Utu worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian Sun god - god of justice and truth, the twin of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven. His main temples were in the cities of Larsa, he was believed to ride through the heavens in his sun chariot and see all things that happened in the day. He was thought to aid those in distress. According to Sumerian mythology, he helped protect Dumuzid when the galla demons tried to drag him to the Underworld and he appeared to the hero Ziusudra after the Great Flood. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, he helps Gilgamesh defeat the ogre Humbaba. Utu was the twin brother of Inanna, the Queen of Heaven, whose domain encompassed a broad variety of different powers. In Sumerian texts and Utu are shown as close. Utu is the son of Nanna, the god of the moon, his wife, but is sometimes described as the son of An or Enlil, his wife was the goddess Sherida known in Akkadian as Aya. Sherida was a goddess of beauty and sexual love because light was seen as inherently beautiful, or because of the sun's role in promoting agricultural fertility.
They were believed to have two offspring: the goddess Kittu, whose name means "Truth", the god Misharu, whose name means "Justice". By the time of the Old Babylonian Period and Utu, was associated with nadītu, an order of cloistered women who devoted their lives to the gods. Utu's charioteer Bunene is sometimes described as his son. Bunene was worshipped independently from Utu as a god of justice in Sippar and Uruk during the Old Babylonian Period and, in times, he was worshipped at Assur. Utu was worshipped in Sumer from the earliest times; the oldest documents mentioning him date to around 3500 BC, during the first stages of Sumerian writing. His main temples, which were both known as E-babbar, were located in Larsa. Utu continued to be venerated until the end of Mesopotamian culture and was worshipped for well over 3,000 years. Utu's main personality characteristics are his kindness and generosity, like all other Mesopotamian deities, he was not above refusing a request which inconvenienced him.
In the Hurro-Akkadian bilingual Weidner god list, Utu is equated with the Hurrian sun-god Šimigi. In the Ugaritic trilingual version of the Weidner god list, Šimigi and Utu are both equated with Lugalbanda. In Sumerian texts, Utu is described as "bearded" and "long-armed". In art, he is shown as an old man with a long beard, he was believed to emerge from the doors of Heaven every day at dawn and ride across the sky in his chariot before returning to the "interior of heaven" through a set of doors in the far west every evening. Utu's charioteer was named Bunene. Cylinder seals show two gods holding the doors open for him as he wields his weapon, the pruning-saw, a double-edged arch-shaped saw with large, jagged teeth, representing his role as the god of justice. Utu's main symbol was the solar disc, a circle with four points in each of the cardinal directions and four wavy, diagonal lines emanating from the circle between each point; this symbol represented the light and power of the sun. The Sumerians believed that, as he rode through heaven, Utu saw everything that happened in the world.
Alongside his sister Inanna, Utu was the enforcer of divine justice. At night, Utu was believed to travel through the Underworld as he journeyed to the east in preparation for the sunrise. One Sumerian literary work refers to Utu illuminating the Underworld and dispensing judgement there and Shamash Hymn 31 states that Utu serves as a judge of the dead in the Underworld alongside the malku and the Anunnaki. On his way through the Underworld, Utu was believed to pass through the garden of the sun-god, which contained trees that bore precious gems as fruit. Utu was believed to take an active role in human affairs, was thought to aid those in distress. In one of his earliest appearances in literature, in the Myth of Etana, written before the conquest of Sargon of Akkad, the hero Etana invokes Utu to help his wife conceive a child. In the Sumerian poem The Dream of Dumuzid, Utu intervenes to rescue Inanna's husband Dumuzid from the galla demons who are hunting him. In the Sumerian flood myth, Utu emerges after the flood waters begin to subside, causing Ziusudra, the hero of the story, to throw open a window on his boat and fall down prostrate before him.
Ziusudra sacrifices an ox to Utu for delivering him to salvation. In the Sumerian King List, one of the early kings of Uruk is described as "the son of Utu" and Utu seems to have served as a special protector to several of that city's kings. In the Sumerian poem of Gilgamesh and Huwawa, the hero Gilgamesh asks Utu to assist him in his journey to the Cedar Mountain. In this version, Gilgamesh asks Utu's help because Utu is associated with the Cedar Mountain, implied to be located in the far east, the land where the sun rises. Utu is reluctant to help, after Gilgamesh explains that he is doing this because he intends to establish his name, because he knows he will die, Utu agrees. Once Gilgamesh reaches the Cedar Mountain, Utu helps him defeat the ogre Huwawa. In the standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh's plan to visit the Cedar Mountain is still his own idea and he goes to Shamash for aid. In this version, the Cedar Mountain is explicitly stated to be located in the northwest, in Lebanon.
Shamash helps Gilgamesh defeat Humbaba. Jeffrey H. Tigay suggests that Lugalbanda's association with the sun-god in
Bhupendranath Datta was an Indian revolutionary and a noted sociologist and anthropologist. He associated Rishi Aurobindo in his political works. In his youth, he was associated with the Jugantar movement, serving as the editor of Jugantar Patrika till his arrest and imprisonment in 1907. In his revolutionary career, he was privy to the Indo-German Conspiracy, his elder brother was Swami Vivekananda. The Asiatic Society today holds the Dr. Bhupendranath Datta memorial lecture in his honour. Datta was a writer too, he wrote several books on Indian society. He wrote a book named "Swami Vivekananda, Patriot-prophet". Datta was born on 4 September 1880 in Kolkata, his parents were Bhuvaneshwari Datta. He had Mahendranath Datta. Vishwanath Datta was an attorney of Calcutta High Court and Bhuvaneshwari Devi was a housewife. Datta was enrolled in Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's Metropolitan Institution from where he passed entrance examination. In his youth, he joined Brahmo Samaj led by Keshub Chandra Debendranath Tagore.
Here he met Sivanath Sastri who influenced him. Datta's religious and social beliefs were shaped by Brahmo Samaj which included belief in a caste-less society, in a single God and revolts against superstitions. Datta decided to join Indian independence movement, joined Bengal Revolutionary Society formed by Pramathanath Mitra in 1902. In 1906 he became the editor of the newspaper Jugantar Patrika; this newspaper was the mouthpiece of the Revolutionary Party of Bengal. In this period he became a close associate of Barindra Ghosh. In 1907, Datta was arrested by British police with the charge of sedition and was sentenced to one year's imprisonment. After release in 1908 he left India for the United States. After his arrival, he stayed at the "India House" for a while, he finished his post-graduate studies and obtained an M. A. degree from Brown University. Datta joined Ghadar Party of California and there he studied about socialism and communism. During World War I, he started revolutionary and political activities there.
In 1916 he became the secretary of Indian Independence Committee in Berlin. He remained the secretary of this organisation till 1918, he took memberships of German Anthropological Society in 1920 and German Asiatic Society in 1924. In 1921 Datta went to Moscow to join Comintern. Manabendra Nath Roy and Birendranath Dasgupta attended this year's Comintern. During the Datta presented Vladimir Lenin a research paper on political condition of contemporary India, he obtained a doctorate degree in Anthropology from the University of Hamburg in 1923. He returned to India and decided to join Indian National Congress, he became members of Bengal Regional Congress in 1927—28 and All India Congress Committee in 1929. In the annual conference of Indian National Congress organised in Karachi in 1930, he proposed a fundamental right for Indian farmers and had it accepted by Congress Committee led by Jawaharlal Nehru, he chaired two All India Trade Union Congress' annual conference. He was arrested for his political activities.
Datta wrote books on different subjects like sociology, politics etc. He was a linguist and wrote books in Bengali, English, Iranian. Few of his notable books are— Baishnaba sahitye samajatattva. 1945. ASIN B0000CR4M4. Bharatera dvitiya svadhinatara samgrama: Aprakasita rajanitika itihas. 1983. ASIN B0000CR5R2. Bharatiya samaja-paddhati. 1983. ASIN B0000CR5CO. Dialectics of Hindu ritualism. 1950. ASIN B0000CQWOM. Studies in Indian Social Polity. Nababharat Publishers. 1983. ASIN B0000CQASU. Swami Vivekananda, Patriot-prophet: A Study. Nababharat Publishers. 1954. ASIN B0000CR0OQ
2A45 and 2A45M are the respective GRAU designations of the Sprut-A and Sprut-B Soviet smoothbore 125 mm anti-tank guns. The 2A45M was created in the late 1980s by the Petrov Design Bureau at Artillery Plant Number 9, responsible for the 122 mm howitzer 2A18. A feature of the Sprut-B is its integrated engine, which can propel the gun on flat surfaces and at 14 km/h on roads; this gives the gun a measure of mobility on the battlefield. It takes two minutes to go from firing position to travelling position and 90 seconds to go from travelling position to firing position; such guns are known in Russian as "self-moving" as opposed to self-propelled, outside of battle it is towed by an MT-LB. The gun features a crew of seven. An OP4M-48A direct fire sight is used the day. For indirect fire, 2Ts33 iron sights are used, along with a PG-1m panoramic sight; the gun can reliably engage targets two metres high at a distance of 2,000 metres. The barrel features a thermal sleeve to prevent temperature changes affecting the accuracy.
The gun uses the same semi-fixed ammunition as the T-72, T-80 and T-90 tanks. With the addition of the 9S53 laser fire-control system, the gun can fire laser guided projectiles such as the 9M119 Svir or 9K120 Refleks; the gun uses the same ammunition as the D-81 series of guns used on the T-64, T-72, T-80 and T-90 tanks. 2A45 Sprut-A purely towed gun 2A45M Sprut-B self-propelled towed gun Mexico Russia Ukraine: made under license, by KMDB, in the city of Kharkiv. Soviet Union passed construction license to successor states Belarus 125 mm smoothbore ammunition 2A46 - Soviet/Russian tank-mounted 125mm cannon List of Soviet tanks Hull, A. W. Markov, D. R. Zaloga, S. J.. Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices 1945 to Present. Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5. Military Parade Enemy Forces 2A45M on manufacturer site Jane's Armour and Artillery 2002-2003 Image
Teodoro Escanilla known as Tio Todoy, was a Filipino blocktimer who hosted the public affairs commentary show Pamana ng Lahi for the Radio dzMS radio station, an affiliate of the PBN Broadcasting Network, in Sorsogon City, Bicol Region, Philippines. Escanilla was involved in politics and human rights in Sorsogan and served as both chairman of the political party Anakpawis and spokesperson for the human rights group Karapatan. Teodoro Escanilla was a well known human rights leader in the Sorsogon province, he was the spokesperson for Sorsogon. He was a chairmen of the local Anakpawis political party, a party affiliated with the Kilusang Mayo Uno union that advocates labor issues on behalf of peasants and workers. In addition, Tio Todoy was a block timer for Radio dzMS in Sorsogon City for about 10 years before his death, he used his show "Pamana ng Lahi" to criticize the military and bring public attention to human rights abuses. Sympathizers had warned him that he was in the military's "hit list" because of the work he did on his radio show, but Escanilla continued to broadcast his human rights advocacy.
In 2014, the military detained a person and offered him money to kill Escanilla, according to those who warned him. Around six men on three motorcycles arrived at Teodoro Escanilla's family compound in the Tadon village, Barcelona town, Sorsogon province shortly before midnight on Wednesday, 19 August, 2015 as Escanilla and his wife were entertaining a guest, he went to see what the men wanted and they shot him eight times. Five of the shots were from an M-16 rifle and the other three were from a.45 caliber pistol. His wife could not identify them. Escanilla was rushed to the Sorsogon Medical Mission Group Hospital Health Services Cooperative where he died eight days later; the police formed a task force to investigate. Teodoro Escanilla was 56-years old at the time, he was survived by his wife. Reporters Without Borders ranked the Philippines 141 out of 180 for press freedom and among the most dangerous countries for journalists in 2015. Over 40 other radio "block timers," or radio hosts who buy time from radio stations, had been killed since 2002 by the time Escanilla was murdered.
News organizations noted that his murder followed by one day the murder of Gregorio “Loloy” Ybañez, publisher of Kabuhayan News Services. Beside Ybañez and Escanilla, other journalists killed in 2015 include Cosme Maestrado, August 27, Jose Bernardo, October 31. Escanilla was involved in radio commentary and human rights, political activity, critical of the military's anti-insurgency campaign in the Bicol area, it possible that these attacks were the result of the state's military counter-insurgency campaign as documented by Karapatan. A spokesperson for the Malacañang Press Corps issued the statement, "We condemn the killing of Teodoro Escanilla; the authorities will go after the suspects and will bring them to face justice."The Sorsogon chapter of the National Union of Journalists of the Philippines said, "We... call on the authorities to get to the bottom of this latest incident which threatens to once again plunge the province into chaos and bring back the dark years of retaliatory killings which have caused the death of several human rights advocates and state agents."The human rights and political community had strong reactions to his death: "Many more Ka Tudoys will spring forth from the ranks of the oppressed masses despite of his killing," said Escanilla's colleague from the human rights organization Karapatan.
Karapatan released the following statement: "We call on all people to condemn in the strongest term possible this senseless and cold-blooded killing which has no place in a society if it calls itself civilized and democratic... The perpetrators of this killing are as bestial and demonic as their deed which could only be found in military camps and garrisons of a police and Hitlerian state that has no regard to the sanctity of life and respect for the human rights of the people." National Democracy Movement
Cambridge Discovery Park, an 30 acres office and laboratory campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is owned and managed by an affiliate of The Bulfinch Companies, a commercial real estate investment firm headquartered in Needham, Massachusetts. Bulfinch acquired the 60-year-old site in 2000 with plans to redevelop and reposition the tired office park into a world-class sustainable urban office and research campus. CDP known as Acorn Park, was the home of Arthur D. Little, an international management consulting firm, for nearly 50 years; the Park is master-planned for six different LEED-certified office and laboratory buildings totaling up to 820,000 sf and two structured parking garages. Today the Park consists of an abundance of green space with walking and bicycle trails as well as two buildings and a parking garage. Cambridge Discovery Park and surrounding Alewife Brook Reservation represents one of the largest campuses in Cambridge and is home to world-class tenants including Forrester Research, The Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory, Siemens and Genocea Biosciences.
The Park offers a unique combination of proximity to Boston and Logan airport via major routes, views of the Boston skyline from the upper floors of buildings on site, public transportation and services in the immediate area, an abundance of green space. The site of Cambridge Discovery Park was used for farming until 1950 when Arthur D. Little, Inc. the world's first management consultancy firm, which pioneered the concept of contracted professional services, bought seven acres of the Massachusetts-owned farmland, began construction of one of the first post-war suburban office parks. In 1953, the Park opened and was named Acorn Park, based on the Company’s motto: Glandes Sparge Ut Quercus Crescent—“Scatter Acorns That Oaks May Grow”, it grew to 40 acres as new buildings were added. With simple exteriors and austere interiors, the Park projected a utilitarian image for one of the world’s most productive industrial research centers. In total, Acorn Park consisted of 14 buildings and over 400,000sf with multiple surface parking lots.
Arthur D. Little owned the site until 1999 and continued to occupy the site as a tenant until 2002; the original buildings at Acorn Park were demolished by Bulfinch over several years beginning in 2003 to allow for the revitalization of the property, including the restoration and preservation of neighboring wetlands. Today, a memorial stands on-site to commemorate the impact Arthur D. Little had on the community and the history behind it; this installation, situated among several acres of green space, once an array of brick buildings and asphalt parking areas, features the original 1953 cornerstone of the initial Arthur D. Little building. In 2011, Bulfinch received a preservation award from the Cambridge Historic Commission for the construction of this memorial. Cambridge Discovery Park is master-planned and permitted for 820,000 sf and is being developed in Phases. Building 100 was first developed attracting The Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory to the Park, Building 200-300 followed and is home to Forrester Research, a 650 space +/-parking garage has been developed.
450,000 sf +/- of office and/or laboratory space and an additional parking garage remain to be developed. Bulfinch manages the property; when Bulfinch purchased the Arthur D. Little site in 2000 it returned nearly 10 acres back to open space and natural vegetation restoring areas of the 1950s post-war office park into bountiful green space as it was in the early 1900s. Among other environmental enhancements at the property, Bulfinch transformed former Arthur D. Little parking lots and impervious areas into a natural buffer between the Little River and portion of the property to be developed, including adding ponds and other natural features to treat storm water, which earned Bulfinch the “Go Green” Award from the City of Cambridge for Stormwater Management Design. Building 200 – 300 at Cambridge Discovery Park has a LEED Platinum certification. Future buildings are intended to be LEED certified “silver” or higher Cambridge Discovery Park is located adjacent to Route 2, a major artery to and from Boston and Cambridge, in close proximity to Harvard and MIT, not far from Logan International Airport and downtown Boston, adjacent to the Alewife Reservation and Little River.
The Park is situated just a few miles to the western Boston suburbs. Public transportation can be accessed via a 300 yard+/- pedestrian footpath or a shuttle bus to the MBTA Alewife Red Line station; the Park is accessible by bicycle via the Minuteman Bike Path. The Park is situated in an expanding neighborhood with numerous residential projects underway including the adjacent Vox on Two plus over 1,000 multi-family units within ½ mile of the campus. In 2008, the American Council of Engineering Companies of Massachusetts awarded Cambridge Discovery Park a Silver Award Certificate of Merit for Engineering Excellence. In 2011, the City of Cambridge awarded Cambridge Discovery Park the GoGreen Award for outstanding storm water design and efficiency. In 2011, City of Cambridge Historic Commission. Awarded a Certification of Preservation Merit for the interpretative signage that chronicles the history of Acorn Park and features the original 1953 cornerstone of the initial Arthur D. Little building
ATP citrate lyase is an enzyme that in animals represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. By converting citrate to acetyl-CoA, the enzyme links carbohydrate metabolism, which yields citrate as an intermediate, with fatty acid biosynthesis, which consumes acetyl-CoA. In plants, ATP citrate lyase generates cytosolic acetyl-CoA precursors of thousands of specialized metabolites, including waxes and polyketides. ATP citrate lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues; the enzyme is a tetramer of identical subunits. In animals, the product, acetyl-CoA, is used in several important biosynthetic pathways, including lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis, it is activated by insulin. In plants, ATP citrate lyase generates acetyl-CoA for cytosolically-synthesized metabolites; such metabolites include: elongated fatty acids. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plants occurs in plastids. ATP citrate lyase is responsible for catalyzing the conversion of citrate and Coenzyme A to acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, driven by hydrolysis of ATP.
In the presence of ATP and CoA, citrate lyase catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, adenosine diphosphate, orthophosphate: citrate + ATP + CoA → oxaloacetate + Acetyl-CoA + ADP + PiThis enzyme was given the EC number 184.108.40.206. The enzyme is cytosolic in animals; the enzyme is composed of two subunits in green plants, species of fungi, glaucophytes and prokaryotes. Animal ACL enzymes are homomeric; the mammalian ATP citrate lyase has a N-terminal citrate-binding domain that adopts a Rossmann fold, followed by a CoA binding domain and CoA-ligase domain and a C-terminal citrate synthase domain. The cleft between the CoA binding and citrate synthase domains forms the active site of the enzyme, where both citrate and acetyl-coenzyme A bind. In 2010, a structure of truncated human ATP citrate lyase was determined using X-ray diffraction to a resolution of 2.10 Å. In 2019, a full length structure of human ACLY in complex with the substrates coenzyme A, citrate and Mg. ADP was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 3.2 Å.
Moreover, in 2019 a full length structure of ACLY in complex with an inhibitor was determined by cryo-EM methods to a resolution of 3.7 Å. Additional structures of heteromeric ACLY-A/B from the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium limicola and the archaeon Methanosaeta concilii show that the architecture of ACLY is evolutionarily conserved. Full length ACLY structures showed that the tetrameric protein oligomerizes via its C-terminal domain; the C-terminal domain had not been observed in the determined truncated crystal structures. The C-terminal region of ACLY assembles in a tetrameric module, structurally similar to citryl-CoA lyase found in deep branching bacteria; this CCL module catalyses the cleavage of the citryl-CoA intermediate into the products acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The enzyme's action can be inhibited by the coenzyme A-conjugate of bempedoic acid, a compound which lowers LDL cholesterol in humans; the drug was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in February 2020 for use in the United States.