Cities of Japan
A city is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as towns and villages, with the difference that they are not a component of districts. Like other contemporary administrative units, they are defined by the Local Autonomy Law of 1947. Article 8 of the Local Autonomy Law sets the following conditions for a municipality to be designated as a city: Population must be 50,000 or greater At least 60% of households must be established in a central urban area At least 60% of households must be employed in commerce, industry or other urban occupations Any other conditions set by prefectural ordinance must be satisfied The designation is approved by the prefectural governor and the Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications. A city can theoretically be demoted to a town or village when it fails to meet any of these conditions, but such a demotion has not happened to date; the least populous city, Hokkaido, has a population of six thousand, while a town in the same prefecture, Hokkaido, has nearly forty thousand.
Under the Act on Special Provisions concerning Merger of Municipalities, the standard of 50,000 inhabitants for the city status has been eased to 30,000 if such population is gained as a result of a merger of towns and/or villages, in order to facilitate such mergers to reduce administrative costs. Many municipalities gained city status under this eased standard. On the other hand, the municipalities gained the city status purely as a result of increase of population without expansion of area are limited to those listed in List of former towns or villages gained city status alone in Japan; the Cabinet of Japan can designate cities of at least 200,000 inhabitants to have the status of special city, core city, or designated city. These statuses expand the scope of administrative authority delegated from the prefectural government to the city government. Tokyo, Japan’s capital, existed as a city until 1943, but is now classified as a special type of prefecture called a metropolis; the 23 special wards of Tokyo, which constitute the core of the Tokyo metropolitan area, each have an administrative status analogous to that of cities.
Tokyo has several other incorporated cities and villages within its jurisdiction. Cities were introduced under the "city code" of 1888 during the "Great Meiji mergers" of 1889; the -shi replaced the previous urban districts/"wards/cities" that had existed as primary subdivisions of prefectures besides rural districts since 1878. There were 39 cities in 1889: only one in most prefectures, two in a few, none in some – Miyazaki became the last prefecture to contain its first city in 1924. In Okinawa-ken and Hokkai-dō which were not yet equal prefectures in the Empire, major urban settlements remained organized as urban districts until the 1920s: Naha-ku and Shuri-ku, the two urban districts of Okinawa were only turned into Naha-shi and Shuri-shi in May 1921, six -ku of Hokkaidō were converted into district-independent cities in August 1922. By 1945, the number of cities countrywide had increased to 205. After WWII, their number doubled during the "great Shōwa mergers" of the 1950s and continued to grow so that it surpassed the number of towns in the early 21st century.
As of October 1 2018, there are 792 cities of Japan. Administrative division Urban area List of cities in Japan Directory of current Japanese city leaders and outline of system "Japan's Evolving Nested Municipal Hierarchy: The Race for Local Power in the 2000s," by A. J. Jacobs at Urban Studies Research, Vol. 2011.
Minamioguni is a town located in Aso District, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2016, the town has an estimated population of 3,977 and a density of 34 persons per km²; the total area is 115.86 km². Media related to Minamioguni, Kumamoto at Wikimedia Commons Minamioguni official website kurokawa onsen
Uki is a city in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. As of March 31, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 59,928, with 23,724 households and a population density of 320 persons per km²; the total area is 188.56 km². The modern city of Uki was established on January 15, 2005, as a result of the merger between the towns of Misumi and Shiranuhi, the towns of Matsubase and Toyono. Shiranui - Atmospheric optical phenomenon. Tofukuji - Takezaki Suenaga's family temple, he was owner of Moko Shurai Ekotoba. 2016 Kumamoto earthquake Karina Maki, handball player Seiichiro Maki, football player Yuki Maki, football player Kiichi Matsuda, educator of agriculture Tetsuya Noda, contemporary artist Haruki Uemura, former judo wrestler Official website
Arao is a city in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on April 1, 1942; as of March 31, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 53,675, with 24,153 households and a population density of 940 persons per km². The total area is 57.15 km². Arao was once a large coal mining town, but it has since lost a great deal of its population, due to the closing of the mine 11 years ago; some schools that once housed 1,500 children have now been looking at declining enrollments down 1,000 students or more. Arao's political concentration is on tourism, to try to lure people back to this once populated land. Recent hopes to pull in tourists are in its two big amusement parks, Mitsui Greenland and Ultraman Land. One notable aspect of this city includes Shōdai ware, an art form completely exclusive to Arao, involving slow kilning and under glazing; the Arao nashi pear is a fruit product grown in this town. The pear is round and about the size of a bowling ball. Media related to Arao, Kumamoto at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Sumo is a form of competitive full-contact wrestling where a rikishi attempts to force his opponent out of a circular ring or into touching the ground with any body part other than the soles of his feet. The sport originated in the only country where it is practiced professionally, it is considered a gendai budō, which refers to modern Japanese martial art, but the sport has a history spanning many centuries. Many ancient traditions have been preserved in sumo, today the sport includes many ritual elements, such as the use of salt purification, from Shinto. Life as a wrestler is regimented, with rules regulated by the Japan Sumo Association. Most sumo wrestlers are required to live in communal sumo training stables, known in Japanese as heya, where all aspects of their daily lives—from meals to their manner of dress—are dictated by strict tradition. From 2008 to 2017, a number of high-profile controversies and scandals have rocked the sumo world, with an associated effect on its reputation and ticket sales.
These have affected the sport's ability to attract recruits. Despite this setback, sumo's popularity and general attendance has rebounded due to having multiple yokozuna for the first time in a number of years and other high-profile wrestlers such as Endō and Ichinojō grabbing the public's attention. In addition to its use as a trial of strength in combat, sumo has been associated with Shinto ritual; some shrines carry out forms of ritual dance where a human is said to wrestle with a kami, a Shinto divine spirit. It was an important ritual at the imperial court, where representatives of each province were ordered to attend the contest at the court and fight; the contestants were required to pay for their travel themselves. The contest was known as sumai no sechie, or "sumai party". Over the rest of recorded Japanese history, sumo's popularity changed according to the whims of rulers and the need for its use as a training tool in periods of civil strife; the form of wrestling combat changed into one where the main aim in victory was to throw one's opponent.
The concept of pushing one's opponent out of a defined area came some time later. A ring, defined as something other than the area given to the wrestlers by spectators, is believed to have come into being in the 16th century as a result of a tournament organized by the principal warlord in Japan, Oda Nobunaga. At this point, wrestlers would wear loose loincloths rather than the much stiffer mawashi wrestling belts of today. During the Edo period, wrestlers would wear a fringed decorative apron called a keshō-mawashi during the match, whereas today these are worn only during pretournament rituals. Most of the rest of the current forms within the sport developed in the early Edo period. Professional sumo roots trace back to the Edo period in Japan as a form of sporting entertainment; the original wrestlers were samurai rōnin, who needed to find an alternative form of income. Current professional sumo tournaments began in the Tomioka Hachiman Shrine in 1684, were held in the Ekō-in in the Edo period.
Western Japan had its own sumo venues and tournaments in this period, with the most prominent center being in Osaka. Osaka sumo continued to the end of the Taishō period in 1926, when it merged with Tokyo sumo to form one organization. For a short period after this, four tournaments were held a year, two tournaments in locations in western Japan such as Nagoya and Fukuoka, two in the Ryōgoku Kokugikan in Tokyo. From 1933 onward, tournaments were held exclusively in the Ryōgoku Kokugikan, until the American occupation forces appropriated it and the tournaments moved to Meiji Shrine until the 1950s. An alternate location, the Kuramae Kokugikan near Ryōgoku, was built for sumo. In this period, the Sumo Association began expanding to venues in western Japan again, reaching a total of six tournaments a year by 1958, with half of them in Kuramae. In 1984, the Ryōgoku Kokugikan was rebuilt and sumo tournaments in Tokyo have been held there since; the winner of a sumo bout is either the first wrestler to force his opponent to step out of the ring, or the first wrestler to force his opponent to touch the ground with any part of his body other than the bottom of his feet.
A number of other less common rules can be used to determine the winner. For example, a wrestler using an illegal technique automatically loses, as does one whose mawashi comes undone. A wrestler failing to show up for his bout automatically loses. Bouts consist of a single round and last only a few seconds, as one wrestler is ousted from the circle or thrown to the ground. However, they can last for several minutes; each match is preceded by an elaborate ceremonial ritual. Traditionally, sumo wrestlers are renowned for their great girth and body mass, a winning factor in sumo. No weight divisions are used in professional sumo. However, with superior technique, smaller wrestlers can defeat much larger opponents; the average weight of top division wrestlers has continued to increase, from 125 kilograms in 1969 to over 150 kilograms by 1991, was a record 166 kilograms as of January 2019. In some situations a review of the gyōji's decision may be needed; the judges outside the ring, who sit at eye level may convene a conference in the middle of the ring, called a "mono-ii".
This is done if the judges decide that the decision over who won the bout needs to be rev
Kami-Amakusa is a city located in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. The modern city of Kami-Amakusa was established on March 31, 2004, from the merger of the towns of Himedo, Matsushima, Ōyano and Ryūgatake; as of April 30, 2018, the city has an estimated population of 27,603 and a population density of 217 persons per km². The total area is 126.94 km². Amakusa Shirō - The leader of the Shimabara Rebellion in 1638. Media related to Kamiamakusa, Kumamoto at Wikimedia Commons Kami-Amakusa City official website
Shōdai Naoya is a sumo wrestler from Uto, Japan. He is in the Tokitsukaze stable, he is a right hand inside-type wrestler. His highest rank is sekiwake, he has one gold star for defeating a yokozuna. Shōdai Naoya’s talents were first noticed by the coach of the Uto Boys Sumo Club while he was playing sumo in the park at Uto Elementary School. In 5th grade he competed in the national sumo competition, while at Kakujō Middle School he was an alternate member of the winning team at the All-Middle School sumo championship. In his final year at Kumamoto agricultural high school he won the youth national sumo championship. Shōdai went on to university at Tokyo University of Agriculture, where he studied international food information sciences in the international agricultural development department, he became a university yokozuna in his second year, met the qualifications to join professional sumo at the makushita 15 rank as a tsukedashi, however he gave preference to finishing school and missed the one year time limit to accept this opportunity.
In his third year at university he advanced to the All-Japan sumo championship, however he lost to Endō and therefore did not attain the amateur yokozuna title that year. He did not qualify for tsukedashi in his 4th year at university. After graduating from university, he joined the Tokitsukaze stable and entered his first tournament in March 2014; because he missed his opportunity to start in the makushita ranks as a tsukedashi, he began in maezumo in this tournament. He lost on the 5th day to Shiba, however finishing with a 2–1 record allowed him to continue to the professional ranks. In May when ranked in jonokuchi, he beat him for the first time, he went on to take the jonokuchi championship. This propelled him into the next highest level of sumo, jonidan, in the July tournament, where he finished with a 6–1 record, advanced to the next highest level, sandanme in the September tournament, he faced Shiba again on day 9 and lost, however his 6–1 record was good enough to advance him to the next highest level, makushita in the November tournament.
He lost his third and fourth matches in this tournament to Higoarashi and Asatenmai, however still finished with a promising 5–2 record which allowed him to advance higher up the makushita ranks. In the January 2015 tournament he was concerned that diarrhea and a bacterial infection would affect his performance, however he was able to win the tournament with a perfect 7–0 record when he beat Ishiura, promoted to jūryō, on the last day. In the next three tournaments in makushita he attained winning records and was promoted to jūryō in the September 2015 tournament, he kept Shōdai, rather than change his name as most sumo wrestlers do. His stable master commented. Not bad at all.” In a press conference, he made comments that were interpreted as pessimistic, he was dubbed as a “very negative sumo wrestler.” However, he finished his first tournament in jūryō with a strong 11–4 record. In the following tournament he improved his previous performance to 13–2, took the jūryō championship, was promoted to the highest level of sumo, makuuchi.
In the January tournament he became the 20th wrestler from Kumamoto prefecture to attain the highest rank of sumo since the end of World War II. He became tied for third fastest wrestler to reach the highest level of sumo since 1958 at only 11 tournaments; as opposed to another wrestler, making his top level debut and earned only a 4–11 record, Shōdai earned an impressive 10–5 record, continued his streak of no losing tournaments, took the Fighting Spirit prize. He became number two on the all-time list for fastest attainment of a special prize at 12 tournaments since entering sumo, second only to former Yokozuna Wakanohana, who took the Fighting Spirit prize in his 9th tournament in January 1950. Shōdai's best result in the top division to date came in November 2016 when he scored eleven wins against four losses from the rank of maegashira 3, sharing the Fighting Spirit prize with Ishiura, he defeated ozeki Kisenosato in this tournament and was promoted to a career-high rank of sekiwake for the January tournament.
It took him only 17 tournaments from his professional debut to reach sekiwake, the second fastest since the introduction of the six tournaments a year system in 1958. He narrowly missed out on a winning record in his sekiwake debut, remained in the junior sanyaku ranks for the following tournament at komusubi. However, he won only four bouts and was demoted back to the maegashira ranks for the May 2017 tournament. In July, ranked at maegashira 1, he earned his first kinboshi or gold star by defeating yokozuna Harumafuji on Day 2, he has remained near the top of the maegashira ranks since but has not yet managed a return to sanyaku or to win any further prizes. Shōdai is a yotsu-sumo wrestler, his favoured grip on the mawashi or belt is migi-yotsu, a left hand outside, right hand inside position. His most common winning kimarite is a straightforward force out. List of sumo tournament second division champions Glossary of sumo terms List of active sumo wrestlers List of sekiwake List of active gold star earners Shōdai Naoya's official biography at the Grand Sumo Homepage