Utrecht is a town in the foothills of the Balele Mountains, in the northwestern corner of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Newcastle, Kwazulu-Natal's third-largest urban centre, is 50 km from Utrecht. Utrecht has a population of 32,000; the town is named after Utrecht, a Dutch city with the same name, as a result from Dutch settlers in the region. Coal mining and cattle ranching are the predominant economic activities in Utrecht. In 1843, the British annexed the Klip River Republic. Most of the inhabitants moved to the Free State and Transvaal Province, but three of them – A. T. Spies, J. C. Klopper and C. J. van Rooyen – traded land east of the Buffalo River for 300 cattle in 1852 from Zulu King Mpande. Van Rooyen, who spoke the Zulu language fluently, was a friend of King Mpande and had assisted him a few years earlier. Prior to 1852, Van Rooyen had permission to use this tract of land for grazing; the majority of northern Natal was intermittently uninhabited, since King Shaka had driven out the resident Hlubi people.
In the Transvaal Archive, the settlers who moved there with the trio were called the Buffel rivier maatschappij. In a proclamation dated 27 December 1852 the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republic, in a letter signed by Commander-General A. W. J. Pretorius, warned them that the ZAR did not recognize the transaction; this was due to a fear of antagonizing the English, who would be their neighbors on the Buffalo River after the annexation of the Klip River Republic. This warning was re-issued in December 1853, in a letter written to "Phillip Koch and the rest of the inhabitants of the area of the Buffalo River"; these inhabitants wished to be incorporated into the ZAR. On 8 September 1854 the trio of settlers again traded the same land for a further 100 cattle and had a bill of sale signed; the following is a translation from the original Dutch: Permission to graze the land under traditional Zulu land use system did not equate to ownership as understood in Western terms. The Republic of Utrecht existed until 1858.
This republic joined the ZAR in 1860. Utrecht and Vryheid remained part of the ZAR until 31 May 1902, when the ZAR surrendered to Great Britain. After this, both towns were incorporated into the Colony of Natal as spoils of war. In a corner of the Balele Mountains, Utrecht is unique. Established in 1854, the town is steeped in a history reflected in historical buildings like the Old Parsonage Museum, the Dutch Reformed sandstone church, the old military cemetery, colonial houses and other buildings. Utrecht does not only offer history to the tourist; the preserve and surrounding district offer a variety of outdoor activities that include hiking and horse trails, trout fishing at dams on the Bivane River and water sports at the recreation resort. The Utrecht district is the tribal domain of five Amakosi, who today play an active role in the development of the area; the Mangosuthu Arts and Crafts village has a craft shop with a variety of traditional Zulu articles. In addition to eco-tourism Utrecht is an agricultural area, the most important wool-producing area in KwaZulu-Natal.
It is a major cattle and mixed-farming region, farm holidays are available. Utrecht is the seat of the Amajuba District Municipality; the Amajuba District Municipality is the fifth-most-densely-populated district in KwaZulu-Natal, comprising Dannhauser and Utrecht. The average population density in Amajuba was 72 people per km² in 2011; the district was home to 499,839 people that year with 22% residing in Dannhauser, 72% residing in Newcastle and 7% in Utrecht. Utrecht High School Utrecht Primary School eMalahleni Combined School Zimbuthu Primary School Umzilikazi High School Ithamsanqa Primary School Mxhakeni Primary School
Utrecht Centraal railway station
Utrecht Centraal is the central railway station for the city of Utrecht, Netherlands. It is the largest and busiest railway station in the Netherlands, with sixteen platforms and with more than 176,000 passengers per day. With Utrecht being located centrally in the Netherlands, Utrecht Centraal is the most important railway hub of the country with more than 900 trains leaving this station per day, making it the largest junction station in the Netherlands. Therefore, disruptions at the station can affect the rest of the country's railway network. International and local services call at the station, most notably the InterCityExpress trains to Frankfurt and Basel, intercity services to the northern and southern Netherlands, local commuter services providing access to towns all over the Randstad; the first station at the site was opened on December 18, 1843, when the Nederlandsche Rhijnspoorweg-Maatschappij opened the first station on Utrecht territory. In 1938, the station became the central station as the Maliebaanstation, on the other side of the city, was closed and the line from Hilversum was diverted into the central station.
Until the 1970s the station building of 1865 remained in place, though a fundamental renovation took place in 1936. Two years a fire burned down most of the building, subsequently rebuilt; that station building of the late 1930s was in turn demolished in the 1970s to make way for Hoog Catharijne Europe's largest enclosed shopping mall, which opened on 17 December 1973. Since that moment, the station hall no longer had a real entrance. In 1989 the station hall was enlarged to solve bottlenecks. In 1995, the station hall was enlarged again to include a new platform. Between 2008 and 2016, the station underwent a major reconstruction, as part of a general reconstruction of the Utrecht Station Area, because of the NS-project Wereldstations; the station hall was replaced by a new glass structure, designed by architects Benthem Crouwel Architekten, the sheltering roofs on the platforms were restored, the station has been once again separated from the Hoog Catharijne shopping area. The bus station, located on the east side of the station has been split in two, with buses and trams arriving from the west of the city terminating on the west side of the station to reduce traffic congestion.
A scale model of the new station has been on display at Madurodam. The following train services call at Utrecht Centraal: international: 1 daily Intercity-Express service Amsterdam - Utrecht - Arnhem - Cologne - Frankfurt Airport - Basel 6 daily Intercity-Express services Amsterdam - Utrecht - Arnhem - Cologne - Frankfurt am Main national: 1x per hour intercity service Rotterdam - Utrecht - Amersfoort - Zwolle - Leeuwarden 1x per hour intercity service Rotterdam - Utrecht - Amersfoort - Zwolle - Groningen 1x per hour intercity service The Hague - Utrecht - Amersfoort - Hengelo - Enschede 1x per hour intercity service The Hague - Utrecht - Amersfoort - Amersfoort Schothorst 2x per hour intercity service The Hague - Utrecht 2x per hour intercity service Rotterdam - Utrecht 2x per hour intercity service Amsterdam - Utrecht - Eindhoven - Maastricht 2x per hour intercity service Den Helder - Amsterdam - Utrecht - Arnhem - Nijmegen 2x per hour intercity service Schiphol - Utrecht - Nijmegen 2x per hour intercity service Schiphol - Utrecht - Eindhoven 2x per hour intercity service Leiden - Alphen aan den Rijn - Utrecht 1x per hour night train service Rotterdam - The Hague - Amsterdam - Utrecht 1x per hour night train service Utrecht -'s-Hertogenbosch - Eindhoven 2x per hour local service Utrecht - Hilversum - Almere 2x per hour local service Utrecht - Baarn 2x per hour local service Utrecht - Amersfoort - Zwolle 2x per hour local service The Hague - Leiden - Hoofddorp - Schiphol - Duivendrecht - Hilversum - Utrecht 2x per hour local service Breukelen - Utrecht - Veenendaal Centrum 2x per hour local service Breukelen - Utrecht - Rhenen 2x per hour local service The Hague - Gouda - Woerden - Utrecht - Geldermalsen - Tiel 2x per hour local service Woerden - Utrecht - Geldermalsen -'s-Hertogenbosch - Tilburg - Breda 1x per hour local service Utrecht - Utrecht Maliebaan Intercity trains on the route Amsterdam- Utrecht- s'hertogenbosch- Eindhoven line run every 10 minutes all day long.
Utrecht Centraal has two bus stations. One next to the station at the city centre side and the other on the western side, including a tram stop. Bus services are operated by Qbuzz under Syntus Utrecht and Arriva. 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 12 16 27 28 (Vleuten - Vl
Lordship of Utrecht
The Lordship of Utrecht was formed in 1528 when Charles V of Habsburg conquered the Bishopric of Utrecht, during the Guelders Wars. In 1528, at the demand of Henry of the Palatinate, Prince-Bishop of Utrecht, Habsburg forces under Georg Schenck van Toutenburg, liberated the Bishopric, occupied by the Duchy of Guelders since 1521-1522. On October 20, 1528, Bishop Henry handed over power to Charles of Habsburg; the Bishopric of Utrecht came to an end and was divided into the Lordship of Utrecht and the Lordship of Overijssel, both ruled by a Habsburg Stadtholder. Between 1528 and 1584 the Stadtholder of Utrecht was the same as the Stadtholder of the County of Holland; the Lordship became part of the Burgundian Circle by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, one of the Seventeen Provinces. During the Eighty Years' War, Utrecht joined the revolt against Charles's son Philip II of Spain from the beginning, it was at the center of the Union of Utrecht in 1579. When the Batavian Republic was created in 1795, the Lordship of Utrecht was abolished.
George Edmundson wrote, in Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition, that the bishops had no hereditary or dynastic interest in his land, and, as a temporal ruler, their powers were limited by the necessity of having to secure the goodwill of the higher clergy, of the nobles and of the cities, because of their relations to the Holy Roman emperors and the popes as ecclesiastical princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Edmundson wrote that the bishops, in fact, as the result of grants of immunities by a succession of German kings, notably by the Saxon and Franconian emperors became the temporal rulers of a dominion as great as the neighboring counties and duchies. Through the grants of land and privileges bestowed by these emperors the bishops of Utrecht became among the most powerful feudal lords of the north-western part of the empire. Henry of the Palatinate, Bishop of Freising and Worms, resigned the see in 1528 with the consent of the chapter, transferred his secular authority to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Duke of Brabant and Count of Holland.
Thus Utrecht came under the sovereignty of the Habsburgs. The first bishop appointed by Charles V, Cardinal Willem van Enckevoirt, died in 1533 without having entered his diocese. In 1548 the Lordship of Utrecht, together with Guelders, was transferred from the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle to the Burgundian Circle, aligning it with the other Habsburg territories in the Low Countries in terms of imperial administration. In 1550, at the insistence of Philip II of Spain, the church organization of the Netherlands was restructured by forming new dioceses and reorganizing the old ones; the Diocese of Utrecht was taken from Province of Cologne, in which it was a suffragan, elevated to the rank of an archdiocese and metropolitan see. Its suffragan dioceses were Haarlem, Bois-le-Duc, Deventer and Groningen, but the new ecclesiastical province had not a long existence. In 1559, Utrecht was raised to the rank of an archdiocese and metropolitan see with six suffragan dioceses, but this new state of affairs did not last long.
When the northern provinces of the Netherlands revolted, the archdiocese fell, with the overthrow of the Spanish power. According to the terms of the Union of Utrecht, the rights and privileges of the Roman Catholic religion were safeguarded, however a few years on June 14, 1580, the public practice of Catholicism was forbidden by the magistrates of Utrecht, who were by mostly Protestant Calvinists or had been forced to profess Calvinism. On August 25, 1580, Archbishop Schenk died, two successors appointed by Spain did not receive canonical confirmation, neither could they enter their diocese. Archbishop Schenk's unornamented funeral inside the Dom Cathedral of Utrecht seized by the Protestants, saw a clash between Catholic sympathizers and a Calvinist mob disturbing the De Profundis chant and the Catholic Requiem; the Catholic funeral of the first archbishop of Utrecht in 1580 remained one of the last public exercises of Catholic worship in the city of Utrecht for the next three hundred years.
During the administration of the first archbishop, Frederik V Schenck van Toutenburg, Calvinism spread especially among the nobility, who viewed with disfavor the endowment of the new bishoprics with the ancient and wealthy abbeys. When the northern provinces of the Netherlands revolted and overthrew of the Spanish Netherlands, the archdiocese fell; as early as 1573, under the supremacy of the Calvinists, the public exercise of the Catholic faith was forbidden. The death of the nineteen Martyrs of Gorkum is an example of the persecution which Catholics suffered; the two successors appointed by Spain did not receive canonical confirmation and neither could they enter their diocese because of the States-General opposition. The See remained vacant until 1602, when the place of Archbishop was taken by the apostolic vicars of the Dutch Mission, however, were not allowed in the country by the States-General of the Netherlands and had to administer their charge from abroad; these vicars were consecrated as titular archbishops in order not to offend the pro-Calvinist and anti-Catholic Dutch Republic's Government.
They would assume the real title of Archbishop of Utrecht. From the end of the 16th century their place was taken by vicars apostolic for the Dutch Republic, however, were driven from the country by the States-General and forced to administer their charge from abroad. Thou
Utrecht is the fourth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands and most populous city of the province of Utrecht. It is located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbation, in the centre of mainland Netherlands, had a population of 345,080 in 2017. Utrecht's ancient city centre features many buildings and structures several dating as far back as the High Middle Ages, it has been the religious centre of the Netherlands since the 8th century. It remains the main religious centre in the country. Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, when it was surpassed by Amsterdam as the country's cultural centre and most populous city. Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university in the Netherlands, as well as several other institutions of higher education. Due to its central position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport, it has the second highest number of cultural events after Amsterdam.
In 2012, Lonely Planet included Utrecht in the top 10 of the world's unsung places. Although there is some evidence of earlier inhabitation in the region of Utrecht, dating back to the Stone Age and settling in the Bronze Age, the founding date of the city is related to the construction of a Roman fortification built in around 50 CE. A series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand north. To consolidate the border, the Limes Germanicus defense line was constructed along the main branch of the river Rhine, which at that time flowed through a more northern bed compared to today; these fortresses were designed to house a cohort of about 500 Roman soldiers. Near the fort, settlements would grow housing artisans and soldiers' wives and children. In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was Traiectum, denoting its location at a possible Rhine crossing. Traiectum became Dutch Trecht. In 11th-century official documents, it was Latinized as Ultra Traiectum.
Around the year 200, the wooden walls of the fortification were replaced by sturdier tuff stone walls, remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square. From the middle of the 3rd century, Germanic tribes invaded the Roman territories. Around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Little is known about the next period 270–650. Utrecht is first spoken of again several centuries. Under the influence of the growing realms of the Franks, during Dagobert I's reign in the 7th century, a church was built within the walls of the Roman fortress. In ongoing border conflicts with the Frisians, this first church was destroyed. By the mid-7th century and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. Pope Sergius I appointed Saint Willibrordus, as bishop of the Frisians; the tenure of Willibrordus is considered to be the beginning of the Bishopric of Utrecht. In 723, the Frankish leader Charles Martel bestowed the fortress in Utrecht and the surrounding lands as the base of the bishops.
From on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands. The archbishops of Utrecht were based at the uneasy northern border of the Carolingian Empire. In addition, the city of Utrecht had competition from the nearby trading centre Dorestad. After the fall of Dorestad around 850, Utrecht became one of the most important cities in the Netherlands; the importance of Utrecht as a centre of Christianity is illustrated by the election of the Utrecht-born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens as pope in 1522. When the Frankish rulers established the system of feudalism, the Bishops of Utrecht came to exercise worldly power as prince-bishops; the territory of the bishopric not only included the modern province of Utrecht, but extended to the northeast. The feudal conflict of the Middle Ages affected Utrecht; the prince-bishopric was involved in continuous conflicts with the Counts of Holland and the Dukes of Guelders. The Veluwe region was seized by Guelders, but large areas in the modern province of Overijssel remained as the Oversticht.
Several churches and monasteries were built inside, or close to, the city of Utrecht. The most dominant of these was the Cathedral of Saint Martin, inside the old Roman fortress; the construction of the present Gothic building was begun in 1254 after an earlier romanesque construction had been badly damaged by fire. The choir and transept were finished from 1320 and were followed by the ambitious Dom tower; the last part to be constructed was the central nave, from 1420. By that time, the age of the great cathedrals had come to an end and declining finances prevented the ambitious project from being finished, the construction of the central nave being suspended before the planned flying buttresses could be finished. Besides the cathedral there were four collegiate churches in Utrecht: St. Salvator's Church, on the Dom square, dating back to the early 8th century. Saint John, originating in 1040. Besides these churches, the city housed St. Paul's Abbey, the 15th-century beguinage of St. Nicholas, a 14th-century chapter house of the Teutonic Knights.
Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands. It is located in the centre of the country, bordering the Eemmeer in the north-east, the province of Gelderland in the east and south-east, the province of South Holland in the west and south-west and the province of North Holland in the north-west and north. With an area of 1,400 square kilometres, it is the smallest of the twelve Dutch provinces. Apart from its eponymous capital, major cities in the province are Amersfoort, Nieuwegein, Veenendaal, IJsselstein and Zeist. In the International Organization for Standardization world region code system Utrecht makes up one region with code ISO 3166-2:NL-UT; the Bishopric of Utrecht was established in 695 when Saint Willibrord was consecrated bishop of the Frisians at Rome by Pope Sergius I. With the consent of the Frankish ruler, Pippin of Herstal, he settled in an old Roman fort in Utrecht. After Willibrord's death the diocese suffered from the incursions of the Vikings. Better times appeared during the reign of the Saxon emperors, who summoned the Bishops of Utrecht to attend the imperial councils and diets.
In 1024 the bishops were made Princes of the Holy Roman Empire and the new Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht was formed. In 1122, with the Concordat of Worms, the Emperor's right of investiture was annulled, the cathedral chapter received the right to elect the bishop, it was, soon obligated to share this right with the four other collegiate chapters in the city. The Counts of Holland and Guelders, between whose territories the lands of the Bishops of Utrecht lay sought to acquire influence over the filling of the episcopal see; this led to disputes and the Holy See interfered in the election. After the middle of the 14th century the popes appointed the bishop directly without regard to the five chapters. During the Hook and Cod Wars, Utrecht was fought over by forces of the Duke of Burgundy leading to the First Utrecht Civil War and Second Utrecht Civil War. In 1527, the Bishop sold his territories, thus his secular authority, to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the principality became an integral part of the Habsburg dominions, which included most other Dutch provinces.
The chapters transferred their right of electing the bishop to Charles V and his government, a measure to which Pope Clement VII gave his consent, under political pressure after the Sack of Rome. However, the Habsburg rule did not last long, as Utrecht joined in the Dutch Revolt against Charles' successor Philip II in 1579, becoming a part of the Dutch Republic. In World War II, Utrecht was held by German forces until the general capitulation of the Germans in the Netherlands on May 5, 1945, it was occupied by Canadian Allied forces on May 7, 1945. The towns of Oudewater, Woerden and Leerdam were transferred from the province of South Holland to Utrecht in 1970, 1989, 2002 and 2019 respectively. In February 2011, together with the provinces of North Holland and Flevoland, showed a desire to investigate the feasibility of a merger between the three provinces; this has been positively received by the Dutch cabinet, for the desire to create one Randstad province has been mentioned in the coalition agreement.
The province of South Holland, part of the Randstad urban area, visioned to be part of the Randstad province, much supportive of the idea of a merger into one province, is not named. With or without South Holland, if created, the new province would be the largest in the Netherlands in both area and population. In the east of Utrecht lies the Utrecht Hill Ridge, a chain of hills left as lateral moraine by tongues of glacial ice after the Saline glaciation that preceded the last ice age; because of the scarcity of nutrients in the fast-draining sandy soil, the greatest part of a landscape, heath has been planted with pine plantations. The south of the province is a river landscape; the west consists of meadows. In the north are big lakes formed by the digging of peat from bogs formed after the last ice age. One of the most attractive natural areas in the province is the Vechtstreek, situated on either side of the Vecht river. An international nature conservation organisation that has settled the head office of its Netherlands branch in this province is the WWF.
"Natuur en Milieu" is a national nature protection organisation whose head office is in this province. The Province of Utrecht is divided into 26 municipalities. Pope Adrian VI, the only Dutch pope; the chemist and meteorologist C. H. D. Buys Ballot. Artists Piet Mondrian, Gerrit Rietveld and Theo van Doesburg. Publisher Anton Hart specializing in healthcare issues Website of the Province Utrecht Foreign Investment Office Visit Utrecht Region - Tourist Information Utrecht travel guide from Wikivoyage
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Utrecht
The Archdiocese of Utrecht is an archdiocese of the Catholic Church in the Netherlands. The Archbishop of Utrecht is the Metropolitan of the Ecclesiastical province of Utrecht. There are six suffragan dioceses in the province: Breda, Groningen-Leeuwarden, Haarlem-Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and's-Hertogenbosch; the cathedral church of the archdiocese is Saint Catherine Cathedral which replaced the prior cathedral, Saint Martin Cathedral, after it was taken by Protestants in the Reformation. The Archdiocese of Utrecht was established in the 7th century and disestablished in the 16th century during the Protestant Reformation; the Catholic church reestablished the Archdiocese in the 19th century.. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the founding of the diocese dates back to Francia, when St. Ecgberht of Ripon sent St. Willibrord and eleven companions on a mission to pagan Frisia, at the request of Pepin of Herstal; the Diocese of Utrecht was erected by Pope Sergius I in 695. In 695 Sergius consecrated Willibrord in Rome as Bishop of the Frisians.
George Edmundson wrote, in Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition, that the bishops, in fact, as the result of grants of immunities by a succession of German kings, notably by the Saxon and Franconian emperors became the temporal rulers of a dominion as great as the neighboring counties and duchies. John Mason Neale explained, in History of the so-called Jansenist church of Holland, that bishops "became warriors rather than prelates. Debitum pastoralis officii nobis was Pope Leo X's 1517 prohibition to the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, Hermann of Wied, as legatus natus, to summon, to a court of first instance in Cologne, Philip of Burgundy, his treasurer, his ecclesiastical and secular subjects. Leo X only confirmed a right of the Church, explained Neale; the Bishopric ended when Henry of the Palatinate resigned the see in 1528 with the consent of the cathedral chapter, transferred his secular authority to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The chapters voluntarily transferred their right of electing the bishop to Charles V, Pope Clement VII gave his consent to the proceeding.
George Edmundson wrote, in History of Holland, that Henry, "was compelled" in 1528 to formally surrender "the temporalities of the see" to Charles V. Lordship of Utrecht The diocese was elevated to an archdiocese in 1559, it was taken from Province of Cologne, in which it was a suffragan, elevated to the rank of an archdiocese and metropolitan see. During the administration of the first archbishop, Frederik V Schenck van Toutenburg, Calvinism spread especially among the nobility, who viewed with disfavor the endowment of the new bishoprics with the ancient and wealthy abbeys; the parish churches were attacked in the Beeldenstorm in 1566. The hanging of the nineteen Martyrs of Gorkum in Brielle in 1572 is an example of the persecution which Catholics suffered. During the Dutch Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands, the archdiocese fell. In the Beeldenstorm in 1580, the collegiate churches were victims of iconoclastic attacks and St. Martin's Cathedral, was "severely damaged". "Even though one third of the people remained Roman Catholic and in spite of a great tolerance," as early as 1573, the public exercise of Catholicism was forbidden, the cathedral was converted into a Protestant church in 1580.
The cathedral chapter survived and "still managed its lands and formed part of the provincial government" in the Lordship of Utrecht. "The newly appointed canons, were always Protestants." The two successor archbishop appointed by Spain neither received canonical confirmation nor could they enter their diocese because of the States-General opposition. The archdiocese was suppressed in 1580. Walter Phillips wrote, in Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition, the last archbishop of Utrecht, Frederik V Schenck van Toutenburg, died in 1580, "a few months before the suppression of Roman Catholic public worship" by William I, Prince of Orange. "Suppression of dioceses," wrote Hove, "takes place only in countries where the faithful and the clergy have been dispersed by persecution," the suppressed dioceses become missions, prefectures, or vicariates apostolic. This is; the Holland Mission started when the vicariate was erected by Pope Clement VIII in 1592. "For two centuries after the Peace of Westphalia much of Holland was under vicars apostolic as mission territory, as England was in the same period.
The see was reestablished as an Archdiocese in the 1853. Johannes Zwijsen Andreas Ignatius Schaepman Petrus Matthias Snickers Henricus van de Wetering Johannes Henricus Gerardus Jansen Johannes de Jong Bernardus Johannes Alfrink Johannes Gerardus Maria Willebrands Adrianus Johannes Simonis Willem Jacobus Eijk Source: Radboud University Library. Goswin Haex van Loenhout, O. Carm. Godefridus Yerwerd, O. S. B. (28 M