAS and is a component of the Standard & Poor's 500 Index; the company is one of the largest in the industry with 35,000 employees in 2017. Revenue in fiscal year 2016 was $4.905 billion and net income was $693.52 million. Fortune in the United States, named Cintas among its "Most Admired Companies" for eight consecutive years, Report on Business Magazine named the company one of Canada's Best Employers. Cintas has been featured on episodes of the reality television series Bar Rescue and Hotel Impossible. Cintas Corporation began in 1929 as the Acme Industrial Laundry Company by Richard Farmer.
He collected chemical-soaked rags from factories and washed and returned them to customers for a fee. In the early 1940s, rags were replaced by shop towels—which are uniform in size and shape and much more absorbent than old rags—and tablecloths. By the company’s name had changed to Acme Wiper and Industrial Laundry, his grandson, Richard T. Farmer, joined the family business in 1956 after graduating from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. Acme had just 15 employees at the time. Dick Farmer helped uniform rental sales increase from $300,000 in 1959 to $847,000 in 1963, he put together a business plan to open small uniform rental plants all over the United States. The first opened in Cleveland in October 1968. In 1972, the company changed its name to Cintas and went public in 1983. Farmer tried products that were new at the time, such as fabrics that resisted wrinkles and stains, to grow the company to an 30 percent market share in uniforms. Cintas' recent growth has been through its acquisition of more than 220 companies, eliminating overheads and cutting costs.
Since its inception, Cintas has bought itself into markets such as first aid and safety, fire protection, facility services, tile and carpet cleaning. In 2015, Cintas acquired Zee Medical from McKesson Corporation for $130 million. In 2016, Cintas acquired G&K Services for $2.2 billion. The company is valued at US$12.97 billion. In 2003, UNITE HERE and the International Brotherhood of the Teamsters have been engaged in a campaign against Cintas, alleging unfair labor practices. Unite obtained license numbers of Cintas workers in Pennsylvania, to contact them at home and has since been ordered to pay the workers $2,500 each; the ruling was subsequently upheld by the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. Following the death of a Tulsa, worker in March 2007, both unions and several Members of Congress called for stricter health and safety standards at the company's laundries. In May 2007, Cintas hired a Washington, D. C.-based lobbying firm, the Podesta Group, to manage their relations with Congress
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution; the U. S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general; the Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency; the USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world; the USPS is obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.
S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx. Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit. In the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service.
These early attempts were of small scale and involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, setting up a location in Boston where one could post a letter back home to England. Other attempts focused on a dedicated postal service between two of the larger colonies, such as Massachusetts and Virginia, but the available services remained limited in scope and disjointed for many years. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. On February 17, 1691, a grant of letters patent from the joint sovereigns, William III and Mary II, empowered him: to erect and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, to receive and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.
The patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later. Neale appointed Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster; the first postal service in America commenced in February 1692. Rates of postage were fixed and authorized, measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed postal laws, a imperfect post office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710; the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies. Most of the mail went forth to counting houses and government offices in London; the revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. News, new laws, political intelligence, military orders circulated with a new urgency, a postal system was necessary.
Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at low cost, to exchange news from newspapers between the thirteen states. Overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774–1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, created a new postal system; the United States Post Office was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post; the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress "To establish post offices and post roads"; the 1792 law provided for a expanded postal network, served editors by charging newspapers an low rate.
The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, provided the entire country with low-cost access to information on public affairs, while establishing a right to personal privacy. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west o
Harley-Davidson, Inc. or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903. One of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression, the company has survived numerous ownership arrangements, subsidiary arrangements, periods of poor economic health and product quality, as well as intense global competition, to become one of the world's largest motorcycle manufacturers and an iconic brand known for its loyal following. There are events worldwide as well as a company-sponsored brand-focused museum. Noted for a style of customization that gave rise to the chopper motorcycle style, Harley-Davidson traditionally marketed heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser motorcycles with engine displacements greater than 700 cm³ and has broadened its offerings to include its more contemporary VRSC and middle-weight Street platforms. Harley-Davidson manufactures its motorcycles at factories in Pennsylvania. Construction of a new plant in Thailand is scheduled to begin in late 2018.
The company markets its products worldwide. Besides motorcycles, the company licenses and markets merchandise under the Harley-Davidson brand, among them apparel, home decor and ornaments, accessories and scale figures of its motorcycles, video games based on its motorcycle line and the community. In 1901, 20-year-old William S. Harley drew up plans for a small engine with a displacement of 7.07 cubic inches and four-inch flywheels. The engine was designed for use in a regular pedal-bicycle frame. Over the next two years and his childhood friend Arthur Davidson worked on their motor-bicycle using the northside Milwaukee machine shop at the home of their friend, Henry Melk, it was finished in 1903 with the help of Walter Davidson. Upon testing their power-cycle and the Davidson brothers found it unable to climb the hills around Milwaukee without pedal assistance, they wrote off their first motor-bicycle as a valuable learning experiment. Work began on a new and improved second-generation machine.
This first "real" Harley-Davidson motorcycle had a bigger engine of 24.74 cubic inches with 9.75 inches flywheels weighing 28 lb. The machine's advanced loop-frame pattern was similar to the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle; the bigger engine and loop-frame design took it out of the motorized bicycle category and marked the path to future motorcycle designs. The boys received help with their bigger engine from outboard motor pioneer Ole Evinrude, building gas engines of his own design for automotive use on Milwaukee's Lake Street; the prototype of the new loop-frame Harley-Davidson was assembled in a 10 ft × 15 ft shed in the Davidson family backyard. Most of the major parts, were made elsewhere, including some fabricated at the West Milwaukee railshops where oldest brother William A. Davidson was toolroom foreman; this prototype machine was functional by September 8, 1904, when it competed in a Milwaukee motorcycle race held at State Fair Park. It was placed fourth; this is the first documented appearance of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle in the historical record.
In January 1905, small advertisements were placed in the Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal offering bare Harley-Davidson engines to the do-it-yourself trade. By April, complete motorcycles were in production on a limited basis; that year, the first Harley-Davidson dealer, Carl H. Lang of Chicago, sold three bikes from the five built in the Davidson backyard shed. Years the original shed was taken to the Juneau Avenue factory where it would stand for many decades as a tribute to the Motor Company's humble origins until it was accidentally destroyed by contractors cleaning the factory yard in the early 1970s. In 1906, Harley and the Davidson brothers built their first factory on Chestnut Street, at the current location of Harley-Davidson's corporate headquarters; the first Juneau Avenue plant was a 40 ft × 60 ft single-story wooden structure. The company produced about 50 motorcycles that year. In 1907, William S. Harley graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a degree in mechanical engineering.
That year additional factory expansion came with a second floor and with facings and additions of Milwaukee pale yellow brick. With the new facilities production increased to 150 motorcycles in 1907; the company was incorporated that September. They began selling their motorcycles to police departments around this time, a market, important to them since. In 1907 William A. Davidson, brother to Arthur and Walter Davidson, quit his job as tool foreman for the Milwaukee Road railroad and joined the Motor Company. Production in 1905 and 1906 were all single-cylinder models with 26.84 cubic inch engines. In February 1907 a prototype model with a 45-degree V-Twin engine was displayed at the Chicago Automobile Show. Although shown and advertised few V-Twin models were built between 1907 and 1910; these first V-Twins produced about 7 horsepower. This gave about double the power of the first singles. Top speed was about 60 mph. Production jumped from 450 motorcycles in 1908 to 1,149 machines in 1909. By 1911, some 150 makes of motorcycles had been built in the United States – although just a handful would survive the 1910s.
In 1911, an improved V-Twin model was introduced. The new engine had me
FedEx Corporation is an American multinational courier delivery services company headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee. The name "FedEx" is a syllabic abbreviation of the name of the company's original air division, Federal Express, used from 1973 until 2000; the company is known for its overnight shipping service and pioneering a system that could track packages and provide real-time updates on package location, a feature that has now been implemented by most other carrier services. FedEx Corporation is an import/export company, incorporated October 1997, in Delaware. FDX Corporation was founded in January 1998 with the acquisition of Caliber System Inc. by Federal Express. With the purchase of Caliber, FedEx started offering other services besides express shipping. Caliber subsidiaries included a small-package ground service. FDX Corporation was founded to oversee all of the operations of those companies and its original air division, Federal Express. In the 1990s, FedEx Ground planned, but abandoned, a joint service with British Airways to have BA fly a Concorde supersonic jet airliner to Shannon, Ireland with FedEx packages on board, FedEx would have flown the packages subsonically to their delivery points in Europe.
Ron Ponder, a vice president at the time, was in charge of this proposed venture. In January 2000, FDX Corporation changed its name to FedEx Corporation and re-branded all of its subsidiaries. Federal Express became FedEx Express, RPS became FedEx Ground, Roberts Express became FedEx Custom Critical, Caliber Logistics and Caliber Technology were combined to comprise FedEx Global Logistics. A new subsidiary, called FedEx Corporate Services, was formed to centralize the sales and customer service for all of the subsidiaries. In February 2000, FedEx acquired an international logistics company. FedEx acquired WorldTariff, a customs duty and tax information company. FedEx Corp. acquired held Kinko's, Inc. in February 2004 and re-branded it FedEx Kinko's. The acquisition was made to expand FedEx's retail access to the general public. After the acquisition, all FedEx Kinko's locations offered only FedEx shipping. In June 2008, FedEx announced. In September 2004, FedEx acquired Parcel Direct, a parcel consolidator, re-branded it FedEx SmartPost.
In December 2007, the U. S. Internal Revenue Service "tentatively decided" the FedEx Ground Division might be facing a tax liability of $319 million for 2002, due to misclassification of its operatives as independent contractors. Reversing a 1994 decision which allowed FedEx to classify its operatives that own their own vehicles as independent contractors, the IRS audited the years 2003 to 2006, with a view to assessing whether similar misclassification of operatives had taken place. FedEx denied that any irregularities in classification had occurred, but faced legal action from operatives claiming benefits that would have accrued had they been classified as employees. In June 2009, FedEx began a campaign against United Parcel Service and the Teamsters union, accusing its competitor of receiving a bailout in an advertising campaign called "Brown Bailout". FedEx claimed that signing the Federal Aviation Administration re-authorization bill, which would let some of its workers unionize more was equivalent to giving UPS a "bailout".
Independent observers criticized FedEx's wording, claiming that it was "an abuse of the term". FedEx Express employees are regulated under the Railway Labor Act. On January 14, 2013, FedEx named Henry Maier CEO and President of FedEx Ground, to take effect after David Rebholz retired on May 31, 2013. On July 17, 2014, FedEx was indicted for conspiracy to distribute controlled substances in cooperation with the Chhabra-Smoley Organization and Superior Drugs. According to the U. S. Department of Justice, "FedEx is alleged to have knowingly and intentionally conspired to distribute controlled substances and prescription drugs, including Phendimetrazine. A representative for the company contested these claims, stating that it would violate personal rights of customers to deny service and that "We are a transportation company — we are not law enforcement". On July 17, 2016 the Department of Justice U. S. Attorney's Office confirmed in a statement that it had asked U. S. District Court Judge Charles Breyer to dismiss the indictment but did not say why.
In April 2015, FedEx acquired their rival firm TNT Express for €4.4 billion as it looks to expand their operations in Europe. For the fiscal year 2018, FedEx reported earnings of US$4.572 billion, with an annual revenue of US$65.450 billion, an increase of 8.5% over the previous fiscal cycle. FedEx's shares traded at over $244 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$55.5 billi
The Isuzu Reach is a walk-through van built atop an Isuzu NPR chassis, with a body developed by Utilimaster. It was first presented in March 2011 at the National Truck Equipment Association's "Work Truck Show"; the van is only sold in North America, where it is assembled. The Reach uses the Isuzu NPR's ladder chassis and the three-litre 4JJ1-TC diesel engine used in the NPR Eco-Max; the body is a full walk-through design developed by Utilimaster, offers the buyer the choice of swing-out rear doors or a roll-up unit. Both UPS and FedEx use the Reach for city delivery work. Two lengths are available on a single wheelbase, offering cargo volumes of either 540 or 630 cu ft. Aftermarket power-train company XL Hybrids announced a hybrid-electric version of the Reach in March 2015 for the Work Truck Show in Indianapolis, using their XL3 Hybrid Electric Drive System. "FedEx orders Isuzu's Reach". Fleet Owner. November 14, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2017. "FedEx Boosts Fleet Fuel Efficiency". TruckingInfo.
March 30, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2017. Cheeseman, Gina-Marie. "FedEx Tackles Emissions: On the Ground and in the Air". Triple Pundit: People, Profit. Retrieved November 17, 2017. Isuzu Reach page
Purolator Inc. is a Canadian courier, 91% owned by Canada Post, 7% owned by Barry Lapointe Holdings Ltd. and 2% by others. The company was organized as Trans Canada Couriers, Ltd. In 1967, it was acquired by the US manufacturer of oil and air filters Purolator of Fayetteville, North Carolina —the name was an abbreviated form of "pure oil later". In 1987, the company returned to Canadian ownership. Although it retained the Purolator name, it has since had no connection with the oil filter business. Purolator has partnered with UPS for deliveries outside of Canada. Cargojet operates Boeing Boeing 767 aircraft for Purolator. On September 24, 2007, Purolator Inc. introduced the Unicell Quicksider, a prototype full-electric vehicle, lightweight urban delivery vehicle, developed by a consortium led by Toronto-based Unicell Limited in partnership with ArvinMeritor, Battery Engineering and Test Services Inc.. Official website Purolator Freight website Purolator E-Ship Web Services