Gerhard Stoltenberg was a German politician and minister in the cabinets of Ludwig Erhard, Kurt Georg Kiesinger and Helmut Kohl. He served as minister-president of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein from 1971 to 1982 and as such as President of the Bundesrat in 1977/78. Stoltenberg was born in northern Germany in Kiel. In 1944 he became a Hitler Youth auxiliary in the Kriegsmarine. After the war, when he was no longer a prisoner of war, he finished school in 1949. Stoltenberg began to study history and philosophy at the University of Kiel. In 1954 he worked as an academic in Kiel. In 1960 he became a professor. In the years 1965 and again 1969/1970 Stoltenberg was a director of the company Friedrich Krupp GmbH in Essen. In 2001 he died in Bad Godesberg. Stoltenberg had two children, he was member of the Lutheran church. Since 1947 Stoltenberg had been member of the CDU. In the years 1955–1961 he was federal leader of the Junge Union, the youth' organisation of the CDU. From 1955 Stoltenberg had different positions in the CDU.
From 1971 until 1989, he was chairman of the CDU in the state of Schleswig-Holstein. Moreover, Stoltenberg served as vice chairman of the federal CDU since 1969. Stoltenberg was member of the state parliament of Schleswig-Holstein from 1954 to 1957 and from 1971 to 1982. From 1957 to 1971 and from 1983 until 1998, Stoltenberg served as a member of the federal German legislature, the Bundestag; as a junior MP and member of the budget committee he was the first to introduce to the 1959 federal budget a flat grant of DM 5,000,000 for political education to be transferred to federal party headquarters. Gerhard Stoltenberg looked destined for West Germany's highest office as he made a brilliant start to his political career. On May 24, 1971, Stoltenberg was elected minister-president of the state of Schleswig-Holstein and remained in this position until 1982. In 1982, he became federal minister of finance under chancellor Helmut Kohl, he left this position when he was appointed minister of defence from 1989 on, replacing Rupert Scholz.
He resigned from this position on March 31, 1992
Björn Engholm is a Lübeck born German SPD politician. He was Minister-President of Schleswig-Holstein from 1988 to 1993 and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany between 1991 and 1993. Engholm was educated at University of Hamburg, he was elected Minister-President of Schleswig-Holstein in 1988, in the wake of the Barschel affair/Waterkantgate: he had been spied on and was a victim of severe defamation by the Barschel campaign. The Social Democrats won an impressive 54.2% and gained an absolute majority for the first time ever. Engholm served as President of the Bundesrat in 1988/89. While Engholm was popular with the electorate, he was forced to resign as party leader and Minister-President in 1993 after discrepancies surfaced over the testimonies he gave in the Barschel affair. A party official had paid DM 50.000 to the spy of the Barschel affair to keep the espionage a secret for several weeks, to reveal the scandal on election weekend with a bigger impact and present Engholm as a victim.
He was succeeded by Heide Simonis as Minister-President. His wife is since 1964 the painter Barbara Engholm.
Beau-Rivage Geneva is a five-star luxury hotel, founded in 1865 by the Mayer family. It is located in Switzerland. A lot of hotels in the world have the name "Beau-Rivage", but this hotel has remained independent since its creation and is still a family-owned business; the hotel has 90 rooms including 2 restaurants and a bar. It is a member of the Leading Hotels of the World. 1865: The hotel is founded by Jean-Jacques Mayer. 1873: Charles II, Duke of Brunswick dies at the Beau-Rivage. The city of Geneva inherits 20 million gold francs from him; this sum of money will contribute to the construction of many buildings in Geneva, including its main theatre. 1898: The Austrian Empress, Elisabeth of Bavaria, is stabbed to death by an anarchist soon after she leaves the Beau-Rivage. 1918: Czechoslovakia is born, its "birth" is signed at the Beau-Rivage. 1940-1944: The Beau-Rivage closes its doors during the war. 1967: The gastronomic restaurant "Le Chat Botté" is created. 1978: Jacques Mayer becomes the 4th generation of the Mayer family to manage the hotel.
1987: Uwe Barschel, Minister-President of Schleswig-Holstein, is found dead in his Beau-Rivage room. 1987: Sotheby's incorporates its Swiss offices at the Beau-Rivage. 1990: The Beau-Rivage celebrates its 125th birthday. 1998: The Beau-Rivage and the association "Sissi 1998" commemorate the 100th anniversary of the loss of Empress Elisabeth of Austria. 2000-2001: The bar "L’Atrium" is renovated, some fragments of Pompeii-styled frescoes are discovered. 2002: Dominique Gauthier becomes the chef of the restaurant "Le Chat Botté". 2008: It becomes the first and only luxury hotel in Geneva to hold an ISO 9001-200 quality certificate. 2008: "Le Chat Botté" scores 18/20 in the Gault-Millau guide. 2009: The Beau-Rivage joins the Leading Hotels of the World
Washington Report on Middle East Affairs
The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs magazine, published eight times per year, focuses on "news and analysis from and about the Middle East and U. S. policy in that region". The New York Times has characterized it as "critical of United States policies in the Middle East". In 2005, USA Today called it "a non-partisan publication, critical of Bush's policies". Representatives of pro-Israel organizations have criticized the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs as being aligned with the Arab lobby and as "anti-Israel"; the Washington Report is published by the American Educational Trust, founded in 1982 as a non-profit foundation incorporated in Washington, D. C. under 5014 by retired U. S. foreign service officers including Andrew Killgore, U. S. Ambassador to Qatar when he retired from the United States Foreign Service in 1980 and Richard Curtiss, a former head of the Arabic Service of the Voice of America, chief inspector of the U. S. Information Agency when he retired from the United States Foreign Service in 1980.
Killgore is the publisher and Curtiss was the Executive Editor until his death in 2013. Delinda C. Hanley, Curtiss's daughter, is the current editor. AET's Foreign Policy Committee has included former U. S. ambassadors, government officials, members of the United States Congress, including the late Democratic Senator J. William Fulbright and Republican Senator Charles Percy, both former chairmen of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Members of its board of directors and advisory committees "receive no fees for their services"; the Washington Report began in 1982 as a bi-weekly eight-page newsletter and today is a 76-page full-color magazine. It is recognized worldwide as a leader in its field, publishing a wide variety of views from and about the Middle East by Muslim and Christian writers, many of whom live or have lived in the region; the magazine's "nonprofit wing has donated 3,200 free subscriptions" and dozens of books to libraries. The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs states its position as follows: The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs does not take partisan domestic political positions.
As a solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, it endorses U. N. Security Council Resolution 242's land-for-peace formula, supported by seven successive U. S. presidents. In general, the Washington Report supports Middle East solutions which it judges to be consistent with the charter of the United Nations and traditional American support for human rights, self-determination and fair play; the Washington Report carries articles with perspectives ranging from the Israeli left, to libertarian, to the isolationist U. S. right. As long ago as 1990, the publication argued that criticism of Israel should not be equated with antisemitism; the magazine publishes articles and letters that seek a one-state solution to replace Israel with a state comprising both Israel and the Palestinian territories that would have a large Muslim majority population, offers uncritical platforms for the one-state movement of Boycott and Sanctions. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, during the fall of the Soviet Union, the Washington Report wrote about the future of Soviet Jews and stated that most Jews wanted to emigrate to either Europe or the United States rather than Israel and that the arrival of large numbers of emigrants into Israel would harm the economy or lead to an influx of Soviet Jews into the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
The Washington Report publishes listings of pro-Israel political action committee contributions to congressional candidates for each Congress, as well as elected representatives' voting records during each Congress. It publishes a sum total of direct aid to Israel, which it estimates at $114 billion; this resource has been quoted by a number of publications over the years. The Washington Report has published dozens of articles about the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. In 1989, founders Andrew Killgore and Richard Curtiss joined other plaintiffs in complaining that the Federal Election Commission had improperly refused to label AIPAC a "political action committee" and require AIPAC to disclose the sources and uses of money; the case went to the United States Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled in a majority decision that the plaintiffs had the right to raise issues regarding AIPAC, but referred the PAC matter back to the FEC because the FEC was drafting its membership threshold rules to directly address the unclear issue.
The FEC decided that AIPAC did not spend an amount of time or money on political issues to make it a PAC, in 2010 the last of WRMEA's appeals to have the FEC ruling reversed was dismissed. The Washington Report has published a number of articles on Israel's 1967 attack on USS Liberty. James Ennes, a retired Naval lieutenant commander, on USS Liberty the day of the attack, wrote two articles detailing evidence that the attack was deliberate; the magazine has published articles on the topic by former representative Paul Findley, former US Ambassador to Saudi Arabia James E. Akins and former Central Intelligence Agency analyst Ray McGovernIn 1996, the magazine reported that the United States Department of Defense and the General Accounting Office had both noted Israeli thefts of U. S. military technology secrets, confirming that Israel had transferred technology from the U. S. taxpayer funded Lavi fighter program to China. It was one of several publications that pointed out in 2007 that China's Chengdu J-10 fighter bore a striking similarity to the Lavi.
In 1998, the magazine repor
Free Democratic Party (Germany)
The Free Democratic Party is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany. The FDP is led by Christian Lindner; the FDP was founded in 1948 by members of former liberal political parties which existed in Germany before World War II, namely the German Democratic Party and the German People's Party. For most of the German Federal Republic's history, it has held the balance of power in the Bundestag, it was the Social Democratic Party of Germany. In the 2013 federal election, the FDP failed to win any directly elected seats in the Bundestag and came up short of the 5 percent threshold to qualify for list representation, being left without representation in the Bundestag for the first time in its history. In the 2017 federal election, the FDP regained its representation in the Bundestag, receiving 10.6% of the vote. The FDP supports human rights, civil liberties and internationalism; the party is traditionally considered centre-right. Since the 1980s, the party has pushed economic liberalism and has aligned itself to the promotion of free markets and privatization.
It is the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. Soon after World War II, the Soviet Union forced the creation of political parties. In July 1945 William Kulice and Eugen Schiffer called for the establishment of a pan-German Party, whose constitution the Allies hesitantly approved only in the Soviet occupation zone as the Liberal Democratic Party of Germany. In September 1945, citizens in Hamburg established the Party of Free Democrats as a bourgeois Left Party and the first Liberal Party in the Western zones. In the first state elections in Hamburg in October 1946 the party won 18.2 percent of the vote. The FDP secured between 7.8 and 29.9 percent of the 1946 vote in Greater Berlin and Saxony, the only states in Soviet-occupied territories that held free parliamentary elections. However, it had to support the policies of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and join the National Front of the GDR as a "bloc party". Following the FDP's success, liberal parties were founded across the states.
The FDP won Hesse's 1950 state election with 31.8 percent, the best result in its history, through appealing to East Germans displaced by the war by including them on their ticket. The Democratic Party of Germany was established in Rothenburg ob der Tauber on 17 March 1947 as a pan-German Party, its leaders were Theodor Heuss and Wilhelm Külz. However, the project failed as a result of disputes over Külz's political direction; the Free Democratic Party was established on 11–12 December 1948 in Heppenheim, in Hesse, as an association of all 13 regional liberal party organizations in the three Western zones of occupation. The proposed name, Liberal Democratic Party, was rejected by the delegates, who voted 64 to 25 in favour of the name Free Democratic Party; the party's first chairman was Theodor Heuss. The place for the party's foundation was chosen deliberately: it was at the Heppenheim Assembly that the moderate liberals had met in October 1847 before the March Revolution; some regard the "Heppenheim Assembly", held at the Halber Mond Hotel on 10 October 1847, as a meeting of leading liberals, the beginning of the German Revolution of 1848-49.
Up to the 1950s, several of the FDP's regional organizations were to the right of the CDU/CSU, which had ideas of some sort of Christian socialism, former office-holders of the Third Reich were courted with national, patriotic values. The FDP was founded on 11 December 1948 through the merger of nine regional liberal parties formed in 1945 from the remnants of the pre-1933 German People's Party and the German Democratic Party, active in the Weimar Republic; the FDP's first Chairman, Theodor Heuss, was a member of the DDP and after the war of the Democratic People's Party. In the first elections to the Bundestag on 14 August 1949, the FDP won a vote share of 11.9 percent, thus obtained 52 of 402 seats. In September of the same year the FDP chairman Theodor Heuss was elected the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany. In his 1954 re-election, he received the best election result to date of a President with 871 of 1018 votes of the Federal Assembly. Adenauer was elected on the proposal of the new German President with an narrow majority as the first Chancellor.
The FDP participated with the CDU/CSU and the DP in Adenauer's coalition cabinet: they had three ministers: Franz Blücher, Thomas Dehler and Eberhard Wildermuth. On the most important economic and German national issues, the FDP agreed with their coalition partners, the CDU/CSU. However, the FDP recommended to the bourgeois voters a secular party that refused the religious schools and accused the opposition parties of clericalization; the FDP said they were known as a consistent representative of the market economy, while the CDU was dominated nominally from the Ahlen Programme, which allowed a Third Way between capitalism and socialism. Ludwig Erhard, the "father" of the social market economy, had his followers in the early years of the Federal Republic in the Union rather than in the FDP; the FDP voted in parliament at the end of 1950 against the CDU- and SPD- introduced de-nazification process. At their party conference in Munich in 1951 they demanded the release of all "so-called war criminals" and welcomed the establishment of the "Association of German soldiers" of former Wehrmacht
Mossad, short for HaMossad leModiʿin uleTafkidim Meyuḥadim, is the national intelligence agency of Israel. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence Community, along with Shin Bet. Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection, covert operations, counterterrorism. In contrast to the government and military, the goals and powers of the Mossad are exempt from the constitutional laws of the State of Israel. However, its activity is subject to secret procedures, its director answers directly to the Prime Minister. Its counter-terrorist unit is known as Kidon; the largest department of Mossad is Collections, tasked with many aspects of conducting espionage overseas. Employees in the Collections Department operate under a variety of covers, including diplomatic and unofficial; the Political Action and Liaison Department is responsible for working with allied foreign intelligence services, nations that have no normal diplomatic relations with Israel. Additionally, Mossad has a Research Department, tasked with intelligence production, a Technology Department concerned with the development of tools for Mossad activities.
Mossad was formed on December 13, 1949, as the Central Institute for Coordination at the recommendation of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to Reuven Shiloah. Ben Gurion wanted a central body to coordinate and improve cooperation between the existing security services—the army's intelligence department, the Internal Security Service, the foreign office's "political department". In March 1951, it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister's office, reporting directly to the prime minister. Mossad's former motto, be-tachbūlōt ta`aseh lekhā milchāmāh is a quote from the Bible: "For by wise guidance you can wage your war"; the motto was changed to another Proverbs passage: be-'éyn tachbūlōt yippol `ām. This is translated by NRSV as: "Where there is no guidance, a nation falls, but in an abundance of counselors there is safety." Metsada is a unit responsible for attacking the enemy. Metsada runs "small units of combatants" whose missions include "assassinations and sabotage"; the Kidon is a unit.
It is described by Yaakov Katz as "an elite group of expert assassins who operate under the Caesarea branch of the espionage organization. Not much is known about this mysterious unit, details of which are some of the most guarded secrets in the Israeli intelligence community." It recruits from "former soldiers from the elite IDF special force units." This unit has been a part of Israel's policy of assassinations, a policy that Israel has used more than any other country in the West, with Ronen Bergman stating it has carried out at least 2,700 assassination missions. Mossad has opened a venture capital fund, in order to invest in hi-tech startups to develop new cyber technologies; the names of technology startups funded by Mossad will not be published. Together with Shurat HaDin, they started Operation Harpoon, for ”destroying terrorists’ money networks.” Reuven Shiloah, 1949–53 Isser Harel, 1953–63 Meir Amit, 1963–68 Zvi Zamir, 1968–73 Yitzhak Hofi, 1973–82 Nahum Admoni, 1982–89 Shabtai Shavit, 1989–96 Danny Yatom, 1996–98 Efraim Halevy, 1998–2002 Meir Dagan, 2002–2011 Tamir Pardo, 2011–2016 Yossi Cohen, 2016–present Provision of intelligence for the cutting of communications between Port Said and Cairo in 1956.
Mossad spy Wolfgang Lotz, holding West German citizenship, infiltrated Egypt in 1957, gathered intelligence on Egyptian missile sites, military installations, industries. He composed a list of German rocket scientists working for the Egyptian government, sent some of them letter bombs. After the East German head of state made a state visit to Egypt, the Egyptian government detained thirty West German citizens as a goodwill gesture. Lotz, confessed to his cold war espionage activities. After a tense May 25, 1967, confrontation with CIA Tel Aviv station chief John Hadden, who warned that the United States would help defend Egypt if Israel launched a surprise attack, Mossad director Meir Amit flew to Washington, D. C. to meet with U. S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and reported back to the Israeli cabinet that the United States had given Israel "a flickering green light" to attack. Provision of intelligence on the Egyptian Air Force for Operation Focus, the opening air strike of the Six-Day War.
Operation Bulmus 6 – Intelligence assistance in the Commando Assault on Green Island, Egypt during the War of Attrition. Operation Damocles – A campaign of assassination and intimidation against German rocket scientists employed by Egypt in building missiles. A bomb sent to the Heliopolis rocket factory killed five Egyptian workers sent by Otto Skorzeny on behalf of the Mossad. Heinz Krug, 49, the chief of a Munich company supplying military hardware to Egypt disappeared in September 1962 and is believed to have been assassinated by Otto Skorzeny on behalf of the Mossad. In September 1956, Mossad established a secretive network in Morocco to smuggle Moroccan Jews to Israel after a ban on immigration to Israel was imposed. In early 1991, two Mossad operatives infiltrated the Moroccan port of Casablanca and planted a tracking device on the freighter Al-Yarmouk, carrying a cargo of North Korean missiles boun
Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival
The Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival is a classical music festival held each summer throughout the state of Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany. The festival was founded in 1986 by German concert pianist Justus Frantz. In 2006, the 21st festival was from 15 July through 3 September with the Low German festival motto Dat klinkt lekker; the 22nd festival in 2007 focused on Hungary, 2008 on Russia, 2009 on Germany, when the motto was Heimspiel. In 2010 the motto was Poland in Pulse featuring music from Poland; the regional focus was in 2011 Turkey, in 2012 China, in 2013 Baltic states. Beginning in 2014, the concept changed by highlighting a specific composer for each year; the composer retrospectives were devoted in 2014 to Felix Mendelssohn, in 2015 to Peter Tchaikovsky, in 2016 to Joseph Haydn, in 2017 to Maurice Ravel, in 2018 to Robert Schumann. The festival concerts and recitals are organized in collaboration with the cities of Lübeck, Kiel and smaller towns within the state such as Eutin or Plön, as well as in the countryside in castles, old barns or little Brick Gothic village churches.
Most locations are historic sites of interest and part of the state's World Heritage Sites, including the Musikhochschule Lübeck. Jazz Baltica Ohl, Ulrike. Da ist Musik drin. Die Spielstätten des Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festivals. Neumünster: Wachholtz. ISBN 978-3-529-06306-0. Official website Jazz Baltica