Mecca spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, is the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m above sea level, 340 kilometres south of Medina, its resident population in 2012 was 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah. As the birthplace of Muḥammad, the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran, Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities, it was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925.
In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj; as a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world, although non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city. "Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government is Makkah, closer to the Arabic pronunciation. The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide. The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means "Mecca the Honored", but is loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca"; the ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. Believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim scholars use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that surrounds and includes the Ka‘bah; this form is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qurā, meaning "Mother of All Settlements"/"mother of villages". Another name of Mecca is Ṫihāmah.
Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the Desert of Paran mentioned in the Old Testament at Genesis 21:21. Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca. Yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was "an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah." Mecca is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015, the mayor of the city was Dr. Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar. Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region; the provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007. On 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed as the new governor; the early history of Mecca is still disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.
The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz in 106 CE, ruling cities such as Hegra, located to the north of Mecca. Though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca; the first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz. Given the inhospitable environment and lack of historical references in Roman and Indian sources, historians including Patricia Crone and Tom Holland have cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost; the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica, describing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians". Claims have been made. However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome, closer to Petra and within the form
Salah called salat and namaz, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical and spiritual act of worship, observed five times every day at prescribed times; when they do this, they must face Mecca. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, prostrates himself, concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses and prayers; the word "salah" is translated as "prayer". Given how that word is used in English this can be misleading, as the word "prayer" is used to translate a different word, "dua", a reverent petition made to God. Salah may be better translated as "divine worship", as it is worship rather than petition. Salah is preceded by ritual ablution. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah consisting of prescribed actions and words; the number of obligatory rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances. Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, are menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.
Salah is an Arabic word whose basic meaning is "communication". In its English usage, the reference of the word is always confined to the formal, obligatory prayers described in this article. Translating salah as "communication" is not considered precise enough, as "communication" can indicate several different ways of relating to God. Personal communication or supplication is called duʿāʾ in Islamic usage. Muslims themselves use several terms to refer to salah depending on their culture. In many parts of the world, including many non-Arab countries, the Arabic term salat or salah is used; the other major term is the Persian word namāz, used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages, as well as Turkish, Chinese and Albanian. In North Caucasian languages, the term is chak in Lak and kak in Avar. In Malaysia, the term solat is used. Indonesia uses the term shalat. ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِٱلآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْۖ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْلِحُونَ Translation:2.
This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah -3. Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, spend out of what We have provided for them,4, and who believe in what has been revealed to you, what was revealed before you, of the Hereafter they are certain.5. Those are upon guidance from their Lord, those are the successful. وَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلزَّڪَوٰةَ وَٱرْڪَعُوا۟ مَعَ ٱلرَّٰڪِعِينَ Translation: And establish prayer and give Zakah and bow with those who bow. Guard your communication and middle communication. If you fear on foot or riding, and offer communication at the two ends of day and at the approach of night. Offer communication at the decline of the day until the darkness of night, and at night pray Tahajjud an extra for thee. Say call God or call Merciful, and offer communication and pay Zakah and obey Messenger so that you may receive mercy. And recite, revealed to you as a book and offer communication; the chief purpose of salah is to remembrance of God.
By reciting "The Opening", the first sura of the Quran, as required in daily worship, the worshiper can stand before God and praise him, ask for guidance along the "Straight Path". In addition, daily worship reminds Muslims to give thanks for God's blessings and that submission to God takes precedence over all other concerns, thereby revolving their life around God and submitting to His will. Worship serves as a formal method of dhikr or remembering God. Muslims believe that all prophets of God offered daily prayers and were humble in submission to the oneness of God. Muslims believe that the main duty of the prophets of God is to teach mankind to humbly submit themselves to oneness of God. In Quran, it is written that: "For, Believers are those who, when God is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts, when they hear his signs rehearsed, find their faith strengthened, put their trust in their Lord.
Angels in Islam
In Islam, angels are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by God to perform certain tasks he has given them. The angels from the angelic realm are subordinates in a hierarchy headed by one of the archangels in the highest heavens. Belief in angels is one of the six articles of faith in Islam. Islam acknowledges the concept of angels both abstract, it does not mean Islamic scholars depict them as either personified creatures or abstract forces: Some scholars distinguished between the angels, charged with carrying the laws of nature dwelling on earth as being abstract, the angels in heaven prostrating before God and spiritual creatures of the supreme world, such as the archangels, as personified. Angels are another kind of creature created by God, known to mankind dwelling in the heavenly spheres. Although the Quran does not mention the time when angels were created, they are considered as the first creation of God, they are created from a luminous substance with no bodily desires, never get tired, do not eat or drink and have no anger.
Al-Kindi and Ibn Sina both define angels as simple substances endowed with life and immortality. In contrast to humans, who are substances endowed with life and reason but are mortal, who is, in turn, distinguished by unreasonable but mortal animals. In chapter 10 of Sahih Muslim The Book of Zuhd and Softening of Hearts by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, a hadith states: The Angels were born out of light and the Jann was born out of the mixture of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined for you and many Islamic sources talk of angels being created from light, based on the hadith by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. However, many scholars have argued. According to the famous exegete al-Tabari, God may have created angels from fire and other things, as well as from light; some angels are thought to be composed of elements such as water or fire those who carry the Throne of God. According to the Isra and Mi'raj-narrations, Muhammad met an angel composed of fire and ice and both pass into one another without cooling down the fire, nor melting the ice, demonstrating God's power over the usual laws of nature.
Islamic scholars evaluated — in the view of the prevailing Jewish opinion at the time that angels were created by God from fire — whether angels were created from fire or not and how they are distinguished from those created from light. Al-Suyuti stated that angels are composed either of light. Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi divided the angels into two groups: The angels of mercy created from light, angels of Punishment created from the fire. Qazwini and Ibishi assert that all supernatural creatures, due to their invisibility, are composed of a subtle matter, equivalent to fire but which differs in intensity and are distinguished by the part of fire they originated from. Accordingly, the angels are created from the light of a fire, the jinn from the tongue of fire and the demons from its smoke. Furthermore, scholars such as al-Tabari stated that light and fire do not appeal to different elements, but to a luminous origin of angels which should not be taken literally. Angels as abstract concepts belong to Al-Ghaib.
Angels here are used as expressions of natural laws. They carry the Divine command into execution. References to specific angels, like Jabra'il or Azrail, are respective leaders, with a multitude of subordinative angels, who perform for a specific function. Qazwini portrays the earthly angels as indwelling forces of nature, who keep the world in order and never deviate from their duty. Qazwini believed that the existence of these angels could be proven by reason and the things these angels affect. Islamic philosophy stressed that humans own angelic and demonic qualities and that the human soul is seen as a potential angel or potential demon. Depending on whether the sensual soul or the rational soul develop, the human soul becomes an angel or a demon. Angels may give inspirations opposite to the evil suggestions, called waswās, from Satan; the modern astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum has pointed to modern Islamic scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez in his book "Islam's Quantum Question" who have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.
A question in Islamic theology deals with the impeccability of the angels. The majority of Islamic scholars prefer the opinion. Advocates of angels' infallibility cite certain verses from the Quran, which support their claim such as 16:49: "To Allah prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, including animals and angels, they are not arrogant". However, these verses cannot prove the impeccability for all angels at any time and in any situation; the motif of erring angels is known to Islam. This is supported by verses being tested. Al-Baydawi argued, angels are only impeccable. Others speak of Islamic angels as continuously obedient and refer to Ijma. One of the first scholars who asserted the doctrine of impeccable angels was Hasan of Basra, he not only advocated the impeccability of angels by quoting certain Quranic verses, but reinterpreted verses, which speak against the impeccability of angels. With the discussion whether angels are able to or not, a dispute arises concerning whether humans, prophets or angels are the superior.
Hasa of Basra advocated that angels are better than both humans and prophets because of their purity, a position, opposed by Sunnis and Shias. On the other hand, the prostration of angels before Adam is seen a
Muʿtazila is a rationalist school of Islamic theology that flourished in the cities of Basra and Baghdad, both now in Iraq, during the 8th to the 10th centuries. The adherents of the Muʿtazili school, known as Muʿtazilites, are best known for denying the status of the Qur'an as uncreated and co-eternal with God, asserting that if the Quran is the word of God, He logically "must have preceded his own speech"; the philosophical speculation of the Muʿtazilites centred on the concepts of divine justice and divine unity. The school worked to resolve the theological "problem of evil": how to reconcile the justice of an all-powerful God with the reality of evil in the world, it believed that since God is just and wise, He cannot command what is contrary to reason or act with disregard for the welfare of His creatures. Muʿtazilites believed that good and evil were not always determined by revealed scripture or interpretation of scripture, but they were rational categories that could be "established through unaided reason".
This part alone made them the enemy of those who follow the Tafsirs. The Muʿtazili school of Kalam considered the injunctions of God to be accessible to rational thought and inquiry and that reason, not "sacred precedent", is the effective means to determine what is just and religiously obligatory; the movement emerged during the Umayyad Caliphate and reached its height during the Abbasid Caliphate. After the 10th century, the movement declined, it is viewed as heretical by some Sunni scholars in modern mainstream Sunni theology for its tendency to deny the Qur'an being eternal. In contemporary Salafi jihadism, the epithet or supposed allegations of being a Muʿtazilite have been used between rival groups as a means of denouncing their credibility; the name Muʿtazili is derived from the reflexive stem VIII of the triconsonantal root ع-ز-ل "separate, segregate", as in اعتزل iʿtazala "to separate. The name is derived from the founder's "withdrawal" from the study circle of Hasan of Basra over a theological disagreement: Wāṣil ibn ʿAṭā' asked about the legal state of a sinner: is a person who has committed a serious sin a believer or an unbeliever?
Hasan answered. Wasil dissented, suggesting that a sinner was neither a believer nor an unbeliever and withdrew from the study circle. Others followed to form a new circle, including ʿAmr ibn ʿUbayd. Hasan's remark, is said to be the origin of the movement's name; the group referred to themselves as Ahl al-Tawḥīd wa l-ʿAdl (اهل التوحيد و العدل, "people of monotheism and justice", the name muʿtazili was first used by its opponents. The verb iʿtizal is used to designate a neutral party in a dispute. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "The name first appears in early Islāmic history in the dispute over ʿAlī's leadership of the Muslim community after the murder of the third caliph, ʿUthmān; those who would neither condemn nor sanction ʿAlī or his opponents but took a middle position were termed the Muʿtazilah." Nallino argued that the theological Mu'tazilism of Wasil and his successors was a continuation of this initial political Mu'tazilism. Muʿtazili theology originated in the eighth century in Basra when Wāṣil ibn ʿAṭā' left the teaching lessons of Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute regarding the issue of al-Manzilah bayna al-Manzilatayn.
Though Muʿtazilis relied on logic and different aspects of early Islamic philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy, Indian philosophy, the basics of Islam were their starting point and ultimate reference. The accusations leveled against them by rival schools of theology that they gave absolute authority to extra-Islamic paradigms reflect more the fierce polemics between various schools of theology than any objective reality. For instance, Muʿtazilis adopted unanimously the doctrine of creation ex nihilo, contrary to certain Muslim philosophers who, with the exception of al-Kindi, believed in the eternity of the world in some form or another, it was Muslim philosophers, not the Muslim theologians speaking, who took Greek and Hellenistic philosophy as a starting point and master conceptual framework for analyzing and investigating reality. This school of thought emerged as a reaction to political tyranny; the philosophical and metaphysical elements, influence of the Greek philosophy were added afterward during the Abbasid Caliphate.
The founders of the Abbasid dynasty strategically supported this school to bring political revolution against the Umayyad Caliphate. Once their authority was established, they turned against this school of thought. Like all other schools, Muʿtazilism developed over an extensive period of time. Abu al-Hudhayl al-'Allaf, who came a couple of generations after Wāṣil ibn ʿAtāʾ and ʿAmr ibn ʿUbayd, is considered the theologian who systematized and formalized Muʿtazilism in Basra. Another branch of the school found a home in Baghdad under the direction of Bishr ibn al-Mu'tamir; the Muʿtazilites maintained, like the Qadarites of the Omayyad period, man's free will that justice and reason must form the foundation of the action God takes toward men, both of which doctrines were repudiated by the later
Ihsan, is an Arabic term meaning "perfection" or "excellence". It is a matter of taking one's inner faith and showing it in both deed and action, a sense of social responsibility borne from religious convictions. In Islam, ihsan is the Muslim responsibility to obtain perfection, or excellence, in worship, such that Muslims try to worship God as if they see him, although they cannot see him, they undoubtedly believe that he is watching over them; that definition comes from the Hadith of Gabriel in which Muhammad states, " to worship God as though you see Him, if you cannot see Him indeed He sees you".. Ihsan, meaning "to do beautiful things", is one of the three dimensions of the Islamic religion: islam and ihsan. In contrast to the emphases of islam and iman, the concept of ihsan is associated with intention. One who "does what is beautiful" is called a muhsin, it is held that a person can only achieve true ihsan with the help and guidance of God, who governs all things. While traditionally Islamic jurists have concentrated on Islam and theologians on Iman, the Sufis have focused their attention on Ihsan.
Some Islamic scholars explain ihsan as being the inner dimension of Islam whereas shariah is described as the outer dimension: From the preceding discussion it should be clear that not every Muslim is a man or woman of faith, but every person of faith is a muslim. Furthermore, a Muslim who believes in all the principles of Islam may not be a righteous person, a doer of good, but a good and righteous person is both a muslim and a true person of faith. Ihsan "constitutes the highest form of worship", it is excellence in social interactions. For example, ihsan includes sincerity during Muslim prayers and being grateful to parents and God. Murata, Sachiko. Chittick; the Vision of Islam. I. B. Tauris. Pp. 267–282. ISBN 1-86064-022-2; the Mysteries of Ihsan: Natural Contemplation and the Spiritual Virtues in the Quran by James W. Morris Hadith of Angel Gabriel Hadith #2 from An-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by nearly 90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah; the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad did not designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph; this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced at the event of Ghadir Khumm his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism; as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.
Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam"; the Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology. Sunnī commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition".
The Muslim use of this term refers to living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, "the people of the sunnah and the community", shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam; this perception is due to the reliance on ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own doctrines; the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, Ali as the fourth. Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey on 3 March 1924.
The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali from Fatima, was killed at the Battle of Karbala; the rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila"."
Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muh